Abhishek Gupta Alka Rani Nisha Sogan R. S. Sharma Bindu Sharma


An outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) occurred for the first time in Wuhan, China which spread as a pandemic to various countries of the world, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Death toll in India on 8th February 2021 was 1,55,080. India had implemented steps such as lockdown and advised social distancing, washing of hands, and wearing masks to reduce the burden of Covid-19. This review discusses the epidemiological features, the population at risk and control strategies of novel coronavirus disease in India. The data was collected from various sources on individual details of Covid-19 cases, population density and affluence percentage from the literature studied. The data was used to analyse the susceptibility of the population to this disease. It was found that Indian males, age group 20 to 40 (based on morbidity) and above 60 (based on mortality) were at high risk. The authors compiled epidemiology, management and control strategies of covid-19 in India. Therefore, because of various early implementations, India has managed the disease well earlier, but in the current scenario (30 Nov 2020) morbidity and mortality have been at peak. Immunization of frontline workers started on 16th January 2021. Initially, 7,017,411 doses of Covishield and Covaxin vaccines have been given by 10th February 2021. Thus, the existing strategies like proper diagnosis, treatment, and successful implementation of vaccine inoculation will reduce covid-19 burden and may lead to normalcy.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...




Epidemiology, Covid-19, symptoms, social distancing, morbidity and mortality

Agnihotri, D., Singh, Y., Batra, K., Jain, V. K., Kumar, A., Kumar, T. and Maan, S. (2018). Molecular Detection Based Epidemiology of Canine Parvovirus and Canine Coronavirus Infection in Diarrheic Dogs in Haryana. Journal of Animal Research, 8(3), 367-374.
Bai, N. (2020). Why Experts Are Urging Social Distancing to Combat Coronavirus Outbreak [Last updated March 14, 2020, last cited April 20, 2020]. Retrieved from https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2020/03/416906/why-experts-are-urging-social-distancing-combat-coronavirus-outbreak
Bai, Y., Yao, L., Wei, T., Tian, F., Jin, D. Y., Chen, L. and Wang, M. (2020). Presumed asymptomatic carrier transmission of COVID-19. Journal of the American Medical Association, 323(14), 1406-1407.
Bakrania, K., Russell, R., and Falkous, C. (2020). Covid-19 mortality rates by age and gender: why is the disease killing more men than women?
Behera, M., Panda, S. K., Sahoo, P. K., Acharya, A. P., Patra, R. C., Das, S. and Pati, S. (2015). Epidemiological study of canine parvovirus infection in and around Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. Veterinary world, 8(1), 33-36. https://doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2015.33-37
Beiu, C., Mihai, M., Popa, L., Cima, L., and Popescu, M. N. (2020). Frequent hand washing for COVID-19 prevention can cause hand dermatitis: management tips. Cureus, 12(4), e7506. https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7506
Bhatia, S. and Devulapalli, S. (2020). Mapped: The spread of coronavirus across India’s districts. [Last updated April 19, 2020, last cited April 20, 2020]. Retrieved from https://www.livemint.com/news/india/mapped-the-spread-of-coronavirus-across-india-s-districts-1158717 9250870.
Bhattacharjee, S. (2020). Statistical investigation of relationship between spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and environmental factors based on study of four mostly affected places of China and five mostly affected places of Italy. arXiv preprint arXiv:2003.11277.
