##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

Amrutha Shyla Suresh Suresh Balamurali Raghavan Pillai Sreekumaran Nair Arya Unni Binumon Thankachan Mangalathettu

Abstract

Parasitic infestation in marine fish requires urgent attention, especially those that infect economically important fishes, which affect their aesthetic quality and palatability. Ectoparasites in Indian Mackerel, Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuvier, 1817), have not been studied well. Morphological and seasonal study of ectoparasites in R. kanagurta from the Thiruvananthapuram coast was conducted during March-August 2018. The study investigated three parasitic groups: Trichodinids, Digenean cysts (Centrocestus Looss, 1899), and Cymothoids (Norileca indica Milne Edwards, 1840 and Nerocila phaiopleura Bleeker, 1857) from R. kanagurta during the present study. Of the 240 fishes examined, the Trichodinids and digeneans showed 100% prevalence on the gill samples. Seasons had no significant effect on trichodinids and digeneans prevalence. However, parasitic Cmothoids fluctuated significantly according to the season. They showed greater prevalence during the pre-monsoon (45%) and least in monsoon (25%) due to environmental parameters like rainfall, salinity, and temperature. Trichodinids parasitized gills of R. kanagurta showed increased mucus production, paleness in the gills, and multifocal whitish areas. The Cymothoid infested fish showed lesions with the erosion of the epidermis and underlying dermis at the site of attachment. The noticeable changes were observed in the gill epithelium due to the encystment of digeneans. The Trichodinid ciliates and Heterophyid digenean cysts (Centrocestus Looss, 1899) are reported for the first time in R. kanagurta.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

Keywords

R. kanagurta, Trichodinids, Digeneans, N. indica, N. phaiopeura

References
Al-Zubaidy, A. & Mhaisen, F. (2014). Four new records of trematodes from the Indian mackerel Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuvier, 1816) from the Yemeni coastal waters of the Red Sea. American Journal of Biology and Life Sciences, 2(6), 141–145.
Aneesh, P.T., Helna, A.K., Trilles, J.P. & Chandra, K. (2019). A taxonomic review of the genus Joryma Bowman and Tareen, 1983 (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cymothoidae) parasitizing the marine fishes from Indian waters, with a description of a new species. Marine Biodiversity. 49(1), 1449–1478. doi.org/10.1007/s12526-017-0799-8
Aneesh, P.T., Sudha, K., Arshad, K., Anilkumar, G. & Trilles, J.P. (2013). Seasonal fluctuation of the prevalence of cymothoids representing the genus Nerocila (Crustacea, Isopoda), parasitizing commercially exploited marine fishes from the Malabar Coast, India. Acta Parasitologica, 58(1), 80–90. doi.org/10.2478/s11686-013-0112-3
Bo-ping, Z. & Xianghua, L. (2000). Monthly changes of the metacercarial cyst infrapopulation of Centrocestus formosanus (Nishigori, 1924) on the gills of grass carps Ctenopharyngodon idellus. Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica, 24(2), 137–142. Retrieved Aug. 06, 2021. https://www.cabi.org/isc/abstract/20000807252
Bruce, N.L. (1987). Australian species of Nerocila Leach, 1818, and Creniola n.gen. (Isopoda: Cymothoidae), crustacean parasites of marine fishes. Records of the Australian Museum, 39(6), 355–412. doi.org/10.3853/j.0067-1975.39.1987.174
Bruce, N.L. (1990). The genera Catoessa, Elthusa, Enispa, Ichthyoxenus, Idusa, Livoneca and Norileca n.gen., (Isopoda, Cymothoidae), crustacean parasites of marine fishes, with descriptions of eastern Australian species. Records of the Australian Museum, 42(3), 247–300. doi.org/10.3853/j.0067-1975.42.1990.118
Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI). (2019). Estimated marine fish landings in India during 2019. Annual National Data for 2019. Retrieved June 20, 2021, https://www.cmfri.org.in/2019
Chai, J.Y. & Jung, B.K. (2017). Fishborne zoonotic heterophyid infections: an update. Food Waterborne Parasitol, 8(9), 33–63. doi.org/10.1016/j.fawpar.2017.09.001
Chauhan, B.S. (1953). Studies on the trematode fauna of India. Part III Subclass Digenea (Gasterostomata). Records of the Indian Museum, 51(2), 231–287. Retrieved July 8, 2021, https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/19530802360
Eissa, I.A.M. (2002). Parasitic fish diseases in Egypt. Dar El-Nahdda El-Arabia publishing.
