Seema Tewari Sandeep Bajpai Madhu Tripathi


Aquatic environment gets polluted by heavy metals because of their environmental persistence and ability to bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms. Cadmium is a ubiquitous toxic heavy metal, biologically non-essential element, it is not biodegradable and has a very long biological half-life. The aim of the present study was to assess the glycogen content in muscle, liver,  gill and kidney of Channa punctatus exposed to sublethal concentrations of cadmium chloride after 4, 7, 15 and 30 days of exposure. The results clearly showed significant decrease in the glycogen levels in the experimental fish C. punctatus. Decrease in muscle glycogen was found highly significant (P<0.001) after 30 days in both low concentration (36.823 mg/L) 6.12±0.41mg/g and in high concentration (73.646 mg/L) 4.04±0.32 mg/g in comparison to control. Decrease in liver glycogen content was found highly significant (P<0.001) after 30 days in high concentration 9.12±0.49 mg/g when compared with control. The decrease in gill glycogen content after 30 days exposure was found highly significant (P<0.001) 1.36±0.13 mg/g in low concentration and in high concentration 0.79±0.25 mg/g in comparison to control. Decrease in kidney glycogen content was found highly significant (P< 0.001) at 30 days in low concentration 3.92±0.05 mg/g  and in high concentration 2.81±0.20 mg/g  in comparison to control. The influence of toxicant cadmium chloride in selected tissues of fish was taken into account in evaluating fish response against stressor. Hence, we can use glycogen content as biomarker of cadmium stress in fish.




