Shrimant Rathod Sudhir Dahiwalkar Sunil Gorantiwar Mukund Shinde


An estimation of optimal design parameters of subsurface drainage system through monitoring of water table depths and drain discharges are expensive in terms of time and money. The simulation modeling is an effective tool for estimation of drainage design parameters at less cost and short time. In view to this, calibration of DRAINMOD model for prediction of water table depths and drain discharges were conducted by installing subsurface drainage system with 40 m drain spacing and 1.0 m drain depth at Agricultural Research Station, Kasbe Digraj, Dist. Sangli (Maharashtra) during 2012-13 to 2013-14. The field data on water table depth and drain discharge were used for calibration of DRAINMOD model. The input data files on climatic, soil, crop and drainage design system parameters were attached to DRAINMOD model and calibrated successfully. It is found that both observed and simulated water table depths and drain discharges showed a fluctuating trend and predicted both water table depths and drain discharges closely with the observed values during frequent rainy days and following the rainy days. The DRAINMOD model reliably predicted water table depths with a goodness of fit (R2 = 0.97), MAE (12.23 cm), RMSE (15.49 cm) and CRM (0.05); drain discharges with R2 of  0.93, MAE of 0.095 mm day-1, RMSE of 0.1876 mm day-1and CRM of 0.04. Thus, the calibrated DRAINMOD model can be used to simulate the water table depths and drain discharges in semi-arid climatic conditions of Maharashtra and in turn to estimate and evaluate drain spacing and depth.




Drain discharge, DRAINMOD, Subsurface drainage system, Vertisols and Water table depth

