Vinothkumar Vadivel Senthilvalavan Pitchamuthu https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9517-1897


By nature coastal saline soils having several constraints in crop production in addition to that of heavy metals contamination deteriorate the soil productivity. To restore these contaminated soils, various remediation techniques in practices must be revamped. The present study was conducted to enhance the accumulation of heavy metals lead and cadmium in sunflower and improve the crop productivity using organic and inorganic soil amendments along with NPK fertilizers in completely randomized design. Soil samples were admitted to estimating soil physico chemical properties and DTPA extractable lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) and plant samples analyzed for DTPA extractable Pb and Cd concentrations under ICP-OES. The physico-chemical properties and DTPA extractable Pb and Cd concentrations were significantly influenced by amendments. Sunflower exhibited significant differences concerning accumulation of Pb and Cd against amendments tested along with higher biomass production. Higher shoot and root concentration of Pb(0.72,0.81 and 0.94,0.97 mg kg-1) and Cd (1.78, 2.32 and 0.35,0.32 mg kg-1)were recorded in the treatment RDF + EDTA, which was followed by RDF + Potassium humate and RDF + Zeolite application at 45 DAS and at harvest. Remediation efficiency of sunflower increased by application of RDF + EDTA through enhanced solubility of Pb and Cd in soil and thus increased Pb and Cd accumulation in root and shoot of sunflower. Whereas, the application of RDF+ FYM or press mud reduced the bioavailability of Pb and Cd in soil and thus restricted the accumulation of Pb and Cd by sunflower. Further, application of NPK fertilizers maintained the availability of nutrients and enhanced the yield of sunflower. The application of EDTA along with NPK fertilizer enhanced the bioaccumulation of lead and cadmium by sunflower without yield loss. Since, there is a possibility to cause leaching of HMs to ground water by EDTA. Hence, RDF plus Potassium humate or Zeolite can be recommended for lead and cadmium removal by sunflower in coastal saline soils with no loss in crop productivity.




Cadmium, EDTA, Lead, Potassium humate, Remediation efficiency, Sunflower, Zeolite