Cavanagh, G. and Wambier, C. G. (2020). Rational hand hygiene during the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 82(6), e211. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2020.03.090
Chan-Yeung, M. and Xu, R. H. (2003). SARS: Epidemiology. Respirology, 8, 9-14. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1843.2003.00518.x
Chen, J. (2020). Pathogenicity and transmissibility of 2019-nCoV—a quick overview and comparison with other emerging viruses. Microbes and infection, 22, 69-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micinf.2020.01.004
Chen, L., Xiong, J., Bao, L. and Shi, Y. (2020). Convalescent plasma as a potential therapy for COVID-19. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 20(4), 398-400. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1473-3099(20)30141-9
Davey, S., Davey, A. and Jain, R. (2020). Impact of Social Distancing on Curtailing COVID 2019 Epidemic in India: A Systematic Review by SWOT Analysis Approach. Epidemiology International, 5(1), 44-49. https://doi.org/10.24321/2455.7048.202009
Dhama, K., Sharun, K., Tiwari, R., Sircar, S., Bhat, S., Malik, Y. S., and Rodriguez-Morales, A. J. (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019–COVID-19. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 33(4), 1-48. https://doi.org/10.20944/preprints202003.0001.v1
Dutta, A. K. (2020). Vaccine Against Covid-19 Disease–Present Status of Development. The Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 87, 810-817. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12098-020-03475-w
Esposito, S., Principi, N., Leung, C. C. and Migliori, G. B. (2020). Universal use of face masks for success against COVID-19: evidence and implications for prevention policies. European Respiratory Journal, 55(6), 2001260. https://doi.org/10.1183/13993003.01260
Fang, Y., Zhang, H., Xie, J., Lin, M., Ying, L., Pang, P. and Ji, W. (2020). Sensitivity of chest CT for COVID-19: comparison to RT-PCR. Radiology, 296, 115-117. https://doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2020200432
Fauver, J. R., Gendernalik, A., Weger-Lucarelli, J., Grubaugh, N. D., Brackney, D. E., Foy, B. D. and Ebel, G. D. (2017). The use of xenosurveillance to detect human bacteria, parasites, and viruses in mosquito bloodmeals. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 97(2), 324-329. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0063
Guo, Y. R., Cao, Q. D., Hong, Z. S., Tan, Y. Y., Chen, S. D., Jin, H. J. and Yan, Y. (2020). The origin, transmission and clinical therapies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak–an update on the status. Military Medical Research, 7(1), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40779-020-00240-0
Hansa, A., Rai, R. B., Wani, M. Y. and Dhama, K. (2012a). Patholology and diagnosis of corona virus infection in bovine. Indian Journal of Veterinary Pathology, 36(2), 129-135.
Hansa, A., Rai, R. B., Wani, M. Y. and Dhama, K. (2012b). ELISA and RT-PCR based detection of bovine coronavirus in northern India. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 7(11), 1120-1129. https://doi.org/10.3923/ajava.2012.1120.1129
Hellewell, J., Abbott, S., Gimma, A., Bosse, N. I., Jarvis, C. I., Russell, T. W. and Eggo, R. M. (2020). Feasibility of controlling COVID-19 outbreaks by isolation of cases and contacts. The Lancet Global Health, 8(4), 488-196. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2214-109x(20)30074-7
Hilgenfeld, R. and Peiris, M. (2013). From SARS to MERS: 10 years of research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses. Antiviral Research, 100(1), 286-295. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2013.08.015
ICMR (2020a). Covid-19 Vaccine, ICMR, operational guidelines, updated on 28 December 2020. Retrieved from https://www.mohfw.gov.in/pdf/COVID19VaccineOG1 11Chapter16.pdf
ICMR (2020b). National Taskforce for COVID-19 Advisory on the use of hydroxy-chloroquine as prophylaxis for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Indian Council of Medical Research [Last updated March 22, 2020, Last cited April 25, 2020]. Retrieved from https://www.mohfw.gov.in/pdf/AdvisoryontheuseofHydroxychloroquinasprophylaxisforSARSCoV2infection.pdf.
