Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum is a devastating disease of peanut. The fungus causes severe yield loss in groundnut. Combinations of biocontrol agents that are compatible with each other is a viable approach to control the plant disease. The study was conducted to determine the beneficiary aspects of combining different species of Trichoderma and Pseudomonasfluorescens i.e Trichoderma viride+Pseudomonas fluorescens (Tv+Pf), Trichoderma harzianum+Pseudomonas fluorescens (Th+Pf) and Trichoderma viride +Trichoderma harzianum (Tv+Th) to control the Fusarium wilt in biochemicalparameters such as DNA, RNA, Amino nitrogen, phenols, dihydroxy and proline contents of Arachis hypogaea.L. Among the three combinations tested, Trichoderma viride + Pseudomonas fluorescens (1+2%) sprayed leaves provided greater suppression of Fusariumoxysporum by increasing the levels of DNA,RNA,Amino nitrogen contents resulting in the suppression of Fusarium wilt disease of Arachis hypogaea L.Maximum reduction of DNA, RNA, Amino nitrogen was observed in the infected Fusariumoxysporumleaves Phenol, Dihydroxy phenols and proline contents increase sharply in the treated plants treated with (Tv+Pf) as compared to the control plants. At the same time the other two combinations resulted in enhanced control in comparison with individual ones. This present study indicates that specific combination of Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas fluorescens could have the greater efficacy in the inhibition of pathogen in the biocontrol of Fusarium wilt disease as compared with individual strains.
Arachis hypogaea L, Fusarium wilt, Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas fluorescens
Alabouvette, Claude., Olivain,Chanta., Migheli,Quirico.,and Steinberg, Christian. (2009). Microbiological control of soil-borne phytopathogenic fungi with special emphasis on wilt-inducing Fusarium oxyporum. New Phytol. 184:529-544
Beckman,C.H. (2000). Phenolic-storing cells: keys to programmed cell death and periderm formation in wilt disease resistance and in general defense responses in plants.Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol, 57101–110
Bates,S., Waldren, R..P and Teare, I. D . (1973). Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies.Plant and Soil,39: 205-208
Beckman,C.H. (1987) The nature of wilt diseases in plants. Amer. Phytopathol. Soc. St, Paul MN., USA. 1175pp
Bray, H.G and Thorpe, W.V. (1954). Analysis of phenolic compounds of interest in metabolism. Meth. Biochem. Anal. 1 : 27-52
Burton,A.J. (1956) The study of the conditions and mechanism of the diphenylamine reaction for the colorimetric estimation of DNA. Biochem. J.,62 :315-323
Cavalcanti, F.R.,Resende,M.L.V.,Carvalho,C.P.S., Silveira,J.A.G.andOliveiraJ.T.A.(2006). Induced defense responses and protective effects on tomato against Xanthomonas vesicatoria by aqueous extract from Solanum lycocarpum infected with Crinipellis perniciosa. Biol. Control, 39:408–417.
Dakora, F.D., Aboyinga , R.A., Mahama,Y.and Apaseku,,J.(1987). Assessment of N2 fixation in groundnut (Arachishypogaea L.) and cowpea (Vignaunguiculata L. Walp) and their relative N contribution to a succeeding maize crop in Northern Ghana. Mircen, Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnol. 3:389–399
Dar, Mudasir Irfan., Mohd Irfan, Naikoo., Farha, Rehman., Fauzia, Naushin.,
and Fareed, Ahmad Khan . (2016 ). Proline accumulation in Plants: Roles in Stress Tolerance and Plant Decelopment In Osmolytes and Plants Acclimation to Changing Environment: Emerging Omics Technologies, pp-155-166
De Ascensao, A.R.F.D.C and Dubery, I,A. (2003). Soluble and wall-bound phenolics and phenolic polymers in Musa acuminata roots exposed to elicitors from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Phytochem., 63:679–686
Di'az,J., Silvar,C., Varela,M.M., Bernal, A and Merino,F. (2005). Fusarium confers protection against several mycelial pathogens of pepper plants. Plant Pathol., 54:773–780
Duthie G.G., Gardner, P.T., Kyle ,J.A. (2003). Plant polyphenols: are they the new magic bullet. Proc Nutr Soc., 62: 599–603
Fraga, C.G., Galleano, M., Verstraeten, S.V and Oteiza, P.I. (2010) Basic biochemical mechanisms behind the health benefits of polyphenols. Mol Aspects Med., 31:435–445
Grover, R.K . (1981). Present state of research and future trends in controlling diseases of oilseeds and pulses,In: PAI National Seminar on Increasing of Pulses and Oilseeds Production Through Plant Protection, (Vigyan Bhavan,NewDelhi ) 315 pp.
Guetsky , R., Stienberg, D., Elad, Y., Fischer, E. and Dinoor, A. (2002). Improving biological control by combining biocontrol agents each with several mechanisms of disease suppression. Phytopathol,, 92: 976-985
Hoda, H., El- Hendaway, Kamal A.and Abou Elyousr, M (2016). Combination of Different antagonistic bacteria to control of potato black leg disease caused by Pectobacterium atrosepticum under greenhouse and field conditions. Int. J. Phytopatol., 5:35-43
John, Rojan P.,Tyagi,R.D., Prévost,D.,Brar, Satinder K., Pouleur, Stéphan.and Surampalli,R.Y (2010) Mycoparasitic Trichoderma viride as a biocontrol agent against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. adzuki and Pythium arrhenomanes and as a growth promoter of soy bean. Crop Prot.,29:1452-1459.
Johnson, G. and Shoal, L. A. (1952). Relation of Chlorogenic acid to scab resistance in potatoes. Science, 115: 627-629.