Adesodun, J.K., M.O. Atayese, T.A. Agbaje, B.A. Osadiaye, O.F. Mafe, and A.A. Soretire. 2010. Phytoremediation potentials of sunflowers (Tithonia diversifolia and Helianthus annuus) for metals in soils contaminated with zinc and lead nitrates. Water. Air. Soil Pollut. 207: 195– 201. doi:10.1007/s 11270-009-0128-3.
Ahmad, P., M. Sarwat, N.A. Bhat, M.R. Wani, A.G. Kazi and L.P. Tran. 2015. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in Brassica juncea L. (Czern. & Coss) by calcium application involves various physiological and biochemical strategies. PLoS ONE., 10(1): 0114571.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0114571.
Alamgir, M., M. G. Kibria and M. Islam. 2011. Effects of farm yard manure on cadmium and lead accumulation in Amaranth (Amaranthus oleracea L.) J. Soil Sci. Environ. Manage., 2(8): 237-240.DOI:10-5897/JSSEM .
Allen, S.E., Grimshaw, H.M., Rowland, A.P., 1986. Chemical analysis. In: Moore, P.D., Chapman, S.B. (Eds.), Methods in Plant Ecology. Blackwell Scientific Publication, Oxford, London, pp. 285–344.
Alloway, B. J. 1995. The origin of heavy metals in soils. In "Heavy Metals in Soils". (Auoway, BJ., Ed.). Blackie Academic and Professional. London, pp 131-152.
Arunakumara,. K., B.C. Walpola and M.H. Yoon. 2013. Agricultural methods for toxicity alleviation in metal contaminated soils: a review. Korean J. Soil Sci Fert., 46(2): 73-80.DOI:10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.2.073.
Ayari, F., H. Hamdi, N. Jedidi, N.Gharbi and R. Kossai. (2010). Heavy metal distribution in soil and plant in municipal solid waste compost amended plots. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol., 7(3): 465-472.https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03326156.
Chang Ed-Haun, Ren-Shih Chungh and Young-How Tsai, 2007. Effect of different application rate of organic fertilizer on soil enzyme activity and microbial population. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 53(2): 132-140.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-0765.2007.00122.x.
Chaves, L.H.G., M.A. Estrela and R. Sena De Souza. 2011. Effect on plant growth and heavy metal accumulation by sunflower. J. Phytol., 3(12): 4–9. https://updatepublishing.com/journal/index.php/jp/article/view/2736
Chehregani A., B. Malayeri. 2007. Removal of heavy metals by native accumulators plants. Int. J. Agric. Biol., 9(3): 462-465.
Cornu, J.Y., R.Bakoto, O. Bonnard, S. Bussière, C. Coriou, C. Sirguey, T. Sterckeman, S.Thunot, M.I. Visse and C. Nguyen. 2016. Cadmium uptake and partitioning during the vegetative growth of sunflower exposed to low Cd2+ concentrations in hydroponics. Plant and Soil, 404(1-2):263-275. https;//doi..org/10-1007/s11104-016-2839-8
Elouear, Z. , Farah Bouhamed, Nesrine Boujelben, Jalel Bouzid .2016. Application of sheep manure and potassium fertilizer to contaminated soil and its effect on zinc, cadmium and lead accumulation by alfalfa plants. Sustainable Environment Research., 26: 131-135.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.serj.2016.04.004.
Frietas, E. V., and C.W. Nascimento, 2009. The use of NTA for lead phytoextraction from soilo from a battery recycling site. Journal of Hazardous materials, 171(1-3): 833-837.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.06.069.
Ghosh, S., B.R. Wilson, B. Mandal, S.K. Ghoshal and I. Growns. 2010. Changes in soil organic carbon pool in three long-term fertility experiments with different crop-ping systems, inorganic and organic soil amendments in the eastern cereal belt of India. Aust. J. Soil Res., 48(5): 413–420.https://doi.org/10.1071/SR09089.
Jabeen, N., Z.Abbas, M.Iqbal, M.Rizwan, A. Jabbar, M.Farid, S. Ali, M.Ibrahim, and F. Abbas. 2016. Glycinebetaine mediates chromium tolerance in mung bean through lowering of Cr uptake and improved antioxidant system. Arch. Agron. Soil Sci. 62, 648–662.https://doi.org/10-1080/03650340.2015.1082032.
Jackson, M.L. 1973. Soil chemical Analysis. Prentice Hall of India (Pvt ). Ltd., New Delhi.
Kabata-Pendias, A. and H. Pendias. 2010. Element of Group II. In:"Trace Elements in Soils and Plants".(Kabata-Pendias, A. and Pendias, H., Eds.). CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 123-164.
Kolbas, A., L. Marchand, R. Herzig, E. Nehnevajova and M. Mench. 2014. Phenotypic seedling responses of a metal-tolerant mutant line of sunflower growing on a Cu- contaminated soil series: potential uses for biomonitoring of Cu exposure and phytoremediation. Plant Soil, 376(1-2): 377–397.https://doi.org./10-1007/s11104-013-1974-8.
Lucchini, P., R.S. Quilliam, T.H. De Luca, T. Vamerali and D.L. Jones. 2014. Increased bioavailability of metals in two contrasting agricultural soils treated with waste wood- derived biochar and ash. Environ Sci Pollut Res., 21(5): 3230-3240.https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-013-2272-y.
Mando, A., M. Bonzi, M.C.S. Wopereis, F. Lompo and L. Stroosnijder. 2005. Long-term effects of mineral and organic fertilization on soil organic matter fractions and sorghum yield under Sudano– Sahelian conditions. Soil Use and Management, 21(4): 396–401.https://doi.org/10.1079/SUM2005339.
Manjunatha, G.S., S.N. Upperi, B.T. Pujari, N.A. Yeledahalli and V.B. Kuligod. 2009. Effect of farmyard manure treated with jeevamrutha on yield attributes, yield and economics of sunflower (Helianthus annus L.). Karnataka J. Agric. Sci., 22(1): 198-199.
