Animesh K. Mohapatra Deepika Rai Anika Tyagi


The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of arsenic trioxide on the DNA and histomorphology of testis, liver and kidney of Swiss albino mice, Mus musculus. Oral administration of arsenic trioxide induced DNA damage in the testis, liver and kidney marked by light pink staining of nuclei after Feulgen’s reaction with reduced fine chromatin. Simultaneously severe histological changes were noted like distortion of seminiferous tubules, disorganization of spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids with cytoplasmic vacuolization and nuclear pycnosis in testis. There was almost disappearance of sinusoids due to disruption of hepatic plates, inflammatory cellular infiltration around central veins and cytoplasmic vacuolization in hepatocytes with large irregular nuclei in liver of treated mice. Disorganized glomeruli with distorted Bowman’s capsules and mild to severe multifocal cloudy and hydropic degeneration with necrosis of tubules were observed in the kidney of treated mice. Inference drawn from the study indicated that arsenic induced both genotoxic histotoxic lesions.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...




Arsenic, Genotoxic, Histopathological, Albino mice

Adam H. and Caihak G. (1964). Grosses zoologisches parktikum tell. Arbeitsmethoden der makropischen anatomic Mit 283 Abbildungen Gustav. Fischer Verlag Stuttgart. Aronson, S.N.: Arsenic and old myths. R.I.MEd., 77:233-234.
Aronson, S.N. (1994). Arsenic and old myths. R. I. Med., 77: 233-234.
Babu, Sarath M., Venu Gopal, N. and Pratap Reddy, K. (2007). Post natal antioxidant enzyme activity of rat brain regions during developmental lead exposure. J. Environ. Biol., 28: 21-27.
Bataineh, H., Al-Hamood, M. and Elbetieha, A. (1998). Assessment of aggression, sexual behaviour and fertility in adult male rat following long-term ingestion of four industrial metal salts. J. Human Exp. Toxicol., 17: 570-576.
Bench, G., M. H. R. Corzett, R. Martinelli and Balhorn (1999). Cadmium exposure in the testis, sperm and spermatids of mice subjected to long-term cadmium chloride exposure. J. Cytometry, 35: 30-36.
Butcher, R. W. (1946). The biological detection of pollution. J. Ind. Sew. Pur., (2): 92-97.
Chishti M.A. and Rotkiewicz, T. (1993). Hepatic and renal ultra-structural changes in cockerels exposed to cadmium chloride & subsequent interaction with organophosphate insecticide. J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. Oncol., 12 (1): 35-45.
Chougule, P., Patil, B. and Kanase, A. (2005). Lead nitrate induced unallied expression of liver and kidney functions in male albino rats. J. Environ. Biol., 26: 421-424.
Dalwani, R., Dave, J. M. and Datta, K. (1985). Alterations in hepatic heme metabolism in fish exposed to sublethal cadmium level. Biochem. Int., 10 (1): 33-42.
Dinodia, G.S., Gupta, R.K. and Jain, K.L. (2002). Effect of cadmium toxicity on liver glycogen in some fresh water fishes. Proc. XI National Symp. Environ. 236-238.
Doreswamy, K., Balakrishna Shrilatha, Thimappa Rajesh Kumar and Muralidhara (2004). Nickel induced oxidative stress in testis of mice: Evidence of DNA damage and Genotoxic effects. Journal of Andrology, 25, 6 November/December .
Elbetieha, A. and Al-Hamood, M. (1997). term exposure of male and female mice to trivalent and hexavalent chromium compounds. Effect on fertility. J. Toxicol., 116: 39-47.
Favino, A., Baillie, A. and Griffiths, K. (1966). Androgen synthesis by the testes and adrenal glands of rat poisoned with cadmium chloride. J. Endocrinol., 35:85-192.
Fengyuan Piao, Ning Ma, Yusukefliraku, Mariko Murata, Shinji Oikawa, Fanyin Cheng, Laifu Zhong, Toru Yamauchi, Shosuke Kawanishi and Kazuhito Yokoyama (2005). Oxidative DNA Damage in relation to Neurotoxicity in the Brain of Mice Exposed to Arsenic at Environmentally Relevant Level. J Occup Health, 47: 445-449.
Fiorini, C., Tilloy-Ellul, A., Chevalier, S., Charuel, C. and Pointis, G. (2004). Sertoli cell junctional proteins as early targets of different classes or reproductive toxicants. J. Reprod. Toxicol., 18: 413-421.
Foulkes, E. C. (1990). Biological effects of heavy metal.In: Metal carcinogenesis. Vol. II. CRC Press, Florida, USA.
Garba, S. H., Shehu, M. M and Adelaiya, A. B. (2007). Toxicological Effects of Inhaled Mosquito Coil Smoke on the Rat Spleen: A Haematological & Histological study. J. Med. Sci., 7 (1): 94-99.
Gill, T. S. and Pant, J. C. (1987). Haematological and Pathological effects of chromium toxicosis in the freshwater fish Barbus conchonius Ham. Water Air Soil Poll. 35: 241-250.
Gravin, A.J., Hall, B.J., Brissie, R.A., and Spicer, S.S. (1976). Cytochemical differentiation of nucleic acid with sciffmethylene blue sequence. J histochem. Cytochem, 24:587-590
Gupta, A. K. and Rajbanshi, V. K. (1979) Histopathological changes resulting from bioassay copper to Heteropneustes fossils (Bloch). Proc. Symp. Environ. Biol., 167-172.
Gupta, A. K. and Rajbanshi, V. K. (1982). Cytopathological studies resulting in cadmium bioassay with Heteropneustes fossils (Bloch.). Acta Hydrochem. Hydrobiol., 10 (4): 345-351.
