Sanjive Shukla Kunwer Ji Tiwari Harnam Singh Lodhi Sandeep Shukla Anand Mishra U. D. Sharma


Lead is a nonessential “grey listed” heavy metal, used in fuels, ceramics, paints and glass wares in industries and vehicles. After taking entry in aquatic ecosystem it becomes toxic and cause serious problem to plants and animals. Haematological, neurological, nephrological and histopathological effects of lead are well known. Fresh water prawn, Macrobrachium dayanum, a potential animal for freshwater aquaculture, subjected to acute and sub-acute concentration of lead nitrate (116.46 mg/l; 96h LC50 and 29.12 mg/l; 25% of 96h LC50) showed severe histopathological alterations in gills after 24, 48, 72 and 96h and 10, 20 and 30 day exposure. Chief alterations during acute exposure were thickening of gill plates, reduction in inter lameller spaces, cuticular irruption, inflammation and necrosis where as clumping of gill plates, hyperplasia, hypertrophied haemocytes with nuclear pycnosis and leakage of haemocytes in inter-lameller spaces as well as deposition of broken tissue debris near gill base were observed during sub-acute exposure. The severity of histopathological alterations was found duration dependant. Present study reveals that histological bio- markers provides complete information regarding heavy metal toxicity particularly lead to these economically important fresh water prawns, which can themselves serve as bio-indicator of worsening status of surface aquatic bodies. 




