Weeds are undesirable vegetation directly or indirectly inferring with human welfare. Conventional methods of weed control have failed due to one or other reason. Herbicide-resistant weeds are the main problem in weed control due to the number of weed biotypes resistant to herbicides that constantly increases by the continuous use of the same products for years. Development of alternative weed control methods is needed to help decrease reliance on herbicide use. Biological weed control is an alternative option for weed problems, particularly in agriculture and forestry. It is based on the use of natural enemies, particularly insects and pathogens to control weeds, as a sustainable, low cost and more environmentally acceptable method of weed control. One of the approaches to biological weed control using fungal phytotoxin applied in similar ways to conventional herbicides. Fungal phytotoxins are natural secondary metabolites produced by plant pathogenic fungi during host–pathogen interactions. They have received considerable particular attention for elucidating disease etiology, and consequently to design strategies for disease control. Due to wide differences in their chemical structures, these toxic metabolites have different ecological and environmental roles and mechanisms of action. This review aims at summarizing the studies on the possible use of fungal phytotoxin as a lucrative, novel source of secondary phytotoxic herbicidal compounds for management of broad spectrum, noxious and pernicious weeds.
Fungal metabolites, Natural metabolites, Phytotoxin, Weed control
Abbas, H.K. and Duke, S.O. (1997. Plant pathogens and their phytotoxins as herbicides. Pp. 1-20. In: Toxins in Plant Diseases Development and Evolving Biotechnology. Upadhyay, R.K. and Mukherjee, K.G. (Eds.) Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi
Ballio, A. and Graniti, A. (1991). Phytotoxins and their involvement in plant disease. Experientia, 47: 751-826.
Barbosa, L.C.A., Teixeira, R.R., Montanari, R.M. (2009a). Phytotoxic natural products asmodels for the development of crop protection agents. In: Epifano, F. (Ed.), Current Trends in Phytochemistry. Research Singpost, Kerala, pp. 21-59.
Barbosa, A., Souza, C. G. M., Dekker, R.F.H., Fonseca, R.C., Ferreira,D.T. (2002). Phytotoxin produced by Bipolaris euphorbiae in-vitro is effective against the weed Euphorbia heterophylla. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology,45: 233-240
Beck, J. J. Coat, J. R. Duke, O. S. and Koivunen, M. E. (2013). In: Pest Management with Natural Products, ACS Symposium Series 1141, ACS Division of Agricultural Inc., Washington, USA,
Cantrell, C.L., Dayan, F.E., Duke, S.O., 2012. Natural products as sources for newpesticides. Journal of Natural Products, 75: 1231-1242
Carson, R., (1962). In: Silent Spring. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt; Boston.
Charudattan, R.( 1991). The mycoherbicide approach with plant pathogens. In: Microbial Control of Weeds, ed D.O. Tebeest, Chapman and Hall, New York, USA, pp.24-57.
Daniel, J.T., G. E. Templeton, R.J., Smith, Jr., and W. T. Fox. (1973). Biological control of northern Joint vetch in rice an endemic fungal disease. Weed Sci.21: 303-307.
Dayan, F.E., Cantrell, C.L., Duke, S.O., (2009). Natural products in crop protection. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry 17, 4022-4034.
Dayan, F.E., Owens, D.K., Due, S.O., (2011). Rationale for a natural products approach to herbicide discovery. Pest Management Science 68, 519-528.
Demuner, A.J., Barbosa, L.C.A., Veiga, T.A.M., Barreto, R.W., King-Diaz, B., Lotina-Hennsen, B., (2006). Phytotoxic constituents from Nimbya alternantherae. Biochemical Systematic and Ecology 34, 790-795.
Duke, S.O. (1986). Naturally occurring chemical compounds as herbicides. In: Review of Weed Science. Vol 2. Weed Science Society of America. Champaign, Illinois. Pp. 17-44.
Duke, S.O., Dayan, F.E., Rimando, A.M., Schrader, K.K., Aliotta, G., Oliva, A., Romagni, J.G., (2002). Chemicals from nature for weed management. Weed Science 50: 138-151.
Duke, S.O., Romagni, J.G., Dayan, F.E. (2000). Natural products as sources for newmechanisms of herbicidal action. Crop Protection 19: 583-589.
Evidente, A. and Motta, A. (2001). In Bioactive Compounds from Natural Products, ed. C. Tringali, Taylor and Francis, London, pp. 473-525.
Evidente, A., Cimmino, A., Andolfi, A., Vurro, M., Zonno, M.C., Cantrell, C.L., Motta, A. (2008c). Phyllostictines A-D, oxazatricycloalkenones produced by Phyllostictacirsii, a potential mycoherbicide for Cirsium arvense bio-control. Tetrahedron 64: 1612-1619.
Evidente, A., Cimmino, A., Berestetskiy, A., Andolfi, A., Motta, A., (2008b). Stagonolides G-I and modiolide A, nonenolides produced by Stagonospora cirsii, a potential mycoherbicide for Cirsium arvense. Journal of Natural Products 71: 1897-1901.