Gupta, P. and Srivastava, N. (2006). Effect of sub-lethal concentrations of zinc on histological changes and bioaccumulation of zinc by kidney of fish Channa punctatus (Bloch). Journal of Environmental Biology, 27 (2): 211-215.
Gurer Orhan, H. and Ercal, N. (2000). Can antioxidants are beneficial in the treatment of lead poising. Free radical Biol. Med., 29: 927-945.
Kamble, G.B. and Muley, D.V. (2000). Effect of acute exposure of endosulfan and chlorpyriphos on the biochemical composition of the freshwater fish, Sarotherodon mossambicus. Indian J. Environ. Sci., 4(1): 97-102.
Karmakar, R., Bhattacharya, R. and Chatterjee, M. (2000). Biochemical, haematological and histopathological study in relation to time-related cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Biometals, 13 (3): 231-239.
Khangarot BS. (1992). Copper induced hepatic ultrastructural alterations in the snake-headed fish, Channa punctatus. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf., 3(3):282-93.
Kwon, K.S., Cho, K.J. and Yang, E.J. (1997). The study of anatomical and biochemical effects of cadmium on the testis in rats. Dev. Reprod., 1: 125-132.
Mason, K., Brown, J., Young, J. and Nesbit, R. (1964). Cadmium induced injury of the rat testis. J. Analytical Res., 149: 135-148.
Mayyas, I., Elbetieha, A., Khamas, W. and Khamas, W. A. (2005). Evaluation of reproductive and fertility toxic potentials of aluminium chloride on adult male mice. J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 4: 224-233.
McDowell, L.S. (1992). Minerals in Animal & human nutrition. Academic Press Inc. California, 361-364.
Parizek, A., (1960). Sterilization of the male by cadmium salts. J. Reprod. Fertility, 1: 294-309.
Patlolla A. K. and Tchounwon, P. B. (2005). Cytogenetic evaluation of arsenic trioxide toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats. Mutation Research/ Genetics Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, 587 (1-2): 126-133.
Robbins, S. and Angell, D. (1976). Basic Pathology, 2nd Ed, W. B. Sauders Company, Philadlphia, London.
Roy, P. and Saha, A. (2002). Metabolism and toxicity of arsenic: A human carcinogen. Current Science, 82 (1): 38-45.
Saksena, S. and Lau, I. (1979). Effects of cadmium chloride on testicular steroidogenesis and fertility of male rats. J. Endocrinol,74: 6-12.
Saleha Banu, B., Danadevi, K., Jamil, K., Ahuja, Y. R., Visweswara Rao, K. and Ishaq, M. (2001). In vivo genotoxic effect of arsenic trioxide in mice using comet assay. Toxicology, 162(3):171-177.
Sharma, A. and Sharma, M. S. (1994). Toxic effect of zinc smelter effluent on some developmental stages of fresh water fish. Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus). J. Environ. Biol., 15(3): 221-229.
Sharma, G. P., Sareen, M. L. and Monga, V. K. (1980). Effect of cadmium chloride on the testis of the Guinea – pig, Cavia cobaya. Proc. Nat. Agad. Sci. India, 50 (B), III.
Shukla, V., Rathi, P. and Sastry, K. V. (2002). Effect of cadmium individually and in combination with other metals on the nutritive value of fresh water fish, Channa punctatus. J. Environ. Biol., 23 (2): 105-112.
Soni, A. and Gupta, A.K. (2006). Toxic effects of mercuric chloride and influence of EDTA on the gills of Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch.). In Press.
Srivastava, N. and Kaushik, N. (2001). Use of fish as bioindicator of aquatic pollution. In: Abstracts presented at International congress of Chemistry and environment. 16th – 18th Dec., 2001, Indore, India.
Srivastava, N. and Sharma, R. (1996). Toxicity of zinc in fish Channa punctatus (Bloch.) as influenced by temperature and pH of water. Indian J. Anim. Nutr., 13(2): 87-90.
Stinson, T.J., Jaw, S., Jeffery, E.H., Plewa, M.J. (1992). The relationship between nickel chloride-induced peroxidation and DNA strand breakage in rat liver. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 117:98-103.
Tbeileh, N. Ahmed Elbetieha, Homa Darmani and Wael Khamas (2007). Effects of Long Term Exposure to Cadmium Chloride on Fertility in Adult Male Mice. Veterinary Research, 1(2): 40-48.
Valverde, M., Teresa I. Fortoul, Fernando Diaz-Barriga, Jesus Mejia and Emilio Rojas Del Castillo (2002). Genotoxicity induced in CD-1 mice by inhaled lead: differential organ response. Mutagenesis, 17(1): 55-61.
Yang. H. S. Dong Kein Han, Jung Ran Kim and Jae Chul Sim (2006). Effects of a-tocopherol on cadmium induced toxicity in Rat Testis and Spermatogenesis. Journal of Korean Medical Science, 21(3): 445-451.
Zhang L.Y. and Wang, C.X. (1984). Histopathological and histochemical studies on toxic effect of brodifacoum in mouse liver. Acta Acad Med Sci., 6(5):386-388.
Citation Format
How to Cite
Mohapatra, A. K., Rai, D., & Tyagi, A. (2011). Arsenic induced genotoxic and histopathological changes in male Swiss albino mice, Mus musculus. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 3(2), 329-339. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v3i2.210
More Citation Formats:
Research Articles