Borin, M., Morari, F., Bonaiti, G., Paasch, M. and Skaggs, R.W. (2000). Analysis of DRAINMOD performances with different detail of soil input data in the Veneto region of Italy. Agricultural Water Management, 42(3): 259-272.
Dayyani, S., Madramootoo, C.A., Prasher, S.O., Madani A. and Enright, P. (2010). Modeling water table depths, drain outflow, and Nitrogen Losses in a cold climate using DRAINMOD 5.1. Transactions of the ASAE, 53(2): 385-395.
Ebrahimian, H., Ojaghlou, H., Liaghat, A., Parsinejad, M., Nazari, B. and Noory, H. (2010). Comparison of DRAINMOD and Artificial Neural Network for predicting water table depth and drain discharge in a subsurface drainage system. Paper presented at 9th International Drainage Symposium held jointly with CIGR and CSBE/SCGAB Proceedings, 13-16 June 2010 IDS-CSBE-100087. (doi:10.13031/2013.32117).
FAO. (2007). Guidelines and computer programs for the planning and design of land drainage. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Irrigation and drainage paper No.62. Rome, Italy.
FAO (2015). AQUASTAT website. Food and Agricultural Organizations of the United Nations. Website accessed on (24/12/2016). http://www.fao.org>water>cropinfo_sugarcane.
Green, W.H. and Ampt, G. (1911).  Studies of soil physics, part I. the flow of air and water through soils.  Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 4: 1.
Gupta, G.P., Prasher, S.O., Chieng S.T. and Mathur, I.N. (1993). Application of DRAINMOD under semi-arid conditions. Agricultural Water Management, 24(1): 63-80.
Gupta, R. and Yadav, R.L. (1993). Ground water contribution to evapotranspiration of sugarcane during summer. Cooperative Sugar, 25: 113-115.
Haan, P.K. and Skaggs, R.W. (2003). Effect of parameter uncertainty on DRAINMOD predictions: Hydrology and yield. Transactions of ASAE, 46(4): 1061-1067.
Hamdi, M.R., Aldabagh, A.S. and Gazhal, E.M. (2006). Optimal drainage design under Iraqi conditions using DRAINMOD. Al-Rafidain Engineering, 14(2): 88-99.
Hassanpour, B., Parsinejad, M., Yazdani, M.R., Dalivand, F.S. and Kossari, H. (2011). Evaluation of modified DRAINMOD in predicting groundwater table fluctuations and yield of canola in paddy fields under snowy conditions (case study: Rasht Iran). Irrigation and Drainage, 60: 660–667.
Hooghoudt, S.B. (1940). General consideration of the problem of field drainage by parallel drains, ditches, watercourses, and channels. Publication No.7 in the series contribution to the knowledge of some physical parameters of the soil (titles translated from Dutch). Bodemkundig Insitituut, Groningen, The Netherlands.
Jin, C.X. and Sands, G.R. (2003). The long-term Field-Scale Hydrology of Subsurface Drainage Systems in a Cold Climate. Transactions of the ASAE, 46(4): 1011-1021.
Malota, M. and Senzanje, A. (2015). Modelling mid-span water table depth and drainage discharge dynamics using DRAINMOD 6.1 in a sugarcane field in Pongola, South Africa. Water South Africa, 41(3): 325-334.
Mohammadighavam, S. and Klove, B. (2016). Evaluation of DRAINMOD 6.1 for Hydrological simulations of peat extraction areas in Northern Finland. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage. DOI: 10.1061/ (ASCE) IR.1943-4774.0001086.
Murthy, R.S., Bhattacharjee, J.C., Landey, R.J. and Pofali, R.M. (1982). Distribution, characteristics and classification of Vertisols. In: Vertisols and rice soils of the tropics.Twelth International Congress of Soil Science, New Delhi, India, 8-16 February 1982. Indian Society of Soil Science, New Delhi, India.
pp. 3-22
Neveen, B., Abdel, M. and Alaa Nabil, E.H. (2013). Subsurface drainage impact assessment in Ibshan, Egypt. Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering, B 2: 527-531.
Prasher, S., Madani, A., Clemente, R.S., Geng, G.Q. and Bardwaj, A. (1996). Evaluation of two water table management models for Atlantic Canada. Agricultural Water Management, 32(1): 49-69.
Rathod, S. D. (2017). Optimization of subsurface drain spacing and depth for sugarcane (Sachharum officinarum L.) under waterlogged Vertisols. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri, Ahmednagar (M.S.).
Samipour F., Rabie, M., Mohammadi, K., Mahdian, M.H. and Naseri, A.A. (2010). Evaluation of two drainage models in South - West Iran. Paper presented in XVIIth World Congress of the International Commission of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Canada, June 13-17.
Sanai, G. and Jain, P.K. (2006). Evaluation of DRAINMOD for predicting water table heights in irrigated fields at the Jordan Valley. Agricultural Water Management, 79(2): 137-159.
Savva, A. and Frenken, K. (2001). Sprinkler Irrigation Systems Planning, Design, Operation and Maintenance. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Sub-Regional Office for East and Southern Africa (SAFR), Harare.
Sema Kale. (2011). Estimating effects of drainage design parameters on crop yields under irrigated lands using DRAINMOD. Scientific Research and Essays, 6(14): 2955-2963.
Singh, R., Helmers, M.J. and Zhiming, Qi. (2006). Calibration and validation of DRAINMOD to design drainage systems for IOWA‘s tile landscapes. Agricultural Water Management, 85: 221-232.
Skaggs, R.W. (1978). A water management model for shallow water table soils. Technical report No. 134. Water Resources Research Institute of the University of North Carolina, Raleigh, N.C. USA. 178 pp.
Skaggs, R.W. (1980). Methods for design and evaluation of drainage-water management systems for soils with high water tables. DRAINMOD reference report. USDA-SCS, South National Technical Center, Fort Worth, Texas. 329 pp.
Skaggs, R.W. (1985). Drainage modelling in research and design. In: Proceedings of International seminar on land drainage (edited by J. Saavalainen and P. Vakkilainen). Helsinki University of Technology: 153-180.
Skaggs, R.W., Youssef, M.A. and Chescheir, G.M. (2012). DRAINMOD: Model use, calibration, and validation. Transactions of the ASABE, 55(4): 1509-1522. doi:10.13031/2013.42259) @ 2012.
Wang, X., Mosley, C.T., Frankenberger, J.R. and Kladivko, E.J. (2006). Subsurface drain flow and crop yield predictions for different drain spacings using DRAINMOD. Agricultural Water Management, 79: 113-136.
Yang, X. (2008). Evaluation and application of DRAINMOD in an Australian sugarcane field. Agricultural Water Management, 95(4): 439-446.
Zhao, S.L., Gupta, S.C., Huggins, D.R. and Moncrief, J.F. (2000). Predicting subsurface drainage, corn yield, and nitrate-nitrogen losses with DRAINMOD-N.
Research Articles

How to Cite

Calibration of DRAINMOD for prediction of water table depths and drain discharges under waterlogged Vertisols of Maharashtra, India. (2019). Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 11(3), 724-731. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v11i3.2142