Fruits of Nauclea latifolia (Family Rubiaceae) have been used as food and medicinal plants. The ethnomedicinal reports indicated that it can be traditionally used for the treatment of dysentery, diarrhea, diabetes, malaria etc. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant, ?–amylase and ?–glucosidase activities of methanol extract of N. latifolia fruits at varying concentrations (20-100 µg/ml) using standard methods. The results of the DPPH and nitric oxide free radical scavenging capacity showed IC50 values 92.0µg/ml and 30.0µg/ml respectively indicating a good inhibitory capacity but lesser when compared to the standard, ascorbic acid which are < 10.0µg/ml and < 20.0µg/ml respectively. The analysis shows total phenolic contents of 147.9±3.35mg/g and ferric reducing antioxidant potential of 1604.1±9.20mg/g supporting the fact that phenolics are highly potent antioxidants. Based on the results obtained from ?–amylase and ?–glucosidase inhibition, the IC50 > 100µg/ml showing a lesser inhibitory activity when compared to the standard Acarbose with IC50 values of 50.1µg/ml and 44.0µg/ml respectively. The results clearly indicate that the methanol extract of N. latifolia has a moderate free radical scavenging activity resulting from various interaction between different components of the plant. It can be concluded that the fruits may provide natural source of bioactive compounds which is beneficial to human health and can be used as basis of folkloric remedies for diabetes.
Amylase, Antioxidants, Diabetes, Glucosidase, Nauclea latifolia
Agbor, G. A. Oben, J. E. Ngogang, J. Y. Cai X. X. and Vinson, A. J. (2005) “Antioxidant Capacity of Some Herbs/Spices from Cameroon: A Comparative Study of Two Methods,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 53 (17): 6819-6824.
Ayeleso, A. O., Oguntibeju, O. O. and Brooks, N. L. (2014). In vitro study on the antioxidant potentials of the leaves and fruits of Nauclea latifolia. ?Sci. World J. http://dx.doi.org/10.115 5/20 14/437081.
Benzie, I. and Strain, J. (1999). Ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay: Direct measure of total antioxidant activity of biological fluids and modified version for simultaneous measurement of total antioxidant power and asorbic acid concentration, Methods in Enzymology 299, 15-27. http://doi.org/10.1016/s0076-6879(99)99005-5
Brewer, M. S. (2011). Natural Antioxidants: Sources, Compounds, Mechanisms of Action, and Potential Applications. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Sciences and Food Safety, 10(4): 221-247.
Chung, Y. C. Chang, C. T., Chao, W. W., Lin, C. F. and Chou, S. T. (2002). Antioxidative activity and safety of the 50 ethanolic extract from red bean fermented by Bacillus subtilis IMR-NK1. J. Agri.c Food Chem. 1050(8): 2454-8.
Esmaeili, A. K. Taha, R. M. Mohajer, S. and Banisalam, B. (2015) “Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Content of Various Solvent Extracts from In Vivo and In Vitro Grown Trifolium pratense L. (Red Clover),” Biomed research Interanational. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/643285.
Fadipe, A. L., Haruna, A. K., Mohammad, I. and Pateh, U. U. (2015). Some volatile constituents of the unripe fruits of Nauclea latifolia (Family: Rubiaceae). Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies, 3 (2): 01-04.
Green, L. C. Wagner, D. A., Glogowski, J., Skipper, P. L., Wishnok, J. S. and Tannenbaum, S. R. (1982). Analysis of nitrate, nitrite and 15N nitrate in biological fluids. Anal. Biochem. 126(1): 131-138.
Hadi, S. M., Bhat, S. H., Azmi, A. S., Hanif, S., Shamim, U.and Ullah, M. F. (2007). Oxidative breakage of cellular DNA by plant polyphenols: A putative mechanism for anticancer properties, Semin. Cancer Biol, 17(5): 370-376.
Haudecoeura R., Peuchmaura M., Pérèsa B., Romec M., Taïwee G. S., Boumendjela A., and Boucherlea, B. (2018). Traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of African Nauclea species: A review. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 212, 106-136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2017.1 0.011.
Iwu M. W. (1993). Handbook of African medicinal plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.
Kim, Y. M., Jeong, Y. K., Wang, M. H., Lee, Y. H. and Rhee, H. I. (2005). Inhibitory effect of pine extract on alpha-glucosidase activity and postprandial hyperglycaemia. Nutrition, 21(6): 756-761.
Koleva, I. I., van Beek, T. A. Linssen, J. P. H. Groot, A. and Evstatieva, L. N. (2002) Screening of plant extracts for antioxidant activity: a comparative study on three testing methods. Phytochemical analysis, 13(1); 8-17.
Kumar, S. and Kumar, D. (2009). “Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of edible weeds”. African Journal of Food Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 9(5): 1174-1190.
Labiad, M. H. Harhar, H. Ghanimi, A. and Tabyaoui, M. (2017). Phytochemical Screening and Antioxidant Activity of Moroccan Thymus satureioïdes Extracts. Journal of Materials and Environmental Sciences 8(6): 2132-2139.
Liu, M., Li, X. Q., Weber, C., Lee, C. Y., Brown, J. and Liu, R. H. (2002). Antioxidant and antiproliferation activities of raspberries. Journal of agriculture and food chemistry, 50(10): 2926-2930.
Mahdi-Pour, B., Jothy, S. L., Latha, L. Y., Chen, Y. and Sasidharan, S. (2012). Antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of different parts of Lantana camara. Asian Pacific journal of tropical biomedicine, 2(12), 960–965.
Moyo, M., Aremu, A.O. and Van Staden, J., 2015. Medicinal plants: an invaluable, dwindling resource in sub-Saharan Africa. J. Ethnopharmacol. 174, 595–606. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2015.0 4.03 4.
Ozkan, G. and Ozcan M. (2016). Antioxidant activity of some medicinal plant extract on oxidation of olive oil. Food Measurement and Characterization. 11(2): 1-6.
Patel, P., Harde, P., Pillai, J., Darji, N. and Patel, B. (2012): Antidiabetic herbal drugs a review. Pharmacophore, 3(1): 18-29.
Ranilla, L. G. Kwon, Y. I. Apostolidis, E. and Shetty, K. (2010). Phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and in vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension of commonly used medicinal plants, herbs and spices in Latin America. Bioresour Technol, (12), 4676-4469.
Saha, S. Verma, R. (2014) Antioxidant activity of polyphenolic extract of Terminalia chebula Retzius fruits. Journal of Taibah University of Science 10(6): 1-28.
Sen, S., Chakraborty, R., Sridhar, C., Reddy, Y. S. R., and De, B. (2010). Free radicals, antioxidants, diseases and phytomedicines: current status and future prospect. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, 3(1): 91-100.
Shirwaikar, A., Rajendran, K. and Punithaa, I. S. (2006). In vitro antioxidant studies on the benzyl tetra isoquinoline alkaloid berberine. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 29(9): 1906-1910.
Singh, H. Raturi, R. Sati, M. D. Sati, P. and Badoni, P. (2012). in Chemistry of phytopotentials: Health, Energy and Environmental perspective (Eds.: M. M. Srivastava, L. D. Khemani, S. Srivastava), Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 29-31.
Skrovánová, S., Mišurcová, L. and Mach? L. (2012). Antioxidant activity and protecting health effects of common medicinal plants. Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, 67, 75–139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/B978-0-12-394598-3.00003-4
Xiao Z., Reginald S. and Adrian T. (2006). Quantitative starch-iodine method for measuring alpha-amylase and glucoamylase activities. Analytical biochemistry 351(1): 146-148.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) © Author (s)