Veena Uniyal R. P. Bhatt Seema Saxena Amitabh Talwar


Aspergillosis is an acute chronic and rapidly fatal disease which is not contagious. Invasive Aspergillosis is often found in severely immuno-suppressed patients, and is characterized by invasion of blood vessels which can result into dissemination to other organs. Aspergilloma is a fungal ball that develops in previous cavitary lung lesions. Essential oils and their volatile constituents have been used as antifungal, anti-infectious and antimicrobial agents. Inhalation of vapours of the essential oils kill invaders attached to the inner respiratory lining and work
synergistically with the body defences. In this study, 16 essential oils were used against Aspergillus niger and A. fumigatus of which about 14 oils proved to be effective. Results showed that the most effective oils against both Aspergillus species were found to be of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cinnamon), Syzygium aromaticum (Clove), Carum carvi (Caraway), Cymbopogon citrates (Lemongrass), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel) and Myristica fragrans (Nutmeg). Moderately effective oils were of Gaultheria procumbens (Wintergreen), Pinus palustris (Turpentine), Sesamum indicum (Sesame), Trachyspermum ammi (Ajowain) and Origanum vulgare (Oregano). The oils of Lavandula augustifolia (Lavender), Elletaria cardamomum (Cardamon) and Cymbopogon nardus (Citronella) showed minimum activity. Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Linum usitatissimum (Linseed) showed no activity giving no inhibition zones.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...




