Providing food security to devastatingly increasing population with limited natural
resources along with destruction caused by pre- and post-harvest pathogens are the
foremost concerns for the developing countries. Numerous pesticides, herbicides and chemical fertilizers are being applied by the farmers to deal with the existing situation but leave very disastrous and undesirable after effects on ecosystem as non-degradable molecules.. Botanicals can be utilized as an ecofriendly and effective alternative against chemical as they are of natural origin. In this context, two chemical/synthetic fungicides namely Manzate and Nystanin in three different concentrations namely 500ppm, 1000 ppm and 1500 ppm were evaluated against Sclerotium rolfsii, Alternaria alternata, Fusarium monilifrome, Rhizoctonia solani and Aspergillus niger in vitro to compare them with ethanolic botanical extracts of spices (clove, cinnamon, thyme) and weeds (parthenium and calotropis) at 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%. Results revealed the high efficacy of botanicals i.e. clove extracts showed maximum inhibition (100%), followed by reduced inhibition in cinnamon, thyme, Parthenium and Calotropis treated plates against all five pathogens even at 5% concentration in comparison to chemical of 500 ppm concentration i.e. 100% in case of S.rolfsii only. Hence the herbal products can be further analyzed and applied as a potent, ecofriendly and economical substitute to chemicals.
Agrochemicals, Botanical extracts, Food security, Phytopathogens
Chen, C.P., Lin, C.C. and Namba T (1987). Development of natural crude drug resources from Taiwan. In vitro studies of the inhibitory effects on 12 microorganisms. Shouyakugaku Zasshi., 41(3): 215-225.
Cos, P., Vlietinck, A.J., Berghe, D.V. and Maes, L. (2006). Anti-infective potential of natural products: How to sdevelop a stronger in vitro ‘proof of- concept’. Journal of ethnopharmacology,106(3):290-302.
Dreistadt, S.H. (2003). Integrated pest management for floriculture and nurseries (Vol. 3402). University of California, Agriculture and Natural Resources, CA.
Farombi, E.O., Ogundipe, O.O., Uhunwagho, E.S., Adeyanju, M.A. and Moody, J.O. (2003). Antioxidant properties of extracts from Alchornea laxiflora (benth) Pax and Hoffman. Phytotherapy Research,17(7): 713-716
Florl, C.L., Speth, C., Kofler, G., Dierch, M.P., Gunsilius, E. and Wurzner, R. (2003). Effect of increasing inoculum sizes of Aspergillus hyphae on MICs and MFCs of antifungal agents by broth microdilution method International journal of antimicrobial agents, , 21(3): 229-233.
Georgii, A. and Korting, H.C. (1991). Antifungal susceptibility testing with dermatophytes. Mycoses, 34(5?6): 193–199.
GOI (2011). Economic survey 2010-11, Union Budget. Statistical appendice: Economic survey.
Gupta, C., Amar, P., Ramesh, C., Uniayal, R.C. and Kumari, A. (2008). Comparative analysis of the antimicrobial activity of clove and cinnamon oil and extract on some food borne microbes. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 2(9): 247-251.
Gupta, D. (2013). Comparative analysis of spices for their phenolic content, flavanoid content and antioxidant capacity. American International Journal of Research in Formal, Applied & Natural Sciences, 4(1): 38-42.
Ilyas, M.B., Nasir, M.A. and Randhawa, M.A. (1982). Chemotherapy of plant diseases. Laboratory Manual: Deptartment of Plant Pathology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.
Ingold, C.T. and Hudson, H.J. (1993). The biology of fungi. Sixth Edition. Chapman and Hall, New York, pp 119–132..
Jagtap, G.P., Mali, A.K. and Dey, U. (2013). Bioefficacy of fungicides, bio-control agents and botanicals against leaf spot of turmeric incited by Colletortricum capsici. African Journal of Microbiological Research, 7(18): 1865-1873.
Kumar, S. and Gupta, O. (2012). Expanding dimension of plant pathology; JNKVV Res J. 46(3):286-293.
Kumar, J. and Saxena, S.C. (2009). Proceedings of the 21st training on Recent Advances in Plant Disease Managment, GBPUA&T Pantnagar, pp.1-3.
Lulekal, E., Kelbess, E., Bekele, T. and Yineger, H. (2008). An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Mana Angetu District, Southeastern Ethiopia. Journal of ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine,4(10):1746-1752.
Maregesi, S.M., Pieters, L., Ngassapa, O.D., Apers, S., Vingerhoets, R., Cos, P., Berghe, D.A. and Vlietinck, A. (2008). Screening of some Tanzanian medicinal plants from Bunda district for antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 119: 58–66.
McCutcheon, A.R., Ellis, S.M., Hancock, R.E.W. and Towers, G.H.N. (1994). Antifungal screening of medicinal plants of British Columbian native peoples. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 44(3): 157-169.
Nair, R., Kalariye, T. and Chanda, S. (2005). Antibacterial activity of some selected Indian Medicinal Flora. Turkish Journal of biology, 29(1): 41-47.
Persley, D. (1993). Diseases of fruit crops. Brisbane: Department of primary industries.
Rasooli, I. and Abyanek, M.R. (2004). Inhibitory effect of thyme oils on growth and aflotoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus. Food Control. 15(6):479-483.
Sasode, R.S. and Singh, P. (2013). Antifungal evaluation of Calotropis leafy extracts against some plant pathogenic fungi. Trends in Biosciences 6(1): 82-85.
Satish, S., Raveesha, K.A. and Janardhana, G.R. (1999). Antibacterial activity of plant extracts on phytopathogenic Xanthomonas campestris pathovars. Letter in Applied Microbiology, 28(2): 145–147.
Shafique, S. and Shafique, S. (2012). Biological control potential of Parthenium hysterophorus against Fusarium- a cause of Fusarium wilt in potato. International Conference on Applied Life Sciences (ICALS): 315-320.
Singh, P. and Srivastava, D. (2013). Phytochemical screening and in vitro antifungal investigation of Parthenium hysterophorus extracts against Alternaria alternate. International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 4(7). ISSN No.2230-8407.
Skrinjar, M.M. and Nemet, N.T. (2009). Antimicrobial effects of spices and herbs essential oils. Apteff, 40 (1-220):42.
Srivastava, D. and Singh, P. (2011). Antifungal potential of two common weeds against plant pathogenic fungi, Alternaria spcs. Asian Journal of Experimental Biological Sciences, 2(3): 525-528.
Strange, R.N. (1993). ‘Plant Disease Control: Towards Environmental Acceptable Methods’, Chapman & Hall, London.
Tarr, S.A.J. (1962). Diseases of sorghum, sudan grass and broom corn. The Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew.
Yusuf, N.A., Ibrahim, H. and Khalid, N. (2001). Antibacterial evaluation and tissue culture studies of selected Curama species University of Malaya.. NSF.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) © Author (s)