Cadmium, Channa punctatus, Fish, Glycogen content, Heavy metal

of Cadmium and lead accumulation in different tissues (gills, liver, kidney, brain) of fresh water fish, Channa punctatus. J. Ecophysiol. Occup. Hlth. 7(3): 151-155
Akhilendra Naidu, K. (1982). Physiological studies on freshwater teleost Sarotherodon mossambicus about mercury toxicity, Ph.D. Thesis, S.V. University, Tirupathi India.
Ali, H., Khan, E. and Ilahi, I. (2019). Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology of Hazardous Heavy Metals: Environmental Persistence, Toxicity, and Bioaccumulation. Journal of Chemistry. Volume 2019, Article ID 6730305, https://doi.org/10.1155/201 9/6730305
APHA, AWWA, WEF. (2012). Standard Methods for examination of water and wastewater. 22nd ed. Washington: American Public Health Association; 1360 pp. ISBN 978-087553-013-0. http://www.standardmethods.org/Baharoma, Z.S. and Ishak, M.Y. (2015). Determination of heavy metal accumulation in fish species in Galas River, Kelantan and Beranang mining pool, Selangor. Procedia Environmental Sciences . 30: 320-325.
Bawuro, A. A., Voegborlo, R. B. and Adimado, A. A. (2018). Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Some Tissues of Fish in Lake Geriyo, Adamawa State, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental and Public Health. Volume 2018, Article ID 1854892, https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/1854892
Bengery, K.V. and Patil, H.S. (1986). Respiration, liver glycogen and bioaccumulation in Labeo rohita exposed to Zinc. Indian J. Com. Animal Physiol., 4: 79-84.
Bhilave, M. P., Muley, D. V., and Deshpande, V. Y., (2008). Biochemical changes in the fish Cirrhinus mrigala after acute and chronic exposure of heavy metal. Nature Environment and Pollution Technology., 7(1): 65-71.
Cicik, B. and Engin, K. (2005). The effects of cadmium on levels of glucose in serum and glycogen reserves in the liver and muscle tissues of Cyprinus carpio (L., 1758). Turk J Vet. Anim. Sci., 29: 113-117.
Das, S., Patro, S.K. and Sahu, B.K. (2001).
Biochemical changes induced by mercury in the liver of penaeid prawns Penaeus indicus and P.monodon (Crustacea: Penaeidae) from Rushikulya estuary, east coast of India. Indian J. Marine Sci., 30(4): 246-252.
Goswami, P., Kaushik, U., Damor, S., Sharma, P., Sharma, N., (2016). Effect of Cadmium Chloride on Biochemical Profile and Enzyme Activity in Tilapia mossibica. Int. J. Pharma. Res. Health Sci. 4 (6): 1462-1465. DOI:10.21276/ijprhs.2016.06.05
Gumgum, B.and Unlu E. and Tez Z. Gulsun Z. (1994). Heavy metal pollution in water, sediment and fish from Tigris River in Turkey. Chemosphere, 29: 111-116.
Heath, A.G. and Pritchard, A.W. (1965). Effects of severe hypoxia on carbohydrate energy, stores and metabolism in two species of freshwater fish. Physiol. Zool. 38: 325-334. https://www.jstor.org/stable/30152409
Jagadeesan, G. (1990). Studies on the effect of mercuric chloride on biomodel biochemical analysis and vertebral deformation on freshwater fish Anabas testudineus (Bloch) M.Phil Thesis, Annamalai University.
Javed, M. and Usmani, N. (2013). Assessment of heavy metal (Cu, Ni, Fe, Co, Mn, Cr, Zn) pollution in effluent dominated rivulet water and their effect on glycogen metabolism and histology of Mastacembelus armatus. Springer Plus 2:390 http://www.springerplus.com/content/2/1/390.
Jordao, C.P., Pereira, M.G., Bellato, C.R., Pereira, J.L. and Matos, A.T. (2002). Assesment of water systems for contaminants from domestic and industrial sewages. Environ. Monit. Asses., 79(1): 75-100.
Kamaraju, S. and Ramasamy, K. (2011). Effect of cadmium chloride on glycogen content in gill, liver and kidney of edible exotic fish Hypophthalmichthys molitrix. Int. J. Curr. Res., 3(5): 53-57.
Karuppasamy, R. (2000). Effect of phenyl mercuric acetate on carbohydrate content of Channa punctatus Uttar Pradesh. J. Zool., 20(3): 219-225.
Kumari, B. and Ahsan, J. (2011). Study of muscle glycogen content in both sexes of an Indian teleost Clarius batrachus (Linn.) exposed to different concentrations of arsenic. Fish Physiol. Biochem., 37: 161-167.
Leibson, L. and Plisetskaya, E.M. (1968). Effect of insulin blood sugar level and glycogen content in organs of some cyclostomes and fish. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 11(2): 381-392.
Levesque, H.M., Moon, T.W., Campbell, P.G.C. and Hontela, A. (2002). Seasonal variation in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) chronically exposed to metals in the field. Aquat. Toxicol., 60: 257-267.
Malik, D.S., Sastry, K.V. and Hamilton, D.P. (1998). Effects of zinc toxicity on biochemical composition of muscle and liver of Murrel (Channa punctatus). Environ. Int., 24(4): 433-438.
Mary Chandravathy, V. and Reddy, S.L.N. (1996). Lead nitrate exposure changes in carbohydrate of freshwater fish, Anabas scandens. J.Environ. Biol., 17: 75-79.
Mason, C.F. (1996). Biology of freshwater pollution, 3rd edn., Longman, U.K. 1-4.
Mazeand, M.N., Mazeand, F. and Donaldson, E.M. (1977). Primary and secondary effects of stress in fish some new data with a general view. Trans. Ame. Fish Soc., 106: 201-212.
Nicholas, V.C., Longley, R.W. and Roe, J.H. (1956) Determination of glycogen in liver and muscle by use of Anthrone reagent. J. Biol. Chem., 220(2): 583-593.