Fleming, B.P., Huffman, D.G., Bonner, T.H., Brandt, T.M. (2011). Metacercarial distribution of Centrocestus formosanus among fish hosts in the Guadalupe River drainage of Texas. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health, 23(3), 117–24. doi.org/10.1080/08997659.2011.616840
Gamit, A.B., Nanda, P.K., Bhar, R., Bandyopadhyay, S. & Bandyopadhyay, S. (2018). A Report of Centrocestus formosanus (Nishigori, 1924) (Digenea: Heterophyidae) in Intermediate Host (Fish). International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 7(7), 928–936. doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2018.707.112
Goutham, J., Mohanraju, R. (2015). Some aspects of mackerel diversity and morphometric studies of Rastrelliger genera from Port Blair Andaman waters. International Journal of Fish and Aquatic Studies, 3(1), 196–198. Retrieved July 7, 2021. https://www.fisheriesjournal.com/archives/2015/vol3issue1/PartC/2-6-19.pdf
Jayabalan, N., Zaki, S., Al-Kiyumi, F. & Al-Kharusi, L. (2014). Age, growth and stock assessment of the Indian mackerel Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuvier, 1817) along the Sohar coast of Oman. Indian Journal of Fisheries, 61(1), 1–6. Retrieved January 18, 2021. http://epubs.icar.org.in/ejournal/index.php/IJF/article/view/26468
Jemi, J.N., Hatha, A.A.M. & Radhakrishnan, C.K. (2020). Seasonal variation of the prevalence of cymothoid isopod Norileca indica (Crustacea, Isopoda), parasitizing on the host fish Rastrelliger kanagurta collected from the Southwest coast of India. Journal of Parasitological Diseases, 44 (2), 314–318. doi.org/10.1007/s12639-020-012 08-6
Kennedy, C.R. (1979). The distribution and biology of the cestode Eubotbrium parvum in Capelin, mallotus villosus, (Pallas) in the Barents Sea, its use as a biological tag. Journal of Fish Biology, 15, 223–236. doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.1979.tb03585.x
Khan, R.A. (2004). Disease outbreaks and mass mortality in cultured Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L., associated with Trichodina murmanica (Ciliophora). Journal of Fish Diseases, 27(3), 181–184. doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2761.200 4.00525.x
Klein, B.M. (1958). The dry silver method and its proper use. Journal of Parasitology, 5(2), 99–103. doi.org/10.1 111/j.1550-7408.1958.tb02535.x
Kottarathil, H.A., Sahadevan, A.V., Kattamballi, R. & Kappalli, S. (2019). Norileca indica (Crustacea: Isopoda, Cymothoidae) infects Rastrelliger kanagurta along the Malabar coast of India – Seasonal variation in the prevalence and aspects of host-parasite interactions. Zoological studies, 58, e35. doi.org/10.6620/ZS.2019.58-35
Madhavi, R. & Lakshmi, T.T. (2011). Metazoan parasites of the Indian mackerel, Rastrelliger kanagurta (Scombridae) of Visakhapatnam coast, Bay of Bengal. Journal of Parasitological Diseases, 35(1), 66–74. doi.org/10.1007/s12639-011-0028-5
Madhavi, R. & Triveni Lakshmi, T. (2012). Community ecology of the metazoan parasites of the Indian mackerel Rastrelliger kanagurta (Scombridae) from the coast of Visakhapatnam, Bay of Bengal. Journal of Parasitological Diseases, 36(2), 165–70. doi.org/10.1007/s12639-012-0097-0.
