Siva Devika O. Subhadip Paul Deepranjan Sarkar Rahul Singh Rajput Sonam Singh Manoj Parihar H. P. Parewa Sumita Pal H. B. Singh Amitava Rakshit


India is one of the leading countries in agricultural production and generate large volume of crop residue. Increasing demand for food grains due to growing population leads to generation of crop residues. Due to lack of proper disposal mechanism of crop residue, farmers burn the residue which release greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere, and poses great threat to environment as well as human health. The residue burning causes greater carbon emission and nutrient losses which otherwise incorporated into the soil system may substantially improve the soil biodiversity. Besides several practices of crop residue management, the most feasible method for farmers is incorporation of residue into the soil with the inoculation of microbes. In soil system the ability of microbial community in degrading organic substances is well known. In the early stages of residue decomposition simple substrates like carbohydrates are degraded by bacteria, but in later stages degradation of complex constituents viz., cellulose, lignin needs microbes which are capable of secreting enzymes like cellulase, acting on complex organic substrates. In this context, cellulolytic micro organisms like Trichoderma have the potential and emerging as an important microbial inoculants to enhance the rate of decomposition as well as alleviate the effect of residue burning.




Agricultural production, Crop residue, Disposal, GHGs

Bisen, N., and Rahangdale, C.P. (2017). Crop residues management option for sustainable soil health in rice-wheat system: A review. Int. J.Comput. Syst. 5:1038-1042
Bothast R. J. and Schlicher, M. A. (2005). Biotechnological processes for conversion of corn into ethanol. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 67, 19–25
Carle-Urioste J.C., Escobar-Vera J, El-Gogary, S., Henrique-Silva, F., Torigoi, E., Crivellaro, O., Herrera-Estrella, A. and El-Dorry, H. (1997). Cellulase induction in Trichoderma reesei by cellulose requires its own basal expression. J Biol. Chem. 272:10169-10174
Cumagun, C.J., Manalo, J.O., Salcedo-Bacalangco. N.A. and Ilag, L.L. (2009). Cellulose decomposing ability of Trichoderma in relation to their saprophytic survival. Arch of Phytopathol and Plant Prot. 42:698—704. https://doi.org/10.1080/03235400701492731
Dabhi, B.K., Vyas, R.V. and Shelat, H.N. (2017).Biodegradation of lignin by fungal cultures. J. of Pharmacognosy and Phytochem. 6:1840-1842
Devi, S., Gupta, C., Jat, S.L. and Parmar, M.S. (2017). Crop residue recycling for economic and environmental sustainability: The case of India. Open Agric.2:486–94. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/opag-2017-0053
Domsch, K.H. and Cams, W. (1969). Variability and potential of a soil fungus population to decompose pectin, xylan and carboxy-methylcellulose. Soil Biol Biorhem.1:29–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/0038-0717(69)90031-5
Felfli, F.F., Rocha, J.D., Filippetto, D., Luengo, C.A. and Pippo, W.A. (2011). Biomass briquetting and its perspectives in Brazil. Biomass and Bioenergy. 35(1), 236-242.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2 010.08.011
GOI, Annual Report (2016). Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, New Delhi. (http://mnre.gov.in).http://www.erewise.com/current-affairs/biomass-resources-in-india_art52cbbb9bcd5d f.mht ml#. Vd9atPmqqko
Gupta H, Dadlani M. (2012). Crop residues management with conservation agriculture: Potential, constraints and policy needs.
Gupta, R.K., Naresh, R.K., Hobbs, P.R., Jiaguo, Z., Ladha, J.K. (2003). Sustainability of post-green revolution agriculture: the rice–wheat cropping systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains and China. Improving the productivity and sustainability of rice–wheat systems: Issues and impacts, (improvingthepro), 1-25.
Haab, D., Hagspiel, K., Szakmary, K. and Kubicek, C.P. (1990). Formation of the extracellular proteases from Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 involved in cellulase degradation. J Biotechnol. 16:187-198. https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-1656(90)90035-A
Hamdy, H.S. (2005). Purification and characterization of pectin lyase produced by Rhizopus oryzae grown on orange peels. Annals of Microbiology, 55(3), 205.
Hassanein, N.M. (2012). Biopotential of some Trichoderma spp. against cotton root rot pathogens and profiles of some of their metabolites. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 6(23), 4878-4890. DOI: 10.5897/AJMR11.1088
Henrissat,. B, Driguez, H., Viet, C. and Schülein, M. (1985). Synergism of cellulases from Trichoderma reesei in the degradation of cellulose. Biotechnology 3:722. https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.260360503
Jain, N., Bhatia, A. and Pathak, H. (2014). Emission of air pollutants from crop residue burning in India. Aerosol and Air Qual Res. 14:422-430. doi: 10.4209/aaqr.2013.01.0031