Jha, V., Dinesh, T. A. and Nair, P. (2020). Are we Ready for Controlling Community Transmission of COVID 19 in India?. Epidemiology International, 5(1), 10-13. https://doi.org/10.24321/2455.7048.202003
Jiang, F., Deng, L., Zhang, L., Cai, Y., Cheung, C. W. and Xia, Z. (2020). Review of the clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Journal of General Internal Medicine, 7, 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-020-05762-w
Jiang, J., and Luo, L. (2020). Influence of population mobility on the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic: based on panel data from Hubei, China. Global Health Research and Policy, 5, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41256-020-00151-6
Junglen, S., Kurth, A., Kuehl, H., Quan, P. L., Ellerbrok, H., Pauli, G., and Leendertz, F. H. (2009). Examining landscape factors influencing relative distribution of mosquito genera and frequency of virus infection. Ecohealth, 6(2), 239-249. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10393-009-0260-y
Kaneda, T. and Greenbaum, C. (2020). How Demographic Changes Make Us More Vulnerable to Pandemics Like the Coronavirus. Population Reference Bureau [Last updated April 13, 2020, last cited April 21, 2020]. Retrieved from https://www.prb.org/how-demographic-changes-make-us-more-vulnerable-to-pandemics-like-the-coronavirus/.
Kuwata, R., Satho, T., Isawa, H., Yen, N. T., Phong, T. V., Nga, P. T., and Sawabe, K. (2013). Characterization of Dak Nong virus, an insect nidovirus isolated from Culex mosquitoes in Vietnam. Archives of Virology, 158(11), 2273-2284. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00705-013-1741-4
Lan, L., Xu, D., Ye, G., Xia, C., Wang, S., Li, Y., and Xu, H. (2020). Positive RT-PCR test results in patients recovered from COVID-19. Journal of American Medical Association, 323(15), 1502-1503. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.2783
Lauer, S. A., Grantz, K. H., Bi, Q., Jones, F. K., Zheng, Q., Meredith, H. R., and Lessler, J. (2020). The incubation period of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from publicly reported confirmed cases: estimation and application. Annals of Internal Medicine, 172(9), 577-582. https://doi.org/10.7326/m20-0504
Li, Q., Guan, X., Wu, P., Wang, X., Zhou, L., Tong, Y., and Feng, Z. (2020a). Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus–infected pneumonia. New England Journal of Medicine, 382, 1199-1207. https://doi.org/10.3410/f.737281536.793571806
Li, T., Liu, Y., Li, M., Qian, X. and Dai, S. Y. (2020b). Mask or no mask for COVID-19: A public health and market study. PloS one, 15(8), e0237691. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0237691
Liu, Y., Yan, L. M., Wan, L., Xiang, T. X., Le, A., Liu, J. M. and Zhang, W. (2020). Viral dynamics in mild and severe cases of COVID-19. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 20(6), 656-657. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1473-3099(20)30232-2
Lotfinejad, N., Peters, A., and Pittet, D. (2020). Hand hygiene and the novel coronavirus pandemic: the role of healthcare workers. The Journal of hospital infection, 105(4): 776–777. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2020.03.017
Lu, G., Wang, Q. and Gao, G. F. (2015). Bat-to-human: spike features determining ‘host jump’of coronaviruses SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and beyond. Trends in Microbiology, 23(8), 468-478. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2015.06.003
Lu, R., Zhao, X., Li, J., Niu, P., Yang, B., Wu, H. and Tan, W. (2020). Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding. The Lancet, 395, 565-574. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(20)30251-8
Malhotra, B., Swamy, M. A., Reddy, P. J. and Gupta, M. L. (2016). Viruses causing severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) in children? 5 years of age at a tertiary care hospital in Rajasthan, India. The Indian Journal of Medical Research, 144(6), 877. https://doi.org/10.4103/ijmr.ijmr_22_15
Malik, Y. S., Sircar, S., Bhat, S., Sharun, K., Dhama, K., Dadar, M. and Chaicumpa, W. (2020). Emerging novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) current scenario, evolutionary perspective based on genome analysis and recent developments. Veterinary Quarterly, 40(1), 68-76. https://doi.org/10.1080/01652176.2020.1727993
Marwah, A. and Marwah, P. (2020). Coronavirus (COVID-19): A protocol for prevention, treatment and control. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 12(2), 119-123. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.vi.2269
Manavi K. (2021). India’s Covid-19 vaccine rollout needs to address hesitancy to truly take off. Quartz India. [Last updated January 20, 2021, last cited January 20, 2021]. Retrieved from Indians hesitant to get Covaxin, Covishield Covid-19 vaccines, Quartz India (qz.com).
