J. P. Essien B. S. Antia G. A. Ebong


The phytochemical, antibacterial and anticoagulase activities of Sida acuta against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were investigated. The phytochemistry of the plant leaves revealed that S. acuta is laden with antioxidative compounds with remarkable concentrations of saponins (0.772 mg/100g), flavonoids (0.112 mg/100g), alkaloids (0.076 mg/100g) and tannins (0.0541mg/100g). Their presence conferred a strong bactericidal effect on Staphylococcus aureus SS-1VC, Staph. aureus SS-2VM, Staph. aureus SS-3SW, Staph aureus SS-4OM, Staph. aureus SS-5BC Staph. aureus SS-6AF and Staph. aureus SS-7DS isolated from vaginal candidiosis, vaginal mycosis, septic wound, otitis media, buccal cavity, athletes foot and diarrheic stool respectively. Majority of the bacterium strains screened were sensitive to aqueous and methanol extracts of S. acuta leaves. All the strains were inhibited by the aqueous extract, but more susceptible were strains SS-2VM isolated from vaginal mycoses and SS-3SW from septic wound, which recorded 25mm and 24mm diameter of inhibition zones respectively, after treatment with 8.0mg/ml of the extract. However, much lower concentration (0.5mg/ml) of the extract was required to halt coagulase activity in both strains. The methanol leaf extract exhibited similar but stronger antibacterial and anticoagulase activities against the clinical isolates of Staph. aureus. Marked antibacterial inhibitory effects were observed against most strains tested but SS-6AF and SS-7DS (which exhibited comparatively lower susceptibility), with majority of the strains losing their
anticoagulase producing potential at concentrations as low as 0.5mg/ml of alcoholic extract. The strong anticoagulase activity of S.acuta, and it’s efficacy in inhibiting coagulase elaboration by Staph aureus especially Staph. aureus SS3SW isolated from septic wound forms the basis of it’s use in folk medicine for wound treatment.




Phytochemistry, Antibacterial and Anticoagulase, Sida acuta, Staphylococcus aureus