Joseph, S. and Lehmann, J. (2015). Biochar for environmental management: an introduction. In: Biochar for environmental management. Routledge, pp 33-46
Keswani, C., Singh, S.P. and Singh, H.B. (2013). A superstar in biocontrol enterprise: Trichoderma spp. Biotech Today. 3(2), 27-30. DOI: 10.5958/2322-0996.2014.00005.2
Kim, S. and Dale, B.E. (2003). Cumulative energy and global warming impact from the production of biomass for biobased products. J Ind Ecol. 7:147-162. https://doi.org/10.1162/108819803323059442
Kogo, T., Yoshida, Y., Koganei, K., Matsumoto, H., Watanabe, T., Ogihara, J.and Kasumi, T. (2017). Production of rice straw hydrolysis enzymes by the fungi Trichoderma reesei and Humicolainsolens using rice straw as a carbon source. BioresourTechnol. 233:67-73.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2017.01.075
Kumar P., Kumar, S. and Joshi, L. (2015). Socioeconomic and Environmental Implications of Agricultural Residue Burning: A Case Study of Punjab, India. Springer Open. DOI 10.1007/978-81-322-2014-5
Lal, R. (2004). World crop residues production and implications of its use as a biofuel. Environ Int. 31:575–584. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint. 2004 .09.005
Larson, W.E. (1979). Crop residue: energy production on erosion control. J Soil Water Conservation. 34:74–76
Moonmoon, M., Shelly, N.J., Khan, M.A., Uddin, M.N., Hossain, K., Tania, M. and Ahmed, S. (2011). Effects of different levels of wheat bran, rice bran and maize powder supplementation with saw dust on the production of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Singer). Saudi journal of biological sciences. 18(4), 323-328. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.20 10.12.008
MOSPI (2013-14). Ministry of Statistics and Program Implementation, http://www.mospi.gov.in/announc emen ts /asi—2013—14—vol—i.
Nidetzky, B., Steiner, W., Hayn, M. and Claeyssens, M. (1994). Cellulose hydrolysis by the cellulases from Trichoderma reesei: a new model for synergistic interaction. Biochem. J. 298:705—710. DOI: 10.1042/bj2980705
Ooshima, H., Burns, D.S. and Converse, A.O. (1990). Adsorption of cellulase from Trichoderma reesei on cellulose and lignacious residue in wood pretreated by dilute sulfuric acid with explosive decompression. Biotechnol Bioeng. 36:446-452.  
Rasal, P.H., Kalbhor, H.B., Shingte, V.V. and Patil, P.L. (1998). Development of technology for rapid composting and enrichment. Biofertilizers, Potentialities and Problems. pp255—258
Sarkar, A., Yadav, R.L., Gangwar, B. and Bhatia, P.C. (1999). Crop residues in India. Technical Bulletin, Project Directorate for Cropping System Research, Modipuram.
Sharma, B.L., Singh, S.P. and Sharma, M.L. (2012). Bio-degradation of crop residues by Trichoderma species vis-à vis nutrient quality of the prepared compost. Sugar Tech. 14:174—180
Sharma, S., Mathur, R.C. and Vasudevan, P. (1999). Composting silkworm culture waste. Compost Sci. Util. 7:74-81. https://doi.org/10.10 80/10 656 57 X.1999.10701967
Singh, A. and Sharma, S. (2002).Composting of a crop residue through treatment with microorganisms and subsequent vermicomposting. Bioresour Technol. 85:107-111. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(02)00095-0
Singh, V.K. (2017). Alternative utilization of crop residues: Tackling negative impacts of burning in India.
Singh, Y., Singh, B. and Timsina, J. (2005). Crop residue management for nutrient cycling and improving soil productivity in rice-based cropping systems in the tropics. Advances in Agronomy. 85:269—407
Sun, Y. and Cheng, J. (2002). Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production: a review. Bioresource Technology. 83, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(01)00212-7
Wang, L.S., Liu, J., Zhang, Y.Z., Zhao, Y. and Gao, P.J. (2003). Comparison of domains function between cellobiohydrolase I and endoglucanase I from Trichoderma pseudokoningii S-38 by limited proteolysis. Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic, 24, 27-38.
Weisz, P.B. (2004). Basic choices and constraints on long-term energy supplies. Phys Today. 57:47-52
Yang, W., Guo, F. and Wan, Z. (2013). Yield and size of oyster mushroom grown on rice/wheat straw basal substrate supplemented with cotton seed hull. Saudi Journal of BiologicalSsciences. 20(4), 333-338. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2013.02.006
Yevich, R. and Logan, J.A. (2003). An assessment of biofuel use and burning of agricultural waste in the developing world. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 17(4). Doi:10.1029/2002GB001952
Yobo, K.S., Laing, M.D. and Hunter, C.H. (2011).Effects of single and combined inoculations of selected Trichoderma and Bacillus isolates on growth of dry bean and biological control of Rhizoctonia solani damping-off. Afr J Biotechnol. 10:8746-8756
Research Articles

How to Cite

Trichoderma: A part of possible answer towards crop residue disposal. (2019). Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 11(2), 516-523. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v11i2.2090