Biodiversity of Almora district is heavily affected in the areas with heavy grazing pressure, although moderate grazing enhanced the biodiversity of the area. In the present study site a total of 45 herbaceous species were present and therophytes were dominant among them. Live shoot biomass of plants varied from 175.0Â±3.5 to 1862.0Â±5.75 kg/ha and 87.0Â±3.25 to 1303.0Â±7.50 kg/ha in ungrazed and grazed plots respectively. Aboveground primary productivity was significantly higher on control plot (3082.2 kg/ha) over grazed plot (2644.0 kg/ha). The average bite frequency per hour was recorded maximum for goats (1106.5 bite/hr) and least for buffalos (920 bites/hr). The monthly dry matter consumption per animal was amounted to 157.15, 154.51, 68.66 and 61.34 kg for cow, buffalo, sheep and goat respectively under nomadic open grazing. The percent herbage exploitation was observed maximum by sheep (9.82%) and minimum by buffalo (8.75%).
Bite frequency, Consumption, Phenology, Phenophases, System transfer function
Dansereau, P. (1960). A combined structural and floristic approach to the definition of forest ecosystem. Silva Fenn., 105 : 16-21.
Gaur, R.D. (1999). Flora of the District Garhwal North West Himalaya with Ethnobotanical Notes. Transmedia Publication, Srinagar Garhwal.
Gupta, S.K. (1990). Structure and functioning of grassland ecosystem in the Western Himalaya (Garhwal Himalaya). I. Altitudinal variation in carrying capacity. Tropical Ecology. 31:1, 89-95.
Hairston, N.G. (1964). Studies on the organization of animal communities. J. Ecol., 52: 227-239.
McNaughton, S.J. (2001). Herbivory and Trophic Interactions. In: J. Roy, B. Saugier and H.A. Mooney (Eds.). Terrestrial Global Productivity: Past, Present, Future. Academic Press, San Diego pp 101-122.
Naithani, B.D. (1984). Flora of Chamoli, Garhwal. Botanical Survey of India. 1-2, 789.
Odum, E.P. (1960). Organic production and turnover in oldfield succession. Ecology, 41: 34-49.
Pandey, A.N. (1981). Vegetation and bovine population interaction in the savanna grazingland of Chandraprabha sanctuary, Varanasi. II. Seasonal behaviour of grazing aniamals and assessment of carrying capacity of the grazinglands. Tropical Ecology, 22: 170-186.
Prakash, P. (2002). Composition, Productivity and Carrying Capacity of a Sub-Montane Grazingland of Garhwal Himalaya. D.Phil. Thesis, H.N.B. Garhwal University, Srinagar Garhwal, India. pp 219.
Ram, J., Singh, J.S. and Singh, S.P. (1989). Plant biomass, species diversity and net primary production in Central Himalayan High altitude grassland. Jour. Ecol., 77: 456-468.
Rikhari, H.C. and Negi, G.C.S. (1994). Structural and functional attributes of a tussock grass community in a Central Himalaya alpine grassland. In Pangtey, Y.P.S. and Rawat, R.S. (Eds) High altitudes of the Himalaya. (pp 193-202) Gyanodaya Prakashan, Nainital, India.
Sims, P.L. and Singh, J.S. (1978). The structure and function of ten Western North American grassland. II. Interseasonal dynamics in primary producer compartment. J. Ecol., 66: 547-572.
Singh, J.S. (1969). Influence of biotic disturbance on the preponderence and interspecific association of two common forbs in the grasslands at Varanasi. India. Canadian Journal of Botany, 47: 425-427.
Singh, J.S. and S.P. Singh (1992). Forest of Himalaya, Structure, Functioning and Impact of Man. Gyanodaya Prakashan Nanital.
Singh, J.S. and Yadava, P.S. (1974). Seasonal variation in composition, plant biomass and net primary productivity of a tropical grassland, India. Ecol. Monogr., 44: 351-376.
Sundriyal, R.C. (1994). Vegetation dynamics and animal behaviour in an alpine pasture in Garhwal Himalaya. In Pangtey, Y.P.S. and Rawal, R.S. (eds) High Altitudes of the Himalaya. Gyanodaya Prakashan, Nainital, India,pp 179-192.
Sundriyal, R.C. and Joshi, A.P. (1992). Annual nutrient budget for alpine grassland in Garhwal Himalaya. J. Veg. Sci., 3: 21-26.
Wang, Y. S., Shiyomi, M., Tsuiki, M., Tsutsumi, M., Yu, X. R. and Yi, R. H. (2002). Spatial heterogeneity of vegetation under different grazing intensities in the Northwest Heilongjiang Steppe of China. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment, 90: 217-229.
Watkinson, A. R. and Ormerod, S. J. (2001). Grasslands,grazing and biodiversity:editors introduction. Journal of Applied Ecology, 38: 233-237.
Zhao, W. Y., Li, J. L. and Qi, J.G. (2006). Changes in vegetation diversity and structure in response to heavy grazing pressure in the. Northern Tianshan Mountains, China. Journal of Arid Environments, 68:337-508.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) © Author (s)