Benjamin, T. V. (1980). An approach to the study of medicinal plants with reference to Mitracarnus scrabra. Journal of African Medicinal Plants 3: 135-139.
Bergdoll, M S. (1970). Enterotxins In: Microbial Toxins, Vol. 3 (T. C. Montie, S. Kadia and S. J. Aji eds). Academic Press New York 265p.
Boham, B. A. and Kocipai- Abyazan, R. (1974). Flavonoids and condensed tannins from leaves of Hawaiian vaccinium vaticulatum and V. calycinium. Pacific Science 48: 458 463.
Brain, K. R., Fazil, F., Hardman, R. and Wood, A. B. (1968) The rapid quantitative determination of C25 epimeric steroidal sapogenins in plants. Phytochemistry 7:1815 - 1823.
Bulanda, M., Gruszka, M. and Heezko, B. (1989) Effect of mupitocin on nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Hospital Infection 19: 113-122.
Cheesbrough, A. (1985). Antimicrobial sensitivity testing, In: Medical Laboratory Manual for Tropical Countries Vol. II, Microbiology, 1 Edition, Butterworths pp196-205.
Cowan, S. T. (1985). Cowan and Steel’s Manual for the st Identification of Medical Bacteria, Cambridge University Press, London and New York pp 54-120.
Cruickshank, R., Duguid, J. P., Marmion, B. P. and Swain, R. H. A (1982). Tests for sensitivity to antimicrobial agents. In: Medical Microbiology vol. 2: The Practice of Medical Microbiolology. 2nd edition. Churchill Livingstone, pp 190-208.
Devipriya, S. and Shyamaladevi, C. S. (1999). Protective effect of quercetin induced cell injury in the kidney. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 1: 422-424.
Dhawan, B. N. (1997). Bioassay of plant products and development of new drugs. ‘The International Workshop on Cultivation, Processing and Conservation of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants’ 18th – 20th March 2007, Abuja.
Duguid, J. P., Marmion, B. P. and Swain, R. H. A. (1987). Mackie and McCartney Medical Microbiology, Vol. 1: Microbial Infections 13th edition English Language Books Society pp 235- 241.
Ekpendu, T. O. E., Anyogo, P., Ityough, D. and Akpa, F. (2000). Nigerian ethnomedicine and medicinal plant flora: The Benue experience – Part 3 Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine 4: 13 - 2.
Essien, J. P., Igiran, I. E. Udosen, E. D. and Asuquo, J. E. (1999). Chemical analysis and antibacterial activity of seed extract of ripe and unripe paw paw (Carica papaya) fruit. Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology. Nigeria 6(2) 1779 – 1784.
Essien, J. P. and Akpan, E. M. (2004). Antifungal activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis against ringworm pathogens. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, Nigeria 10 (1): 37 – 41.
Emele, F. E., Agbonlahor, D. E. and Emokpare, C. I. (1997). Antimicrobial activity of Euphorbia hirta leaves collected from two geographically dissimilar regions of Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Microbiology 11: 5-10.
Evans, W. C. (1998). Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy, Bailliere Tindall, London.
Famurewa, O. and Sonntag, H. G. (1982). Cell membrane structures as factors of pathogenicity in staphylococci. First communication: Biochemical and physiological differentiation of staphylococci. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie und Hygiene Abteilung 1 Original A 251: 463- 464.
Gabbaiani, G., Harschel, B. J. and Ryan, G.B. (1976). Granulation tissue as a contractile organ. Journal of Experimental Medicine 135: 719.
Harborne, J. B. (1984). Phytochemical Methods,2 nd Edition, Chapman and Hall, London pp20-22.
Henning, C. H., IIborgh, U., Lindrall, K., Marquauson, O., Sellers, J., Walin, S. and Ransjo, U. (1979). Comparison of Staphylococcus aureus carriage and skin infection rates in hospital and office employee. Journal of Hygiene 83: 437-444.
Holt, J. G., Krieg, N. P., Sneath, P. A. A., Staley, J. and Williams, S. T. (1994). Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th edn. Williams and Wilkins Publishers, Baltimore 787p.
Hughes, V.M. and Datta, N. (1983). Conjugative plasmids in bacteria ‘pre-antibiotic era’ Nature 320.
Iroegbu, C. U., Ejimofor, O. D. Okpala, C. N., Otti, N and Owuna, R. (1997). Staphylococcus aureus surveillance in Nsukka, Nigeria: II. Antibiotic sensitivity patterns of nasal isolates. Nigerian Journal of Microbiology 11: 15-19.
Locksley, R. M., Cohen, M. L., Quinn, T. C., Tompkins, L. S., Coyle, M. B., Kirihara, J. M. and Counts, G. W. (1982). Multiple antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Introducton, transmission and evolution of nosocomial infection. Annals of International Medicine 97: 317-324.
Maiere, C.M. and Chan, P.H. (2002). Role of superoxide dismutase in oxidative damage and neurodegenerative disorders. Neuroscientist 8: 323-324.
Mackay, D and Miller, A. L. (2003). Nutritional support for wound healing Alternative Medicine Review 8 (4): 359-377.
Obadoni, B. O. and Ochuko, P. O. (2001). Phytochemical studies and comparative efficacy of the crude extracts of some homeostatic plants in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria, Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 8b: 203 - 208.
Odoemena, C. S., Akpabio, K. E. and Nneji, C. P. (1998). Antibacterial activity of the essential oils from four selected varieties of Capsicum annuum. Nigeria Journal of Natural Products and Medicine 2: 49-50.
Oyagade, J. O. and Oguntoyinbo, F. A. (1997). Incidence of antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains among isolates from environmental and clinical sources. Nigerian Journal of Microbiology 11: 20-24.
Peirce, J. (2000). A Brief Introduction to Taxonomy and Nomenclature: Declared Plant Handbook – Weed Science. Weed Science Home India, pp 11 - 12.
Shanbhag, T. V., Chandrakala, S., Sachidananda, A., Laxminarayana, K., Smita, S. and Ganesh, S. (2006). Wound healing activity of alcoholic extract of Kaempferia galangal in Wistar rats. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 50(4): 384-390.
Stokes, E. J. (1975). Clinical Bacteriology 4th edition Edward Arnold Publishers pp 203-261.
Sofowora, A. (1984). Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa 1st edition John Wiley and Sons Publishers, New York pp 208-213.
Vassey, M. P. and Mann, J I (1978). Female sex hormones and thrombosis: Epidemiology aspects. British Medical Bulletin 34: 157-162.
Van-Burden, T. P. and Robinson, W. C. (1981). Formation of complexes between protein and tannin acid. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry , 1: 77 - 78.
Volk, W. A., Benjamin, D. C., Kadner, R. J. and Parsons, J. J. (1986). Essentials of Medical Microbiology 3rd Edition J. B. Lippino Cott Company, Philadelphia pp 373-381.
Research Articles

How to Cite

Phytochemistry, antibacterial and anticoagulase activities of Sida acuta against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. (2009). Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 1(1), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v1i1.20