Abhimanyu Thakur NS Thakur Hamid Sunakshi Gautam


Wild pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit arils with high acid content are processed into dried arils (anardana) which is used as an ingredient in various medicinal formulations and culinary preparations. The various phenols and flavonoids are responsible for the antioxidant activity of anardana which signifies its functional benefits. The advanced packaging techniques like vacuum packaging, can retain higher antioxidant activity characteristics during storage. So, the present studies were carried out to compare the effect of packaging on total phenols, flavonoids, DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) antioxidant activity, metal chelating activity, FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) and reducing power of anardana prepared in mechanical cabinet drier. Anardana was packed in different packaging materials and stored under ambient and refrigerated temperature conditions. The overall effect of storage during 12 months revealed that there was a significant (p< 0.05) decrease in total phenols (180.95 to 161.76 mg GAE/100 g), flavonoids (40.60 to 32.66 mg QuE/100 g), DPPH antioxidant activity (61.23 to 56.13%), metal chelating activity (22.25 to 19.37%), FRAP (34.60 to 31.73 ?M Fe2+/100 g) and reducing power (0.610 to 0.521) which was observed less in anardana packed in ALPV (aluminium laminated pouches with vacuum) followed by ALP (aluminium laminated pouches) and gunny bags. Due to slower rates of degradation of various antioxidant compounds, the changes after 12 months of storage were lower under refrigerated conditions. The total phenols, flavonoids and DPPH antioxidant activity were reduced  from 180.95 to 167.24 and 156.28 mg GAE/100 g, 40.60 to 34.95 and 30.37 mg QuE/100 g and 61.23 to 57.99 and 54.27 % in refrigerated and ambient temperature conditions, respectively.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...




