##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

Manjunath B T Jayaram Reddy

Abstract

Rapid urbanization in India has necessitated for undertaking remedial measures to minimize the alarming air pollution levels and consequent health effects. Promotion of vegetation that is tolerant to air pollutants is considered as an ecological sustainable strategy for mitigation of ill effects of particulate matters. In this regard the levels of four heavy metals viz. zinc (Zn) , lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and chromium (Cr) and its effects on antioxidants levels (Catalase activity), phytochemicals (Protein, Proline, Gallic acid)  and lipid peroxidation were studied in six commonly growing plants- O.sanctum, L. aspera, L.camara, V. rosea, B. spectabilis and R. communis from polluted (Zone I) and unpolluted (Zone 2) environments of Bangalore. Mean levels of heavy metals were comparatively higher in plants from polluted environments. Mean levels of Total protein (6.57±1.71 v/s 8.35±1.27 mg/g), gallic acid (15.79 ± 22.51 v/s 22.95 ± 25.66mg/g) and Catalase activity (66.72±17.95 v/s 78.94± 15.24 mU/g) was comparatively decreased in plants from polluted sites compared to non polluted control sites. Mean Proline (3.11±0.46 v/s 2.63±0.66 mg/g) and Malonaldehyde (19.07±13.86 v/s 16.62±13.49 nmol/g) levels, indicators of oxidative stress, was comparatively increased in plants from polluted sites. Positive correlation of lipid peroxidation in leaves was observed with heavy metals copper (r=0.961, P<0.005 in control sites; r=0.881, P<0.05 in polluted sites) and chromium (r=0.792 in control sites; r=0.758 in polluted sites). Zn levels showed statistically significant (P<0.05) positive correlation with gallic acid content in plant leaves (r= 0.871 in control sites: r= 0.937 in polluted sites). Total protein content showed significant negative correlation (P<0.005) with Cu (r=-0.846) and Cr (r=-0.943) in control sites, but non-significant negative correlation in plants from polluted sites. The study revealed that plants responded to stress induced by air pollutants and produced phenolic compounds to tolerate and mitigate the oxidative stress.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