Mishra, A and V.M. Salokhe. 2010. The effect of planting and water regime on rootmorphology, physiology and grain yield of rice. J. Agron Crop Sci., 196, 368-378.
Nanjundappa, G., B. Shivaraj, S. Janarajuna and S. Sridharan. 2001. Effect of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients applied alone or in combination on growth and yield of sunflower. Helia., 24(34): 115-119.
Niu, Z.X., L.N. Sun, T. H. Sun, LI, Y. Shuang and H. Wang. 2007. Evaluation of phyto extracting cadmium and lead by sunflower, ricinus, alfalfa and mustard in hydroponic culture. J. Environ. Sci., 19(8): 961–967. DOI.
Olsen, S.R., C.V. Cole, F.S. Watanable and J.A. Dean. 1954. Estimation of available
phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. USDA, Circular -939.
Radulescu, C., C. Stihi, I.V. Popescu, I.D, Dulama, E, D. Chelarescu and A.Chilian. 2013. Heavy metal accumulation and translocation in different parts of Brassica oleracea L. Rom. Journ. Phys., 58(9-10): 1337-1354.
Raymond A. Wauna and Felix E. Okiemen. 2011. Heavy metals in contaminated soils: A review of sources, chemistry, risks and best available strategies for remediation. ISRN Ecology.doi:10.5 402 /2011/402647.
Rehman, M.Z., M. Rizwan, A. Ghafoor, Asif Naeem., Shafeqat Ali., M. Sabir and M.F. Qayyum. 2015b. Effect of inorganic amendments for in-situ stabilization of cadmium in contaminated soils and its phyto availability to wheat and rice under rice rotation. Environ Sci pollut Res int., 22(21): 16897-906. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-4883-y
Rehman, M.Z., M. Rizwan, A. Ghafoor, Asif Naeem., Shafeqat Ali., M. Sabir and M.F. Qayyum. 2015b. Effect of inorganic amendments for in-situ stabilization of cadmium in contaminated soils and its phyto availability to wheat and rice under rice rotation. Environ. Sci pollut Res int., 22(21): 16897-906. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-4883-y
Rizwan, M., S. Ali, M. Adrees, H. Rizvi, M. Zia-ur-Rehman, F. Hannan, M.F. Qayyum, F.Hafeez and Y.S. Ok. 2016b. Cadmium stress in rice: toxic effects, tolerance mechanisms and management: a critical review. Env.Sci. Polln. Res. , 23 (18): 17859-79. DOI:10.1007/s11356-016-6436-4.
Robinson, B., Bañuelos, G., Conesa, H., Evangelou, M., Schulin, R., 2009. The Phytomanagement of Trace Elements in Soil. CRC. Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 28,240– 266. doi:10.1080/0735268090303542.
Sahoo, S.K., D. Sampath kumar and C.R. Reddy. 2009. Production of sunflower (Healianthus annus L.) intercropping system under rabi irrigated conditions. J. Oilseeds Res., 20(2): 284-286.
Shaheen, S.M., Rinklebe, J. 2015. Phytoextraction of potentially toxic elements by Indian mustard, rapeseed, and sunflower from a contaminated riparian soil. J. Environ Geochem Health, 37(6): 953–967. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-015-9718-8
Shittu, O.S., A. Olufemi, A.O.Llori and B.V. Obe. 2015. Monitoring of selected heavy metals uptake by plant around fagbohun dumpsite, Ikere-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology. 9(11): 85-91.DOI:10.9790/2402-091118591.
Singh, P.K. and S.K. Tewari, 2003. Cadmium toxicity induced changes in plant water relations and oxidative metabolism of Brassica juncea L. plants. J. Env. Biol. 24(1): 107–112.
Singh. A. and M. Agarwal. 2013. Reduction in metal toxicity by applying different soil amendments in agricultural fields and its consequent effects on characteristics of radish plants (Raphanusn sativus L.) J. Agr. Sci. Tech., 15 pp: 1553-1564.URI:https://hdl.handle.net/123456789/4367.
Smical, A.I., Vasile Hotea, Vasile Oros, Jozsef Juhasz and Elena Pop. 2008. Studies on transfer and bioaccumulation of heavy metals from soil into Lettuce. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal., 7(5): 609-615.
Smith, S.R., 2009. A critical review of the bioavailability and impact of heavy metals in municipal waste composts compared to sewage sludge. Environ. Int. 35(1):142-156.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2008.06.009.
Standford, S. and L. English. 1949. Use of flame photometer in rapid soil tests of K and Ca. Agronomy Journal, 41: 446-447.
Subbiah, B.V. and G.L.Asija. 1956. A rapid procedure for the estimation of available nitrogen in soils. Curr. Sci., 25: 259-260.
Suthar, V., M. Mahamood-ul-Hasan, K.S. Memon and E. Rafique. 2013. Heavy metal phytoextraction potential of spinach and mustard grown in contaminated calcareous soils. Communications in soil science and plant analysis, 44(18): 2757-2770.https://doi.org/10.1080/00103624.2013.812733.
Vassilev, A., Jen-Paul Schwitzguebel, Theo Thewys, Daniel Van der Leile and Jaco Vangronsveld. 2004. The use of plants for remediation of metal contaminated soils. The Scientific World Journal, 4: 9-34.http:/dx.doi.org/10.1100/tsw.2004.2.
Walkley, A. and I.A. Black. 1934. An estimation of the wet acid method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic and titration method. Soil Science. 37: 29-39.
Zhixin Niu, Lina Sun and Tieheng Sun. 2009. Response of Root and Aerial Biomass to Phytoextraction of Cd and Pb by Sunflower, Castor bean, Alfalfa and Mustard. Adv. in Environ. Biol., 3(3): 255-262.URL .http;//www.insipub.com/.../255-262.pdf.
Research Articles

How to Cite

Accumulation efficiency of sunflower for lead and cadmium along with sustainable crop productivity under soil stress. (2019). Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 11(3), 636-644. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v11i3.2134