Antioxidants, Dried arils, Flavonoids, Packaging, Phenols, Vacuum

Aloqbi, A., Omar, U., Yousr, M., Grace, M., Lila M.A. et al. (2016). Antioxidant activity of pomegranate juice and punicalagin. Natural Science, 8(6), 235-246. https://www.doi.org/10.4236/ns.2016.86028
Aviram, M., Dornfeld, L., Rosenblat, M., Volkova, N., Kaplan, M. et al. (2000). Pomegranate juice consumption reduces oxidative stress, atherogenic modifications to LDL, and platelet aggregation: studies in humans and in atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Am J Clin Nutr., 71(5), 1062-1076. https://www.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/71.5.1062
Bakshi, P., Bhushan, B., Wali, V.K., Bakshi, M., Sharma, A. et al. (2013). Standardization of drying method and organoleptic evaluation of wild pomegranate (anardana) seeds. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 9(5), 397-400. https://www.doi.org/10.5829/idosi.wjas.2013.9.5.17 50
Benzie, I.F. & Strain, J.J. (1996). The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of antioxidant power: the FRAP assay. Anal Biochem., 239(1), 70-76. https://www.doi.org/10.1006/abio.1996.0292
Bhat, M.M., Thakur, N.S. & Jindal, N. (2014). Studies on the effect of drying methods and packaging on quality and shelf life of dried wild pomegranate arils. Asian Journal of Dairy and Food Research, 33(1), 18-24. https://www.doi.org/10.5958/j.0976-0563.33.1.005
Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M.E. & Berset, C. (1995). Use of free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft and Technologie, 28, 25-30.
Cecere, J.G., Caprioli, M., Carnevali, C., Colombo, G., Dalle-Donne, I. et al. (2016). Dietary flavonoids advance timing of moult but do not affect redox status of juvenile blackbirds (Turdus merula). Journal of Experimental Biology, 219(19), 3155-3162. https://www.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.141424
Dhumal, S.S., Karale, A.R., Jadhav, S.B. & Kad, V.P. (2014). Recent advances and the developments in the pomegranate processing and utilization: a review. Journal of Agriculture and Crop Science, 1(1), 1-17.
Dinis, T.C., Madeira, V.M. & Almeida, L.M. (1994). Action of phenolic derivatives (acetaminophen, salicylate, and 5-aminosalicylate) as inhibitors of membrane lipid peroxidation and as peroxyl radical scavengers. Arch Biochem Biophys., 315, 161-169. https://www.doi.org/10.1006/abbi.1994.1485
Ergun, R., Lietha, R. & Hartel, R.W. (2010). Moisture and shelf life in sugar confections. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 50(2), 162-192. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/10408390802248833
Gill, M.I., Francisco, A., Tomas, B., Hess-Pierce, B., Holcroft, D.M. et al. (2000). Antioxidant activity of pomegranate juice and its relationship with phenolic composition and processing. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48(10), 4581-4589.
Hamid, Thakur, N.S., Thakur, A., Sharma, C., Bhatt, K. et al. (2020a). Pomegranate and its wild genotypes: nutraceutical opportunities and challenges. Annals of Phytomedicine, 9(1), 32-43. https://www.doi.org/10.21276/ap.2020.9.1.5
Hamid, Thakur, N.S. & Thakur, A. (2020b). Microencapsulation of wild pomegranate flavedo phenolics by lyophilization: Effect of maltodextrin concentration, structural morphology, functional properties, elemental composition and ingredient for development of functional beverage. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 133, 110077 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2020.110077
Hamid, Thakur, N.S., Thakur, A. & Kumar P. (2020c). Effect of different drying modes on phenolics and antioxidant potential of different parts of wild pomegranate fruits. Scientia Horticulturae, 274, 109656 https://doi.org/10.10 16/j.scienta.2020.109656
Holland, D., Hatip, K. & Bar-Yaakov, I. (2009). Pomegranate: botany, horticulture and breeding. In: Janik J (editor). Horticultural Reviews. NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc., pp. 127-191. https://www.doi.org/10.1002/978047059 3776.ch2
Hota, M., Dahiya, D.S. & Sharma, D.K. (2017). Effect of various drying methods on quality of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) arils. The Bioscan, 12(2), 851-854.
Ilahy, R., Hdider, C., Lenucci, M.S., Tlili, I. & Dalessandro, G. (2011). Antioxidant activity and bioactive compound changes during fruit ripening of high-lycopene tomato cultivars. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 24(4-5), 588-595.
Jaiswal, V., Der-Marderosian, A. & Porter, J.R. (2010). Anthocyanins and polyphenoloxidase from dried arils of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.). Food Chemistry, 118, 11-16. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.01.0 95
Kotsiou, K. & Tasioula-Margari, M. (2016). Monitoring the phenolic compounds of Greek extra-virgin olive oils during storage. Food Chemistry, 200, 255-262. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.12.090
Kumar, P., Thakur, N.S., Sharma, K.D., Hamid & Thakur, A. (2020). Effect of type and permeability behaviour of packaging material on the quality characteristics of dried carrot roundels during storage. Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 39(7), 83-92. https://www.doi.org/10.9734/CJAST/2020/v39i730579
Mir, S.A., Wani, S.M., Ahmad, M., Wani, T.A., Gani, A. et al. (2015). Effect of packaging and storage on the physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of quince candy. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(11), 7313-7320. https://www.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-015-1819-y
Muzzaffar, S., Baba, W.N., Nazir, N., Masoodi, F.A., Bhat, M.M. et al. (2016). Effect of storage on physico-chemical, microbial and antioxidant properties of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) candy. Cogent Food and Agriculture, 2, 1163650. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/23311932.2016.1 163650
Nakamura, Y., Watanabe, S., Miyake, N., Kohno, H. & Osawa, T. (2003). Dihydrochalcones: evaluation as novel radical scavenging antioxidants. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51(11), 3309-3312. https://www.doi.org/doi:10.1021/jf0341060
Oktay, M., Gulein, I. & Kufrevioglu, O.I. (2003). Determination of in vitro antioxidant activity of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seed extracts. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 36, 263-271. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/S0023-6438(02)00226-8
Rawat, J.M.S., Tomar, Y.K. & Rawat, S.S. (2012). Characterization of wild pomegranate (Punica protopunica L.) of Garhwal Himalaya. Progressive Horticulture, 44, 52-54.
Sakar, E. (2016). Some fruit characteristics of wild pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) genotypes from southern Anatolia region in Turkey. International Journal of Advances in Science Engineering and Technology, 4(3), 146-149.
Sharma, A. & Thakur, N.S. (2016). Influence of active packaging on quality attributes of dried wild pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) arils during storage. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 8(1), 398-404. https://www.doi.org/doi:10.31018/jans.v8i1.806
Sharma, R. & Thakur, A. (2019). Innovations in packaging for enhancing shelf life of horticultural produce. In: National Seminar on Doubling Income Through Sustainable and Holistic Agriculture; Himachal Pradesh, India. pp. 35-43.
Singelton, V.L. & Rossi, J.A. (1965). Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybedic phosphotungstic acid reagent. Am J Enol Viticult., 16, 144-158.
Singh, R.P., Murthy, K.N.C. & Jayaprakasha, G.K. (2002). Studies on the antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel and seed extract using in vitro models. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 50(1), 81-86. https://www.doi.org/10.1021/jf010865b
Sonawane, S. & Arya, S.S. (2015). Effect of drying and storage on bioactive components of jambhul and wood apple. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(5), 2833-2841. https://www.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-014-1321-y
Thakur, A., Joshi, V.K. & Thakur, N.S. (2019). Immunology and its relation with food components: an overview. International Journal of Food and Fermentation Technology, 9(1), 1-16. https://www.doi.org/10.30954/2277-9396.0 1.2019.3
Thakur, A., Thakur, N.S., Hamid & Gautam, S. (2020a). Effect of packaging on phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity of dried wild pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) arils prepared in solar tunnel drier. Annals of Phytomedicine, 9(2), 197-205. http://dx.doi.org/10.21276/ap.2020.9. 2.17
Thakur, A., Thakur, N.S., Hamid, Chauhan, M. & Sharma, C. (2020b). Comparison of quality of anardana (dried arils) prepared in mechanical cabinet and solar tunnel drier from wild pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits procured from different locations of Himachal Pradesh, India. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 12(2), 71-78. https://www.doi.org/10.31018/jans.vi.2247
Thakur, A., Thakur, N.S., Hamid & Kumar, P. (2018). Studies on physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of wild pomegranate fruits in different locations of Himachal Pradesh, India. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 7(8), 2842-2850. https://www.doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2018.708.299
Thakur, N.S., Bhat, M.M., Rana, N. & Joshi, V.K. (2010). Standardization of pre-treatments for the preparation of dried arils from wild pomegranate. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 47(6), 620-625. https://www.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-010-0091-4
Thakur, N.S., Kumar, D., Thakur, A., Chauhan, M. & Kumar, P. (2017). Studies on development and storage quality of seedling mango (Mangifera indica L.) pickle of Himachal Pradesh. Indian Journal of Ecology, 44(6), 690-696.
Wang, Y. & Ho, C.T. (2009). Metabolism of flavonoids. Forum of Nutrition, 61, 64-74. doi:10.1159/000212739
Citation Format
How to Cite
Thakur, A., Thakur, N., Hamid, & Gautam, S. (2021). Effect of packaging on phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant characteristics of mechanical cabinet dried wild pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) arils. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 13(1), 101-109. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v13i1.2456
More Citation Formats:
Research Articles