Tushar Tyagi Sanjay Kumar Bhardwaj


The navigational systems of different animal species are by a wide margin less notable as compared to birds. Humans have been interested in how migratory birds discover their way more than thousands of miles for quite a long time. This review summarizes the cues and compass mechanisms applied in orientation and navigation by non-migrants, diurnal and nocturnal migrants. The magnetic compass, landmarks, olfactory, and memory of spatial cues en route were utilized in homing and migration. The equivalent is valid for the sun compass despite the fact that its job during migration might be undeniably less significant than commonly presumed. Stellar compass and celestial rotation, as a result of their nighttime accessibility, appear to influence the direction of nighttime migrants during the course of migration. The celestial cues go through notable changes because of the latitude shift during bird migration. Sunset cues alter their location with seasons and latitudes. The recognizable stars lose height and lastly vanish underneath the horizon, whereas new stars show up. These new ones must be calibrated. As celestial rotation not imparting a reference, it is not unexpected that the magnetic compass turns into the main cue that controls the directional importance of stars and sunset cues. Field studies have revealed that, in certain species, a considerable extent of individuals get back to similar breeding, overwintering, and stopover areas in progressive years. This review proposes that migratory birds have advanced uncommon cognitive capacities that empower them to achieve these accomplishments.      


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Birds, Compass mechanisms, Cues, Navigation, Orientation

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Tyagi, T., & Bhardwaj, S. K. . (2021). Orientation cues and mechanisms used during avian navigation: A review. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 13(2), 627 - 640. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v13i2.2684
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