Fresh water Prawn, Gills, Histopathology, Lead toxicity, Macrobrachium dayanum

Abraham, K. M. and Radha Krishna, T. (2002). Study on the gill of field crab, Paratelphusa hydrodromous (Herbst.) exposed to nickel. J. Environ. Biol. 23 (2): 151-155.
Anderson, J. T. and E. Baatrup (1988). Ultrastructural localization of mercury accumulation in the gills hepatopancreas, midgut and antennal glands of the brown shrimp, Crangon crangon. Aquat. Toxicol. 13: 309-324.
Anderson, M. B., Preslan, J. E., Jolibois, L., Bollinger, J. E. and George, W. J. (1997). Bioaccumulation of lead nitrate in red swamp crayfish (Procambrus clarkii). J. Hazardous Materials 54: 15-29.
APHA (1998). Standard Methods for the examination of water and waste waters. 20thEdn. APHA, AWWA and WPCF Washington.
Asih, A. Y. P., Irawan, B. and Soegianto, A. (2013): Effect of copper on survival, osmoregulation, and gill structures of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii, de Man) at different development stages. Mar. and Fresh. Behav. and Physiol. 46(2):75-88.
Brown, G. D. and Creedy, J. (1970). Experimental biology manual. Heinemann Educational Books Ltd., London. Pp 266.
Burman, S. C. and Lal, M. (1994). Studied the potential and properties of bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb) in soil and industrially polluted fields. J. Environ. Biol. 15: 107-115.
Chopra, A.K., Pathak, C. and Prasad, G. (2009). Scenario of heavy metal contamination in agricultural soil and its management. J. of Appl. Nat. Sci. 1(1): 99-108.
Costa, H. H. (1965). Oxygen consumption of Gammarus in relation to toxic substances. Ceylon. J. Sci. (Biol. Sci.). 5 (2): 87-96.
Devi, M. and Fingerman, M. (1995). Inhibition of acetylcholinesetrase activity in the central nervous system of the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkia, by mercury, cadmium and lead. Bull.Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 55:746-750.
Drury, R. A. B. and Wallington, E. A. (1980). Carletons histological techniques 5th Edition.
Dutta, H. M., Munshi, J. S. D.; Roy, P. K.; Singh, N. K.; Adhikari; S. and Killius; J. (1996). Ultrastructural chages in the respiratory lamellae of the catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis after sublethal exposure to malathion. Environ. Poll. 92: 329-341.
Fontine, C. T. and Lightener, D. V. (1974). Observation on the phagocytosis and elimination of carmine particles injected in to the abdominal musculature of the white shrimp Penaeus Setiferus J. Invert. Pathol. 24: 141-148.
Frías-Espericueta, M. G.; Abad-Rosales, S. M. Vargas-Jiménez, A.; Sarabia- Espinoza, T.; Rodríguez-Salas, B. A., Osuna-López1, I. and Voltolin, D. (2016): Synergistic Effects of Sublethal Concentrations of Cadmium and Zinc on Mortality, Growth and on Gills and Hepatopancreas Histological Structure of Litopenaeus vannamei Postlarvae. Turk. J. of Fisher. and Aqu. Sci. 16: 491-497.
Ghate, H. V. (1984). Gill melanization and heavy metals in fresh water prawn (Caridena rajadhari). Ind. J. Fish. 31 (3): 389 – 393.
Ghate, H. V. and Mulherker, L. (1979). Histological changes in the gills of two fresh water prawn species exposed to copper sulphate. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 17: 838 – 840.
Gill, T. S.. Pant, J. C. and Tewari, H. (1988). Bronchial pathogenesis in a fresh water fish, Puntius conchonius (Ham), chronically exposed to sublethal concentration of cadmium. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 15 (2): 153 – 161.
Hutcheson, M. S. (1974). The effect of temperature and salinity on cadmium uptake by the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Chesapeake Sci. 15: 273-281.
Jadhav, S. M. (1993). Impact of pollutions on some physiological aspects of the fresh water bivalve, Corbicula seriatella. Ph.D. Thesis, Marathwada University, Aurangabad (M.S).
Jarup, L. (2003). Hazard of heavy metal contamination. Br. Med. Bull. 68: 167-182.
Khangarot, B. S. and Tripathi, D. M. (1990). Study of the gill damage to catfish, Saccobranchus fossilis following exposure to chromium. Water. Air. Soil. Pollution. 53: 379-390.
Kumari, S. A. and N. S. R. Kumar (1995). Effects of water pollution on the histology of fish Channa striatus in Hussainasagar, Hyderabad. India. Environ. Ecol. 13 (4): 932-934.
Kutlu, M. and Sumer, S. (1998). Effects of lead on the activity of S-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in Gammarus pulex. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 60: 816-821.
LoveGrove, S. M. and Eddy, F. B. (1982). Uptake and accumulation of zinc in juvenile rainbow trout, Salmo gairdenri. Environ. Biol. Chem. 193: 265-275.
Lucu, C. and Towle, D.W. (2003). Na+ + K+ - ATPase in gills of aquatic crustacea. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 135A:195-214.
Mason, C. F. (1996). Biology of freshwater pollution, 3rd edn., Longman, U.K. pp1-4.
Mishra, A., Chopra, A. K. and Shukla, S. (2016). Physiological responses of heart of tailless freshwater flea, Simocephalus vetulus (Crustacea-Cladocera) under copper sulphate stress. CIB Tech J. Zoo. 5(3): 52-59.
Mobarak, Y. M. S. and Sharaf, M. M. (2011). Lead acetate induced Histopathological changes in the gills and digestive system of silver sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna). Int. J. Zool. Res. DOI: 10.3923/ijzr.2011 (ISSN 1811-9778).