Nimmo, D.R. and Willox, M.J., Lafrancois, T.D., Chapman, P.L., Brinkman, S.F. and Greene, J.C. (1998). Effects of metal mining and milling on boundary waters of Yellow Stone National Park, U.S.A. Environ. Manage. 22(6): 913-926.
Opaluwa, O.D., Aremu, M.O., Ogbo, L.O., Magaji, J.I., Odiba, I.E. and Ekpo, E.R. (2012). Assessment of Heavy Metals in Water, Fish and Sediments from UKE Stream, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Current World Environment, 7(2): 213-220.
Plessl, C., Otachi, E. O., Körner.W., Avenant-Oldewage, A. and Jirsa, F. (2017). Fish as bioindicators for trace element pollution from two contrasting lakes in the Eastern Rift Valley, Kenya: spatial and temporal aspects. Environ Sci. Pollut. Res., 24: 197 67 –19776. DOI 10.1007/s11356-017-9518-z
Prabhahar, C., Saleshrani, K., Tharmaraj, K., and Vellaiyan, M., (2012). Studies on the Effect of Cadmium Compound on the Biochemical Parameters of Fresh Water Fish in Cirrhinus mrigala. International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archives. 3(1): 69-73.
Qayyum, M.A. and Shaffi, S.A. (1977). Changes in tissue glycogen on freshwater catfish Heteropneustes fossilis due to mercury intoxication. Curr. Sci., 46(18): 652-653.
Radhakrishaniah, K., Venkataramana, P., Suresh, A. and Sivaramakrishna, B. (1992). Effect of lethal and sublethal concentrations of copper on glycolysis in the liver of the freshwater teleost, Labeo rohita (Ham). J. Environ. Biol., 13: 63-68.
Rauf, A., Javed, M. and Ubaidullah, M. (2009) Heavymetal levels in three major carps (Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Cirrhina mrigala) from the river Ravi, Pakistan. Pak Vet J., 29(1):24-26.
Reddy, S.L.N., Venugopal, N.B.R.K. and Ramana Rao, J.V. (1989). In vivo effects of cadmium chloride on certain aspects of carbohydrate metabolism in the tissue of freshwater field crab Barytelphusa guerini. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 42(6): 847-853.
Sastry, K.V. and Sunita, Km. (1983). Enzymological and biochemical changes produced by chronic chromium exposure in a teleost fish Channa punctatus. Toxicol. Lett., 16: 9-15.
Sastry, K.V. and Subhadra, Km. (1982). Effect of cadmium on some aspects of carbohydrate metabolism in a freshwater catfish Heteropneustes fossilis. Toxicol. Lett., 14: 45-55.
Sastry, K.V. and Sunita, Km. (1982). Effect of cadmium and chromium on the intestinal absorption of glucose in the snakehead fish Channa punctatus. Toxicol. Lett., 10: 293-296.
Sim, S.F., Ling, T.Y., Nyanti, L., Gerunsin, N., EeWong, Y. and Kho, L.P. (2016). Assessment of Heavy Metals in Water, Sediment, and Fishes of a Large Tropical Hydroelectric Dam in Sarawak, Malaysia. Journal of Chemistry. Volume 2016, Article ID 8923183, http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8923183
Sobha, K., Poornima, A., Harini, P. and Veeraiah, K. (2007). A study on biochemical changes in the freshwater fish, Catla catla (Hamilton) exposed to heavy metal toxicant cadmium chloride. Katmandu University Journal of Science engineering and technology, 1(4): 1-11.
Sujata, K., (2015). Impact of Cadmium on the Biochemical Contents in the Reproductive Organs of Freshwater Fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch). International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR),4 (10): 114-118. ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
US DHHS-ATSDR (1993). Toxicological profile for cadmium (TP-92/06).
US EPA (2016). Aquatic life ambient water quality criteria cadmium. EPA-820-R-16-002. Office of water. Office of Science and Technology. Health and Ecological Criteria Division. Washington, DC.
Veeraiah, K., Venkatrao, G., Vivek, Ch., and Hymaranjani, G., (2013). Heavy metal, cadmium chloride induced biochemical changes in the Indian major carp Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton). International Journal of Bioassays, ISSN: 2278-778X. pg1028-1033.
Viana, A.P. and Lucena Frédou, F. (2014). Ichthyofauna as bioindicator of environmental quality in an industrial district in the amazon estuary, Brazil. Braz. J. Biol., 74(2): 315-324 .http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/15 19-6984.16012
Viarengo, A. (1985). Biochemical effects of trace metals. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 16(4): 153-158. https://doi.org/10.1016/0025-326X(85)90006-2
Viswarajan, S. and Muthukrishnan, S. (1988). Impact of tannery effluent on phosphatase activity of fishes. Proc. Inds. Nat. Sci. Acd. B55: 314-345.
Waisberg, M., Joseph, P., Hale, B. and Beyersmann, D. (2003). Molecular and cellular mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis. Toxicology. 192: 95-117. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0300-483X(03)00305-6
WHO, (1992). Cadmium. Environmental Aspects. Environmental Health Criteria Series N 135. Geneva.
Xuan, R., Wang, L., Sun, M., Ren, G. and Jiang, M. (2011). Effects of cadmium on carbohydrate and protein metabolisms in the freshwater Crab Sinopotamon yangtsekiense. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part C: Toxicology and Pharmacology, 154(3): 268-274. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.201L06.005
Research Articles

How to Cite

Effect of cadmium on glycogen content in muscle, liver, gill and kidney tissues of freshwater fish Channa punctatus (Bloch). (2019). Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 11(2), 575-580. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v11i2.2115