Mandal, S., Bhatnagar, T., Arinaminpathy, N., Agarwal, A., Chowdhury, A., Murhekar, M., and Sarkar, S. (2020). Prudent public health intervention strategies to control the coronavirus disease 2019 transmission in India: A mathematical model-based approach. The Indian Journal of Medical Research, 151, 190-195. https://doi.org/10.4103/ijmr.ijmr_504_20
Mecenas, P., Bastos, R. T. R. M., Vallinoto, A. C. R. and Normando, D. (2020). Effects of temperature and humidity on the spread of COVID-19: A systematic review. PLoS One, 15(9), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.po ne.023833
Memish, Z. A., Mishra, N., Olival, K. J., Fagbo, S. F., Kapoor, V., Epstein, J. H. and Lipkin, W. I. (2013). Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in bats, Saudi Arabia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(11), 1819-1823. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1911.131172
MOHFW (2020). Standard Operating Procedure for Passenger Movement post Disembarkation [Last updated March 19, 2020 and last cited March 30, 2020]. Retrieved from https://www.mohfw.gov.in/pdf/SOPQuarant ineofPassengers.pdf.
Naik, S., Paleja, A., Mahajan, M., Ramachandran, N., Dixit, S., Matthan, R. and Kotasthane, P. (2020). A COVID-19 Vaccine Deployment Strategy for India. Indian Public Policy Review, 1(2), 42-58.
Paraskevis, D., Kostaki, E. G., Magiorkinis, G., Panayiotakopoulos, G., Sourvinos, G., and Tsiodras, S. (2020). Full-genome evolutionary analysis of the novel corona virus (2019-nCoV) rejects the hypothesis of emergence as a result of a recent recombination event. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 79, 104212. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104212
Parikh, P. A., Shah, B. V., Phatak, A. G., Vadnerkar, A. C., Uttekar, S., Thacker, N., and Nimbalkar, S. M. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic: knowledge and perceptions of the public and healthcare professionals. Cureus, 12(5), e8144. https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.8144
Rai, R. B., Hansha, A., Rai, S., Singh, B., Kumar, H., Singh, A. K. and Dhama, K. (2011). Prevalence of rota and coronavirus infections in calves of Barabanki and Raebareli districts of Uttar Pradesh. Indian Journal of Veterinary Pathology, 35(1), 73-74.
Roy, A., Parida, S. P. and Bhatia, V. (2020). Role of disinfection and hand hygiene: a COVID-19 perspective. International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health, 7(7), 2845-2849. http://dx.doi.org/10.18 203/2394-6040.ijcmph20203025
Rundle, C. W., Presley, C. L., Militello, M., Barber, C., Powell, D. L., Jacob, S. E. and Dunnick, C. A. (2020). Hand hygiene during COVID-19: recommendations from the American contact dermatitis society. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 83(6), 1730-1737. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2020.07.057
Sardar, T., Nadim, S. S., Rana, S. and Chattopadhyay, J. (2020). Assessment of lockdown effect in some states and overall, India: A predictive mathematical study on COVID-19 outbreak. Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, 139, 110078. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chaos.2020.110078
Singer, D. R. (2020). A new pandemic out of China: the Wuhan 2019-nCoV coronavirus syndrome. Health Policy and Technology, 9(1), 1-2. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hlp t.2020.02.001
Singhal, T. (2020). A review of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). The Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12098-020-03263-6
Sonawane, A. A., Shastri, J. and Bavdekar, S. B. (2019). Respiratory pathogens in infants diagnosed with acute lower respiratory tract infection in a tertiary Care Hospital of Western India Using Multiplex Real Time PCR. The Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 86(5), 433-438. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12098-018-2840-8
Soutik, B. (2020). Covid vaccine: India expects to 'begin vaccination in January'. BBC News, 2020 [Last updated December 18, 2020, last cited December 20, 2020]. Retrieved from Covid vaccine: India expects to 'begin vaccination in January' - BBC News.