Antifungal activity, Aspergillosis, Aspergilloma, Essential oils

Aggrawal, K.K., Ahmad, A., Santha, T.R., Jain, N., Gupta, V.K., Sushil, K. and Khanuja, S.P. (2000). Antimicrobial activity spectra of Pelargonium graveolens L. and Cymbopogon winterians Jowitt. oil constituents and acyl derivatives. Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Sciences., 22: 544-548.
Alizadeh, A., Zamani, E., Sharaifi, R., Javan-Nikkah, M. and Nazari, S. (2010). Antifungal activity of some essential oils against toxigenic Aspergillus species. Commununications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences, 75(4): 761-7.
Annussek, G. (2001). Sesame oil. In: Gale encyclopedia of alternative medicine.GaleGroupandLooksmart. http:// www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/ncnu.html accessed in July, 2006.
Bansod, S. and Rai, M. (2008). Antifungal activity of essential oils from Indian medicinal plants against human pathogenic Aspergillus fumigatus and A. niger. World Journal of Medical Sciences, 3(2): 81-88.
Canuto, M. M. and Rodero, F. G. (2002). Antifungal drug resistance to azoles and polyenes. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 2: 550-563.
Cavaleiro, C., Pinto, E., Goncalves, M. J. and Salgueiro, L. R. (2006). Antifungal activity of Juniperus essential oils against dermatophyte, Aspergillus and Candida strains. Journal of Applied Microbiology., 100: 1333-1338.
Chakraborty, A., Marak, R.S.K., Sing, S., Gupta, S.O., Hurst, S. F. and Padhye, A. A. (2006). Brain abscess due to Aspergillus nidulans. Journal of Medical Mycology, 16 : 100-104.
Curtis, L., Conroy, L., Coli, S., Baker, K., Our, C.H., Hershow, R., Norlock-Cruz, F. and Scheff, P. (2005). Aspergillus surveillance project at a large tertiary core hospital. Journal of Hospital Infections, 59 : 188-196.
Dorman, H. J. D. and Deans, S. G. (2000). Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils., Journal of Applied Microbiology, 88 : 308-316.
Dubey, A., Patwardhan, R.V., Sampth, S., Santoshi, V., Kolluri, S. and Nanda, A. (2006). Intracranial fungal granuloma: analysis of 40 patients and review of the literature.Surgical Neurology, 63 : 254-260.
Guynot, M. E., Ramos, A. J., Seto, L., Purvoy, P., Sanchis, V. and Marin, S. (2003). Antifungal activity of volatile compounds generated by essential oils against fungi commonly causing deterioration of bakery products. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 94: 893-899.
Hili, P., Evans, C.S. and Veness, R.G. (1997). Antimicrobial action of essential oils: the effect of dimethylsulfoxide on the activity of Cinnamon oil. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 24: 269-275.
Hoffman, D.L. (1987). The Herb User’s Guide. Wellingborough, UK: Thorsons Publishing Group.
Inouye, S., Takizawa, T. and Yamaguchi, H. (2001). Antibacterial activity of essential oils and their major constituents against respiratory tract pathogens by gaseous contact. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 47: 565-573.
Jain, S. K. and Agrawal, S.C. (2002). Fungistatic activity of some perfumes against otomycotic pathogens. Mycoses, 45:88.
Kalemba, D. and Kunicke, A. (2003). Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oils. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 10 : 813-829.
Lawless, J. (1995). The illustrated Encyclopedia of Essential oils. Shaftesbury, UK: Element Books Ltd.
Lis-Balchin, M. and Deans, S.G. (1997). Bioactivity of selected plant essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 82 : 759-762.
Lloyd, A.C.C., Menon, T. and Umamaheshwari, K. (2005). Indian Journal of Pharmacolgy, 37 (6): 387-389.
Lopez, P., Saanchez, C., Battle, R. and Nerain, C. (2005). Solid and vapour phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oil: susceptibility of selected food borne bacterial and fungal strains. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 53: 6939-46.
Mitscher, L.A., Drake, S., Gollapudi, S.R. and Okwute, S.K.(1987). A modern look at folkloric use of anti-infective agents. Journal of Natural Products, 50 : 1025-1040.
Morris, A., Khettry, A. and Seitz, E.W. (1979). Antimicrobial activity of aroma chemicals and essential oils. Journal of American Oil Chemist’s Society, 56 : 595-603.
Nakahara, K., Alzoreky, N. S., A., Yoshihashi, T., Nguyen, H. T. T. and Trakoontivakorn, G. (2003). Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil from Cymbopogon nardus. Japan Agricultural Research Quaterly, 37 (4) : 249-252.
Pawar, V.C. and Thaker, V.S. (2006). In vitro efficacy of 75 essential oils against A. niger. Mycoses, 49 : 316-323.
Pinto, E., Pina-Vaz, C. and Salgueirro, L. (2006). Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Thymus pulegioides on Candida, Aspergillus and Dermatophyte species. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 55 : 1367-1373.
Quale, J. M., Landman, D., Zaman, M.Z., Burney, S. and Sathe, S. (1996). In vitro activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum against azole resistant and sensitive Candida species and a pilot study of Cinnamon for oral Candidiasis. Americal Journal of Chinese Medicine, 24 : 103-109.
Rios, J. L. and Recio, M.C. (2005). Medicinal plants and antimicrobial activity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 100: 80-84.
Ross, S.A., El-Keltawi, N.E. and Megalla, S.E. (1980). Antimicrobial activity of some Egyptian aromatic plants. Fitoterapia, 51 : 201-205.
Schadler, D. L. and George, A. A. (2006). Synthesis and bioassay of a volatile fungistatic agent. The plant health Instructor, DOI 10.1094/PHI-I-2006-0717-02.
Singh, A. K., Dikshit, A. and Sharma M. L. (1980). Fungi toxic activity of some essential oils. Economic Botany, 34 (2) : 186-190.
Smania, A., Monache, D. F., Gil, M. L., Benchetrit, L.C. and Cruz, F.S. (1995). Antibacterial activity of substance produced by the fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus (Fr) merr. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 45 : 177-181.
Soyulu, E. M., Soyulu, S. and Kurt, S. (2006). Antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of various plants against Tomato Late blight disease agent Phytophthora infestans. Mycopathologia, 151 (2) : 119-128.
Tullio, V., Nostro, A., Mandras, N., Dugo, P., Banche, G., Cannatelli, M.A., Cuffinii, A.M., Alonzo, V. and Carlene, N.A.(2007). Antifungal activity of essential oils against filamentous fungi determined by broth microdilution and vapour contact methods. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 102 : 1544-1550.
Yousef, R. T. and Tawil, G.G. (1980). Antimicrobial activity of volatile oils. Die Pharmazie., 35 : 698-701.
Citation Format
How to Cite
Uniyal, V., Bhatt, R. P., Saxena, S., & Talwar, A. (2012). Antifungal activity of essential oils and their volatile constituents against respiratory tract pathogens causing Aspergilloma and Aspergillosis by gaseous contact. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 4(1), 65-70. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v4i1.224
More Citation Formats:
Research Articles