Keywords

Air pollution, Catalase, Heavy metal, Lipid peroxidation, Proline

References
Aebi H. (1984). Catalase in vitro. Methods in Enzymology. 105:121-126.
Akanksha,S., Rupali G., and Rakesh P. (2017). Exogenous application of rutin and gallic acid regulate antioxidants and alleviate reactive oxygen generation in Oryza sativa L. Physiol Mol Biol Plants. 23(2): 301–309.
Axel, M., Birgit, S., and Wilhelm, B. (2004). Biotic and heavy metal stress response in plants: evidence for common signals.FEBS Letters.566 (1–3), pp 1-5.
Bates, L.S., R.P. Waldren and I.D. Tear (1975). Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant and Soil. 39: 205-207.
Bradford, M. M. (1976). A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical biochemistry, 72(1-2), 248-254.
Broadley, M.R., P.J. White, J.P. Hammond, I. Zelko, A. Lux. (2007). Zinc in plant. New Phytol., 173: 677-702.
Chatterjee, A. and Banerjee, R.N. 1999. Determination of lead and other metals in a residential area of greater Calcutta. The Science of the Total Environment, 227: 175-185.
Chen, L.M., C.C. Linard, C.H. Kao. (2001). Copper toxicity in rice seedlings:changes in antioxidative enzyme activities, H2O2 level and cell wall peroxidaseactivity in roots. Bot Bull AcadSinica, 41: 99-103.
Chiroma, T. M., Ebewele, R. O., &Hymore, F. K. (2014). Comparative assessment of heavy metal levels in soil, vegetables and urban grey waste water used for irrigation in Yola and Kano. International Refereed Journal of Engineering and Science, 3(2), 1-9.
Davies, K.J.A. (1987). Protein damage and degradation by oxygen radicals. I.General aspects. J Biochem Chem., 262: 9895-9901.
Draper HH and Hadley M. (1990) Methods Enzymol. 1990;186:421-31. Malondialdehyde determination as index of lipid peroxidation. Soil, 39: 205-207.
Harish M. (2012). A study on air pollution by automobiles in Bangalore city. Management research and practice Vol. 4 Issue 3 pp: 25-36.
Hodson M-J. (2012) Metals in action, Biochemical Society, oct 2012, 28-32.
Karntaka State Pollution control board (2016). Annual reports https://www.kspcb.gov.in/annual_reports.html
Kopittke PM, Blamey FP, Asher CJ, Menzies NW (2010). Trace metal phytotoxicity in solution culture: a review. Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol 61 (4), pp 945–954.
Li Qi, (2012) Lead pollution and its assessment of road side soils in Suzhou city, Advanced material research, 534, 235-238.
Monica B., María, S., Inmaculada B., Pilar, D., Antonio L. Josep L., Cristina L., Olga M., and Oscar v. (2010). Phenolic Compounds as Stress Markers in Plants from Gypsum Habitats. Bulletin UASVM Horticulture, 67(1), 44-49.
Nascimento C .W. A. do, DulaA., Baoshan X. (2006). Comparison of natural organic acids and synthetic chelatesat enhancing phytoexraction of metals from amultimetal contaminated soil. Environmental Pollution, 140, 114-123.
Pena, Liliana &Zawoznik, Myriam &Tomaro, María & Gallego, Susana. (2008). Heavy metals effects on proteolytic system in sunflower leaves. Chemosphere. 72. 741-6. 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.03.024.
Sayantan, D., and Shardendu. (2017). Phosphate amendments moderate the arsenate accumulation and its subsequent oxidative and physiological toxicities in Amaranthus viridisL. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section B: Biological Sciences. 87(4): 1343-1353.
Shanker, A.K., Cervantes, C., Loza-Tavera,H., and Avudainayagam,S.(2005). Chromium toxicity in plants. Environment International. 31: 739–753.
Swati, B., Guru Prasad, V., Tejeaswin, M and Jessen, G. (2018). Assessment of heavy metal contamination in tubers sold in local markets of Bangalore, Karnataka, India. International Research Journal of Environmental Sciences, Vol. 7(8), 24-26.
Tiwari S, Agrawal M, Marshall FM. 2006. Evaluation of ambient air pollution impact on carrot plants at a suburban site using open top chambers. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 119:15-30.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency USEPA (1982). Inductively Coupled Plasma- Atomic Emission Spectrometric Method for Trace Element Analysis of Water and Wastes-Method 200.7, Dec. 1982. EPA-600/4-79-020, revised March 1983.
Varalakshmi, L.R And Ganeshamurthy A.N (2012). Heavy Metal Contamination Of Water Bodies, Soils And Vegetables In Peri Urban Areas- A Case Study In Bangalore. J. Hort. Sci.. 7(1):62-67.
Wang, F., B. Zeng, Z. Sun and C. Zhu (2009). Relationship between proline and Hg 2+ -induced oxidative stress in a tolerant rice mutant. Arch Environ ContamToxicol, 56: 723-731.
Wei X, Lyu S, Yu Y, Wang Z, Liu H.Pan D and Chen, J. (2017). Phylloremediation of Air Pollutants: Exploiting the Potential of Plant Leaves and Leaf-Associated Microbes. Front. Plant Sci. 8:1318. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2017.01318.
WHO (1996) Permissible limits of heavy metals in soil and plants (Geneva: World Health Organization), Switzerland.
WHO (2006). WHO Air Quality Guidelines for Particulate Matter, Ozone, Nitrogen Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide. Geneva: WHO Press, World Health Organization.
Woo, S.Y., D.K. Lee and Y.K. Lee (2007). Net photosynthetic rate, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities of Erythrina orientalis in polluted and non-polluted areas. Photosynthetica. 45(2):293-295
Woodward, A.J. and BennettI.J. (2005). The effect of salt stress and abscisic acid on proline production, chlorophyll content and growth of in vitro propagated shoots of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture. 82: 189-200.
Citation Format
How to Cite
B T, M., & Reddy, J. (2019). Effect of air pollutants on some heavy metals and biochemical constituents of leaves of some plants at Bangalore city: A case study. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 11(1), 66-75. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v11i1.1961
More Citation Formats:
Section
Research Articles