Thurackal, B. J., Chith, E. N. and Mascarenhas, P. (2020). The outbreak of novel coronavirus in India: Psychological impact. SSRN Journal, pp 1-18. https://dx.doi.org/10.2 139/ssrn.3562062
Tregoning, J. S., Brown, E. S., Cheeseman, H. M., Flight, K. E., Higham, S. L., Lemm, N. M., and Pollock, K. M. (2020). Vaccines for COVID-19. Clinical & Experimental Immunology, 202(2), 162-192.
Wadhawan, D. A. (2020). Rajasthan: With 19 coronavirus patients, including 15 medics, Bhilwara continues to battle virus. India today [Last updated March 26, 2020 and last cited May 1, 2020]. Retrieved from https://www.indiatoday.in/india/story/rajasthan-18-coronavirus-patients-including-15-doctors-bhilwara-continues-battle-covid-19-1660064-2020-03-26.
Wang, T., Du, Z., Zhu, F., Cao, Z., An, Y., Gao, Y. and Jiang, B. (2020a). Comorbidities and multi-organ injuries in the treatment of COVID-19. The Lancet, 395(10228), e52. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(20)30558-4
Wang, W., Tang, J. and Wei, F. (2020b). Updated understanding of the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019?nCoV) in Wuhan, China. Journal of Medical Virology, 92(4), 441-447. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25689
World Health Organization (?2020)?. Coronavirus disease 2019 (??COVID-19)??: situation report, 54. World Health Organization. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/331478
Wu, X., Nethery, R. C., Sabath, B. M., Braun, D. and Dominici, F. (2020). Exposure to air pollution and COVID-19 mortality in the United States. medRxiv. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.05.20054502.
Yadav, S., Kumar, V., Sharma, M., Mishra, N. P. and Khan, W. (2020). An Overview of Analysis on The Pandemic Factors of Covid-19. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology, 1, 55-66.
Yan, Y., Chen, H., Chen, L., Cheng, B., Diao, P., Dong, L., and Li, H. (2020). Consensus of Chinese experts on protection of skin and mucous membrane barrier for health?care workers fighting against coronavirus disease 2019. Dermatologic Therapy, 33(4), e13310. https://doi.org/1 0.1111/dth.13310
Ye, Z. W., Yuan, S., Yuen, K. S., Fung, S. Y., Chan, C. P., and Jin, D. Y. (2020). Zoonotic origins of human coronaviruses. International Journal of Biological Sciences, 16(10), 1686-1697. https://doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.45472
Zhang, C., Zheng, W., Huang, X., Bell, E. W., Zhou, X. and Zhang, Y. (2020). Protein structure and sequence reanalysis of 2019-nCoV genome refutes snakes as its intermediate host and the unique similarity between its spike protein insertions and HIV-1. Journal of Proteome Research, 19(4), 1351-1360. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jp roteome.0c00129
Zhou, D., Zhang, P., Bao, C., Zhang, Y. and Zhu, N. (2020). Emerging understanding of etiology and epidemiology of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infection in Wuhan, China. https://doi.org/10.20944/preprints20200 2.0283.v1
Zhu, N., Zhang, D., Wang, W., Li, X., Yang, B., Song, J. and Tan, W. (2020). A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. New England Journal of Medicine, 382:727-733. https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmoa2 001017
Citation Format
How to Cite
Gupta, A., Rani, A., Sogan, N., Sharma, R. S., & Sharma, B. (2021). Epidemiology and control strategies of novel coronavirus disease in the context of India. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 13(1), 210-219. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v13i1.2517
More Citation Formats:
Research Articles