Madhavi, R. (2006). Distribution of metacercariae of Centrocestus formosanus (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) on the gills of Aplocheilus panchax. Journal of Fish Biology, 29, 685–690. doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.1986.tb04984.x
Margolis, L.G., Esch, W., Holmes, J.C., Kuris, A.M. & Shad, G.A. (1982). The use of ecological terms in parasitology (report of an ad hoc committee of the American Society of Parasitologists). Journal of Parasitology, 68, 131–133. Retrieved June 2, 2021. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=00223395%28198202%2968%3A1%3C131%3ATUOETI%3E2.0.CO%3B2-U
Mitchell, A.J., Overstreet, R.M., Goodwin, A.E. & Brandt, T.M. (2005). Spread of an exotic fish-gill trematode: a far-reaching and complex problem. Fisheries, 30, 11–16. doi.org/10.1577/1548-8446(2005)30[11:SOAEFT]2.0.CO;2
Mitchell, A.J., Salmon, M.J., Huffman, D.G., Goodwin A. E. & Brandt T. M. (2000). Prevalence and Pathogenicity of a Heterophyid Trematode infecting the gills of an endangered fish, the Fountain Darter, in Two Central Texas Spring-Fed Rivers. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health, 12(4),283–289.https://www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/ite m/50576efee4b01ad7e027b246
Nagasawa, K. & Shirakashi, S. (2017a). Nerocila phaiopleura, a cymothoid isopod parasitic on Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis, cultured in Japan. Crustacean Research, 46, 95–101. doi: 10.18353/crustacea.46.0_95
Nagasawa, K. and S. Isozaki. (2017b). Three new host records for the marine fish ectoparasite, Nerocila phaiopleura (Isopoda: Cymothoidae), with a list of its known hosts. Crustacean Research, 46, 153–159. doi.org/10.183 53/crustacea.46.0_153
Nagasawa, K., Nitta, M., Otawa, T. & Ishikawa, T. (2020). Nerocila phaiopleura (Isopoda: Cymothoidae): a new record from Ibaraki Prefecture, central Japan, with a discussion of its distribution in Japanese waters. Crustacean Research, 49, 41–47. doi.org/10.18353/crustacea.49.0_41
Ozer, A. & Erdem, O. (1998). Ectoparasitic protozoa fauna of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) caught in the Sinop region of Turkey. Journal of Natural History, 32(3), 441–454. doi.org/10.1080/00222939800770231
Paladini, G., Longshaw, M., Gustinelli, A. & Shinn, A.P. (2017). Parasitic diseases in aquaculture: Their biology, diagnosis and control. In: Diagnosis and Control of Diseases of Fish and Shellfish (pp 37–107). John Wiley & Sons Ltd, USA.
Rameshkumar, G. & Ravichandran S. (2010). New host record, Rastrelliger kanagurta, for Nerocila phaeopleura parasites (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoidae). Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 5, 54–56. Retrieved June 6, 2021. https://www.idosi.org/mejsr/mejsr5(1)/10.pdf
Rameshkumar, G. & Ravichandran, S. (2013). Effect of the parasitic isopod, Catoessa boscii (Isopoda, Cymothoidae), a buccal cavity parasite of the marine fish, Carangoides malabaricus. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 3(2), 118–122. doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60035-0
Ravichandran S. & Rameshkumar G. (2012). Host-Parasite Interaction of a Gill-Infecting Didymozoid in the Pazhayar, Southeast Coast of India. World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences, 4 (1), 60–64. doi.org/10.5829/idosi. wjfms.2012.04.01.6215
Ravichandran S. & Rameshkumar. G. (2014). Effect of parasitic Isopods in commercial marine fishes. Journal of Aquatic Biology and Fisheries, 2, 574–579. Retrieved July 11, 2021. http://keralamarinelife.in/Journals/Vol2-2/91.pdf
Ravichandran, S., Sivasubramanian, K., Parasuraman, P., Karthick Rajan, D. & Ramesh kumar G. Isopod parasite induced secondary microbial infection in marine food fishes. Fish Pathology, 29(1), 1–5. doi.org/10.7847/jfp.2016.2 9.1.001
Ravichandran, S., Vigneshwaran, P. & Rameshkumar, G. (2019). A taxonomic review of the fish parasitic isopod family Cymothoidae Leach, 1818 (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cymothooidea) of India. Zootaxa, 4622(1), 1–99. doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4622.1.1
Reichenbach-Klinke, H. & Elkan, E. (1965). The principal diseases of lower vertebrates, Imprint, USA. Retrieved July 11, 2021. https://www.elsevier.com/books/the-princ ipal-diseases-of-lower-vertebrates/reichenbach-klinke/978-1-4832-3303-1
Roberts, R.J. (1978). Therapy of fish diseases. In: Fish pathology (pp 268-275). Gateway West (Argyll) Ltd. Ford, Argyll, Scotland, UK.