Nimmo, D. W. R., Lightner, D. V. and Bahner, L. H. (1977). Effects of cadmium on the shrimps, Penaeus duorarum, Palaemonetes pugio and Palaemonetes vulgaris. Physiological responses of marine biota to pollutants. Academic Press. Inc. New York.
Olojo, E. A. A. Olurin, K. B. Mbaka, G. and Oluwemimo, A. D. (2005). Histopathology of gill and liver tissues of the African catfish Clarias garipinus exposed to lead. African J. Biotech. 4(1): 117-122.
Parashar R. S. and Banerjee, T. K. (2002). Toxic impact of lethal concentration of lead nitrate on the gills of air breathing cat fish Heteropueustes fossilii (Bloch) Veteran. Arch. 72 (3), 176-83.
Patwardhan, S. S. (1937): The Indian zoological memoires, on Indian animal types (VI) Palaemon (the Indian river prawn). Lucknow publishing house Lucknow. Pp 100.
Pequex, A. (1995). Osmotic regulation in crustaceans. J. Crust. Biol.15:1-60.
Putranto, T. W. C.; Andriani, R.; Munawwaroh, A.; Irawan B. and Soegianto, A. (2014). Effect of cadmium on survival, osmoregulation and gill structure of the Sunda prawn, Macrobrachium sintangense(de Man), at different salinities. Mar. and Fresh. Behav. and Physiol. 47(5):349-360.
Rouzbahani, M. M. (2017). Bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Ni, V, Cu, Pb) in various tissues of Metapenaeus affinis in the Northwest of Persian Gulf. Iranian J. of Aqu. Ani. Health, 3(1): 101-113.
Sabu, A. S., Sanil, N. K. and Nammalwar, P. (2017). Effect of cadmium in the gills of green tiger prawn, Penaeus semisulcatus. Int. J. of Fisheries and Aqu. Stud.; 5(1): 467-478.
Sen, P., Tiwari, K. J., Shukla, S., Shukla, R. and Sharma, U. D. (2008). Effects of cadmium on ventilation and oxygen consumption of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium dayanum (Crustacea - Decapoda). Aquacult 9(1): 95-100.
Sharma, R. K. and Agrawal, M. (2005). Biological effects of heavy metals: An overview. J. Environ. Biol. 26 (2): 301-313
Sharma, U. D. and Shukla, S. (1990). Behaviour dysfunction of fresh water prawn, Macrobrachium lamarrei (Crustacea: Decapoda) following exposure to synthetic detergent, linearalkyl benzene sulphonate. Biol. Mem. 16(12): 58–61.
Shukla, S. and Sharma, U. D. (2010). Smaller freshwater Prawns: Their Aquaculture Potential and Suitability as good laboratory Model. In: Bioresources for food security and rural livelihood eds. G.K. Kulkarni and B. N. Pandey. Pp: 189-2014. Nalanda Publishing House, New Delhi.
Soegianto A, Charmantier-Daures M, Trilles J, Charmantier G (1999a). Impact of cadmium on the structure of gills and epipodites of the shrimp Penaeus japonicus (Crustacea: Decapoda). Aqua. Liv. Reso. 12:57–70.
Soegianto, A., Charmantier-Daures, M., Trilles, J.P. and Charmatier, G. (1999b). Impact of cadmium on the structure of gills and epipodites of the shrimp Penaeus japonicus (Crustacea: Decapoda). Aqua. Liv. Reso., 12: 57-70.
Soegianto, A.; Asih, A. Y. P. and Irawan, B. (2016). Lead toxicity at different life stages of the giant prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii, de Man). Considerations of osmoregulatory capacity and histological changes in adult gills. Mar. and Fresh. Behav. and Physiol. 49(3):187-200.
Sparks, A. K. (1972). Invertebrate pathology: Non communicable disease academic press New York/London.
Tripathi, R., Shukla, S. and Sharma, U. D. (2019). Seasonal changes in reproductive cycle of female freshwater prawn Macrobrachium dayanum (Handerson) from river Gomti, Lucknow (India). J. App. Nat. Sci. 11(1) 149-154.
Verma, D. R., Lodhi, H. S., Tiwari, K. J., Shukla, S. and Sharma, U. D. (2010). Copper sulphate induced changes in scaphognathite oscillations and oxygen consumption of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium lamerrei (Crustacea-Decapoda). J. App. Nat. Sci. 2(1) 34-37.
Victor, B., S. Mahalingam and R. Sarojini (1990). Gill Pathology and haemocyte response in mercury exposed Macrobrachium idea (Heller). J. Environ. Biol. 11(1): 61-65.
Vinod Kumar and A.K. Chopra (2015). Heavy metals accumulation in soil and agricultural crops grown in the Province of Asahi India Glass Ltd., Haridwar (Uttarakhand), India. Adv. in Crop Sci. Technol., 4: 203. doi:10.4172/2329-8863.
Vogel, F. S. (1959). The deposition of exogenous copper under experimental conditions with observations on its neurotoxic and nephrotoxic properties in relation to Wilson’s disease. J. Exp. Med. 10: 801-810.
Wu, J. P., Chen, H. C. and Huang, D. J. (2009). Histopathological Alterations in Gills of White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) After Acute Exposure to Cadmium and Zinc. Bull Environ Contam. Toxicol. 82:90–95.
Yamuna, A., Saravana Bhavan, P. and Geraldine P. (2009). Ultrastructural observations in gills and hepatopancreas of prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii exposed to mercury. J. Environ. Biol. 30(5) 693-699.
Research Articles

How to Cite

Histopathological alterations in gills of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium dayanum (Crustacea - Decapoda) after acute and sub-acute exposure of lead nitrate. (2019). Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 11(2), 568-574. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v11i2.2118