Evidente, A., Cimmino, A., Berestetskiy, A., Mitina, G., Andolfi, A., Motta, A., (2008a).Stagonolides B-F, nonenolides produced by Stagonospora cirsii, a potential mycoherbicide of Cirsium arvense. Journal of Natural Products 71: 31-34
Evidente, A., Punzo, B., Andolfi, A., Berestetskiy, A., Motta, A., (2009). Alternethanoxins A and B, polycyclic ethanones produced by Alternaria sonchi, potential mycoherbicides for Sonchus arvensis biocontrol. Journal of Agriculturaland Food Chemistry 57: 6656-6660
García-Pajón, C. M. and Collado, I. G. (2003). Secondary metabolites isolated from Colletotrichum species. Nat. Prod. Rep., 20: 426-431
Graniti, A. Durbin, R. D. and Ballio. A. (1989). Phytotoxins and Plant Pathogenesis, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, NATO ASI Series, Series H, vol. 2
Hoagland, R.E. (1990). Microbes and Microbial Products as herbicides: An overview. Amer. Chem. Symp. Ser. No. 439, Washington, D.C., American Chemical Society: 2-52
Hoagland, R.E. (1999). Plant pathogens and microbial products as agents for biological weed control. Pp. 214-255. In: Advances in Microbial Biotechnology. Tiwari, J.P., Lakhanpal, T.N., Singh, J., Gupta, R. and Chamda, B.P. (Eds.) APH Publishing Co., New Delhi, India
Hoagland, R.E. (2001). The genus Streptomyces. A rich source of novel phytotoxins. In: Ecology of Desert Environments (ed. Ishwar Prakash) Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, India: 139-169
Möbius, N. and Hertweck, C. (2009). Fungal phyototoxins as mediators of virulence. Curr. Opinion Plant Biol.,12: 390-398
Palmer, C. S., J. A. Saleeba, and B. R. Lyon (2005).Phytotoxicity on cotton explants of an 18.5kDa protein from culture filtrates of Verticillium dahliae. Physiol. Mol. Plant. Pathol.,67: 308-318
Pandey, A. K. Rekha Sharma, Sadaf Quereshi and Ajay K Singh (2007).Herbicidal Potential of Cell Free Culture Filtrate of Helminthosporium sp FGCC#74 against Hyptis suaveolens. J. Basic. Appl. Mycol., 6(IandII): 89-93
Pandey, A. K., A. K. Singh, Sadaf Quereshi and Deepa Agrawal (2004b). Herbicidal activities of secondary metabolites of Strepomyces sp. against Hyptis suaveolens. J. Basic. Appl. Mycol., 3: 95-97
Pandey, A. K., G. M. Shrivastava, A. K. Singh and S. K. Verma (2003). Herbicidal potential of secondary metabolites of Sclerotium rolfsii against Parthenium: A preliminary observation. J. Basic Appl. Mycol., 2(1): 27-30
Pandey, A.K. (1999). Herbicidal potential of microorganism: Present status and future prospects. pp. 87-105. In: Microbial Biotechnology for Sustainable Developments and Productivity. Rajak, R.C. (Ed.) Scientific Publications, Jodhpur, Rajsthan, India
Pandey, A.K., Chandla, P. and Rajak, R.C. (2002). Herbicidal potential of secondary metabolites of some fungi against Lantana camara L. J. Mycol. Plant Pathol. 32 (1): 100-102
Passos, J.L., Barbosa, L.C.A., Demuner, A.J., Barreto, R.W., King-Diaz, B., Lotina-Hennsen, B., (2010). Effects of Corynesporacassiicola on Lantana camara. Planta Daninha 28: 229-237.
Pedras, M.S.C., Chumala, P.B., Jin, W., Islam, M., Hauck, D.W., (2009). The phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria brassicicola: phytotoxin production and phytoalexin elicitation. Phytochemistry, 70: 394-402
Rimando, A. M. and Duke, O. S. (2006). In: Natural Products for Pest Management, Symposium Series 927, ACS Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Inc., Washington, USA, ch. 1, pp. 2-21.
Saxena S., Pandey A.K. (2000). Preliminary Evaluation of fungal metabolites as natural herbicides for the management of Lantana camara. Indian Phytopathol., 53 (a): 490–493.
Saxena, Sanjai and A. K. Pandey (2001). Microbial metabolites as ecofriendly agrochemicals for the next millennium.Appl.Micrbiol.Biotechnol. ,55: 395-403
Schueffler, A. and Anke, T. (2014). Fungal natural products in research and development Nat. Prod. Rep., 31: 1425-1448
Singh, A. K. (2007). Isolation and characterization of herbicidal compounds from some selected fungi. Ph.D Thesis. Bioscience. R.D. University, Jabalpur
Strange, R. N. (2007). Phytotoxins produced by microbial plant pathogens. Nat. Prod. Rep.,24: 127-144
TeBeest, D. O., and Templeton, G.E. ( 1985). Mycoherbicides: Progress in biological control of weeds. Plant Dis. 69:6-10.
Thapar, R., A.K. Singh, Archana Pandey and A.K. Pandey (2002). Bioactivity of CFCF of Curvularialunata in Parthenium hysterophorus L. J. Basic Appl. Mycol.1(1): 126-129
Varejão, E. V. V., Demuner, A. J. , Barbosa, L. C. A. and Barreto, R. W. (2013). The search for new natural herbicides: Strategic approaches for discovering fungal phytotoxins. Crop Protection, 48: 41-50
Vikrant, P. 2002. Management of Parthenium employing secondary metabolites of Phomaherbarum FGCC#75. M. Sc. Biochemistry Dissertation, R.D.University, Jabalpur.
Vurro, M., Boari, A., Evidente, A., Andolfi, A. and Zermane, N. (2009). Natural metabolites for parasitic weed management. Pest Manag. Sci., 65: 566-571
Yuzikhin, O., Mitina, G., Berestetskiy, A., (2007). Herbicidal potential of stagonolide, a new phytotoxic nonenolide from Stagonospora cirsii. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55: 7707-7711.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) © Author (s)