Roberts, R.J. (2012). Fish Pathology. 4th Ed. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, USA. doi.org/10.1002/9781118222942
Saha, M. & Bandyopadhyay, P.K. (2016). Seasonal incidence of protozoan parasitic infestation in ornamental fishes of West Bengal, India. Journal of Parasitic Diseases, 41(2), 523–526. doi.org/10.1007/s12639-016-0842-x
Sethi, S., Jithendran, K.P., & Kannappan, S. (2013). Co-infection of Yellowtip Halfbeak Fish (Hemiramphus marginatus) with Isopod and Copepod parasites from the Coromandal Coast. India Fishery Technology, 50(4), 357–360. Retrieved July 10, 2021. http://epubs.icar.org.in/ejournal/index.php/FT/article/view/34167
Sterud, E., Harris, P.H. & Bake, T.A. (2008). The influence of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg 1957 (Monogenea) on the epidermis of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., and brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill): experimental studies. Journal of Fish Diseases, 21(4), 257–263. doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2761.1998.00099.x
Suliman, E.M., Osman, H.A. & Al-Deghayem, W.A. (2021). Histopathological changes induced by ectoparasites on gills and skin of Oreochromis niloticus (Burchell 1822) in fish. Journal of Applied Biology & Biotechnology, 9(1), 68–74. doi.org/10.7324/JABB.2021.9109.
Tantry, T.A., Nazir, R., Chishti, M.Z., Ahmad, F., Dar, G.H. & Dar, J.S. (2016). A report on the incidence of Trichodina heterodentata from fishes of Jammu, J&K India. Journal of Parasitological Diseases, 40(2), 524–527. doi.org/10.100 7/s12639-014-0538-z
Trilles, J.P., Rameshkumar, G. & Ravichandran, S. (2013). Nerocila species (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoidae) from Indian marine fishes. Parasitology Research, 112(3), 1273–1286. doi.org/10.1007/s00436-012-3263-5
Valladao, G.M.R., Pádua, S.B., Gallani, S.U., Menezes-Filho, R.N., Dias-Neto, J., Martins, M.L. & Pilarski, F. (2013). Paratrichodina africana (Ciliophora): a pathogenic gill parasite in farmed Nile tilapia. Veterinary Parasitology, 197(3-4), 705–710. doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2 013.04.043
Woo, P.T.K. (2006). Fish Diseases and Disorders. Protozoan and Metazoan Infections. 2nd Ed. University of Guelph, Canada. Retrieved July 10, 2021. https://www.cabi.org/bookshop/book/9780851990156/
Xu, K., Choi, J.K., Yang, E.J., Lee, K.C. & Lei, Y. (2002). Biomonitoring of coastal pollution status using protozoan communities with a modified PFU method. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 44(9), 877–886. doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(02)00090-5
Citation Format
How to Cite
Suresh, A. S. S., Nair, B. R. P. S. ., Unni, A., & Mangalathettu, B. T. . (2021). A study on ectoparasites in Indian Mackerel, Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuvier, 1817) of Thiruvananthapuram coast, South India . Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 13(3), 993 - 1002. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v13i3.2833
More Citation Formats:
Section
Research Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)