Kemerait Jr Robert Chester (2000) A Characterization of Soil borne Fungi Associated With Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), Doctoral dissertation submitted to University of Florida.
Levine, C and Chargaff ,E (1951) Procedures for the micro estimation of nitrogenous phosphatide constituents. J. Biol. Chem., 192(2):465–479.
Mandavia, M.K., Gajera, H.P.,Khan,N.A. and Parameswaran,M.(2003) Inhibitory action of phenolic compounds on cell wall degrading enzymes: host pathogen interaction in Fusarium wilt of cumin. Indian J. Agri. Biochem, 16:39-42.
Manjula, K., Krishna Kishore, G., Girish, A. G. and Singh, S. D. (2004)Combined application of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma viride has improved the biocontrol activity against stem rot in groundnut.Plant Pathol., J, 20:75-80.
Mokgehle, S. N., Dakora, F.D.and Mathews, C. (2014) Variation in N2 fixation and N contribution by 25 groundnut (Arachishypogaea L.) varieties grown in different agro-ecologies, measured using 15N natural abundance, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environ., 195: 161–172.
Najar, A.G., Anwar,Ali., Masoodi, Lubna. and Khar, M.S. (2011)Evaluation of native biocontrol agents against Fusarium solani f.sp.melongenae causing wilt disease of Brinjal in Kashmir. J. Phytol., 3 :31-34.
Navas-Cortes, J.A., Hau, B.and Jimenez-Diaz, R.M(2000) Yield loss in chickpea in relation to development to Fusarium wilt epidemics.Phytopathol., 90: 1269–1278.
Nikam, P.S., Jagtap, G.P. and Sontakke, P.L. (2007) Management of chickpea wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cicero. Afri. Jour. Agri. Res., 2: 692-697
Ojha,Suprakash. and Chatterjee,NarayanChandra. (2012). Induction of resistance in tomato plants against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici mediated through salicylic acid and Trichoderma harzianum. J. Plant Prot. Res,.52: 220-225
PadmaSingh (2000). Permeability changes and mineral metabolism in the leaves of onion infected with Alternaria porri.Ad. Plant Sci.,13 :323-325
Panina,Y., Fravel, D.R., Baker, C.J.and Shcherbakova, L. A. (2007). Biocontrol and plant pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum-induced changes in phenolic compounds in tomato leaves and roots.J. Phytopathol.,155: 475–481
Rajeswari, P and Rupam Kapoor (2017). Combined application of different species of Trichoderma and Pseudomonas fluorescens on the cellulolytic enzymes of Fusarium oxysporum for the control of Fusarium wilt disease in Arachis hypogaea. Biosciences, Biotechnology,Research As.i, 14:1169-1176
Rudresh,D.L, Shivaprakash,M. K.and Prasad R.D. (2005). Effect of combined application of Rhizobium, phosphate solubilizing bacterium and Trichoderma spp. on growth, nutrient uptake and yield of chickpea (Cicer aritenium L.). Applied Soil Ecol., 28 :139–146
Rawal, V.M., Patel,U.S., Rao , G.N. and Desai,R .R .(1977). Chemical and biochemical studies on cataracts and human lenses III. Quantitative study of proteins, RNA and DNA. Arogya. J. Health Sci.,69-75
Sharavanan, T., Muthusamy, M. and Marimuthu, T.(2003) Development of integrated approach to manage the Fusarial wilt of banana. Crop Protect., 22: 1117–1123
Shilman ,F., Brand ,Y., Brand, A., Hedvat, I., Hovav,R. (2011) Identi cation and molecular characterization of homeologous ?9-stearoyl acyl carrier protein desaturase 3 genes from the allotetraploid peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Plant Molecular Biology Reporter, 29 : 232–241
Somasekhara,Y.M., Anilkumar,T.B and Siddara,A.H (1996). Biocontrol of pigeonpea wilt Fusarium udum. Mysore J. Agric. 30: 159-163
Szabados, L.and Savoure, A. (2009). Proline: a multifunctional amino acid. Trends Plant Sci,15:89-97
Talaviya,J.and Jadeja, K.B. (2015)Efficacy of bioagents alone and in combination microbial population against the wilt incidence of cumin.Journal of Biological cont, 29: 162- 166.
Tamietti,G., Ferraris,L., Matta. and Gentile,I.A. (1993)Physiological responses of tomato plants grown in Fusarium suppressive soil,J. Phytopathol, 138 : 66–76.
Verslues, P.Eand Sharma, S. (2010). Proline metabolism and its implications for plant-environment interaction. Arabidopsis Book 8 e0140 .
Woo,S.L.and Lorito,M. (2007). Exploiting the interactions between fungal antagonists, pathogens and the plant for biocontrol, In: Vurro M, Gresel J, eds. Novel biotechnologies for biocontrol agent enhancement and management. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer, 107-130.
Wu,Hong-sheng.,Yang,Xin-ning.,Fan,Jia-qin.,Miao,Wei-guo., Ling, Ning., Xu,Yang-chun., Huang,Qi-wei and ShenQirong.(2009). Suppression of Fusarium wilt of watermelon by a bio-organic fertilizer containing combinations of antagonistic microorganisms. Biocontr., 54 :287-300.
Zhang,Shusheng.,Raza,Waseem.,Yang,Xingming.,Hu,Jiang.,Huang,Qiwei.,Xu,Yangchun., Liu,Xinghai., Ran,Wei. andShen,Qirong. (2008). Control of Fusarium wilt disease of cucumber plants with the application of a bio-organic fertilizer.Biol. Fertil. Soils, 44 :1073-1080.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) © Author (s)