The essential oils of Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemon grass) of the family Poaceae collected from different altitudes of the Uttarakhand region of Himalaya were subjected to detailed GC/MS analysis in order to determine the variation of concentration in their constituents. The GC/MS analysis led to the identification of 29 constituents forming 90.62 to 93.58% of their total oil content. The major constituents were citral, geraniol, citronellol,citranellal, linalool, borneol, ?-myrcene limonene, ?-caryophyllene, camphene, ?-cadinene, ? terpineol, neryl acetate and heptenone. Plants collected from 450 m altitude afforded citral (74.58 %) [a isomeric mixture of geranial and nearl] as a major constituents whereas only a less percentage of citral (64.21%, 68.29%) was found in the plants collected from two other altitudes i.e 250m and 1000m respectively. The geraniol, cam-
phene and neryl acetate were obtained in a high concentration form the plants collected at 250 m altitude but in the plant from two other altitudes, it was found only in less proportion. Similarly, ?-cadinene, ?-terpineol and camphene were the major constituents of plants at 1000m altitude but in other plants it was detected in very low concentration. Since, the concentration of plant constituents affected by altitude and season, medicinal
properties of such plants and their use in biological application would vary accordingly.
Altitudes, Citral, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Monterpene, Poacease
Badoni Ruchi, Semwal, Deepak Kumar and Rawat, Usha (2010),Composition variation of essential oils of Artemisia nilagirica and Artemisia Capillaris, growing in India. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 2(1): 30-33.
Bor, N.L. (1960). The Grasses of Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan, Pergamon Press, London, P: 767.
Davies D.W. (1990). Gas chromatographic retention indices of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes on methyl silicone and Carbowax 20M phases, J. Chromatograph., 503: 1-24.
Ganjewala ,D. (2009) Cymbopogon essential oil : chemical compositions and bioactivities, International journal of essential oil therapeutics, 3: 56-65.
Ganjewala ,D. and Gupta, A.K (2013) , Lemon grass (Cymbopogon flexuosussteud.) wats essential oil : overview and biological activites, RPMP 37 (II) : 233-274.
Gupta ,B.K. and Jain, N. (1978). Cultivation and utilization of genus Aromatic Cymbopogon in India, Indian Perfum. 22: 55-68.
Khanuja, S.P.S; Shasany, A.K.,Pawar, A.,Lal, R.K.(2005). Essential oil constituents and RAPD markers to establish species relationship in Cymbopogon Spreng. (Poaceae). Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 33:171-186.
Kulkarni, R.N., Mallavarapu R.R. and Ramesh S. (1992). The oil content and composition of new variants of C. flexuosus. J. Essent. Oil. Res., 4: 511-514.
Kulkarni, R.N., Baskaran, K . and Ramesh S. (2003). Five cycles of recurrent selection for increased essential oil content in East Indian Lemongrass: Response to selection, and effects on heritabilities of traints and inter trait correlation. Plant Breed., 122:131-135.
Kumar, S. Dwivedi, S, Kukreja, A.K., Sharma, J,R and Bagchi, G.D. (2000) Cymbopogon : The aromatic Grass Monograph, CIMAP Publication, Lucknow, India.
Lawrence B.M. (1988). Progress in essential oil: citronella oil, Perfum. Flav. 23: 80-82.
Mathela,C.S., Pant, A.K. ; Melkani A.B. and Pant A. (1986). Aromatic grasses of U.P. Himalaya: a new wild species as a source of aroma chemicals. Sci. Cult. 52: 342-344.
Padalia, R.C., verma.R.S., Chanotiya, C.S ., Yadav, A.(2011). Chemical fingerprint of the fragrant volatiles of Nineteen Indian Cultivars of Cymbopogon Spreng. 5(4) : 290-99.
Rao, B.L. (1997). Scope for Development of New Cultivars of Cymbopogons as a Source of Terpene Chemicals (In: S. S. Handa & M. K. Kaul (Eds), Supplement to Cultivation and Utilization of Aromatic Plants), National Institute of Science and Communication, New Delhi, India, P: 71.
Rao, R.R. (1994), Biodiversity in India (Floristic aspect) Bishan Singh, Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun, India, ISBN 8121100100.
Rao, B.R.R, Rajput, D.K., and Patel, R.P. (2009). Essential Oil Profiles of Different Parts of Palmarosa (Cymbopogon martini (Roxb.) Wats. Var. motia Burk, J. Essential Oil Res., 21.519-521.
Sangwan, N.S., Yadav, U. and Sangwan, R.S.,(2001). Molecular analysis of genetic diversity in elite Indian cultivars of essential oil trade types of aromatic grasses (Cymbopogon species). Plant Cell Rep., 20:437-444.
Soenarko,S. (1997). The genus Cymbopogon. Reinwardtia 9:225-226.
Verma, R.S., Laiq-Ur-Rahman, Verma , R.K., Chauhan, A., Singh. A, Kukreja. A.K., Khanuja, S.P.S. (2009) qualitative performance of Java citronella cultivars in Kumaon Himalaya, J. Med. Arom. Pl. Sci., 31, 321-325.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) © Author (s)