Dayadeep Kaur Grewal Kiran Bains Harpreet Kaur


One hundred and two volunteer male subjects (40-60 years) were divided on the basis of abdominal obesity into three groups - No abdominal obesity i.e. Grade 0 with waist circumference <94 cm; Abdominal obesity i.e. Grade I with waist circumference: 94.1 to 101.9 cm and Grade II with waist circumference: >102 cm. The daily consumption of protein per kg body weight of the subjects was 1.28, 1.21 and 1.06g, the protein intake of the subjects with Grade II AO was significantly (p?0.001) lower than the subjects with either no AO or Grade I AO. The carbohydrate: protein ratio varied between a narrow range of 3.48 to 3.69 among the three groups indicating high carbohydrate diets of all the subjects. Energy and fat intake of the subjects in all the groups was much higher than the recommended dietary allowances. The ratio of animal: plant protein intake was almost similar in the subjects with no AO or with Grade I and II AO, the ratio being 0.74, 0.81 and 0.89, respectively.  The micronutrient intake of the studied group was fairly adequate. Out of eight major vitamins, six were more than adequate (>100%) or marginally adequate (>75%), while the intake of minerals namely calcium, iron and zinc was adequate or nearly adequate among the subjects in the all the three groups, thereby indicating a good mineral and vitamin status of subjects in the present study.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...




Abdominal obesity, Carbohydrates, Males, Protein, Waist circumference

Aasheim, E.T., Hofso, D., Hjelmesaeth, J., Birkeland, K.I. and Bohmer, T. (2008). Vitamin status in morbidly obese patients: a cross-sectional study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 87: 362-69.
Alkerwi, A., Sauvageot, N., Buckley, J., Donneau, A., Albert, A., Guillaume, M. and Crichton, G. (2015). The potential impact of protein intake on global and abdominal obesity: evidence from the observation of cardiovascular risk factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX) study. Public Health Nutr., 18: 1831-38.
Campos-Nonato, I., Hernandez, L. and Barquera, S. (2017). Effect of a high-protein diet versus standard-protein diet on weight loss and biomarkers of Metabolic Syndrome: A randomized clinical trial. Obes. Facts, 10: 238-51.
Chang, J. W., Chen, H. L., Su, H. J., & Lee, C. C. (2016). Abdominal obesity and insulin resistance in people exposed to moderate-to-high levels of dioxin. PloS one, 11(1) : e0145818.
Damms-Machado, A., Weser, G. and Bischoff, S.C. (2012). Micronutrient deficiency in obese subjects undergoing low calorie diet. Nutr. J., 11: 34.
Dehghan, M., Mente, A., Zhang, X., Swaminathan, S., Li, W., Mohan, V., Iqbal, R., Kumar, R., Wentzel-Viljoen, E., Rosengren, A., Amma, L.I., Avezum, A., Chifamba, J., Diaz, R., Khatib, R., Lear, S., Lopez-Jaramillo, P., Liu, X., Gupta, R., Mohammadifard, N., Gao, N., Oguz, A., Ramli, A. S., Seron, P., Sun, Y., Szuba, A., Tsolekile, L., Wielgosz, A., Yusuf, R., Hussein Yusufali, A., Teo, K.K., Rangarajan, S., Dagenais, G., Bangdiwala, S.I., Islam, S., Anand, S.S. and Yusuf, S. (2017). Associations of fats and carbohydrate intake with cardiovascular disease and mortality in 18 countries from five continents (PURE): A prospective cohort study. Lancet, 390: 2050-62.
Després, J.P., Arsenault, B.J., Côté, M., Cartier, A. and Lemieux, I. (2008). Abdominal obesity: The cholesterol of the 21st century? Can. J. Cardiol.,24:7D-12D
Feng, R., Du, S., Chen, Y., Zheng, S., Zhang, W., Na, G., Li, Y. and Sun, C. (2015). High carbohydrate intake from starchy foods is positively associated with metabolic disorders: a Cohort Study from a Chinese population. Sci. Rep., 5: 16919.
Galan, P., Viteri, F.E., Bertrais, S., Czernichow, S., Faure, H., Arnaud, J., Ruffieux, D., Chenal, S., Arnault, N., Favier, A., Roussel, A.M. and Hercberg, S. (2005). Serum concentrations of beta-carotene, vitamins C and E, zinc and selenium are in?uenced by sex, age, diet, smoking status, alcohol consumption and corpulence in a general French adult population. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 59:1181-90
García, O.P., Long, K.Z. and Rosado, J.L. (2009) Impact of micronutrient deficiencies on obesity. Nutr. Rev., 67: 559-72.
Gascón-Vila, P., Garcia-Closas, R., Serra-Majem, L., Pastor, M.C., Ribas, L., Ramon, J.M., Mariné-Font, A. and Salleras, L. (1997). Determinants of the nutritional status of vitamin E in a non-smoking Mediterranean population. Analysis of the effect of vitamin E intake, alcohol consumption and body mass index on the serum alpha-tocopherol concentration. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 51: 723-28.
ICMR (2010). Nutrient requirements and recommended dietary allowances for Indians. Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad.
Jung, C.H. and Choi, K.M. (2017). Impact of high-carbohydrate diet on metabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes. Nutrients, 9: 322. 
Kaur, G. (2018) DietCal: A tool for Dietary Assessment and Planning. Profound Tech Solutions. Department of Dietetics, AIIMS, New Delhi, India.
Kitabchi, A.E., McDaniel, K.A., Wan, J.Y., Tylavsky, F.A., Jacovino, C.A., Sands, C.W., Nyenwe, E.A. and Stentz, F.B. (2013). Effects of high-protein versus high-carbohydrate diets on markers of ?-Cell function, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipokines in obese, premenopausal women without diabetes: A randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care, 36: 1919-25.
Lee, K.P., Simpson, S.J., Clissold, F.J., Brooks, R., Ballard, J.W., Taylor, P.W., Soran, N. and Raubenheimer, D. (2008). Lifespan and reproduction in Drosophila: New insights from nutritional geometry. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 105: 2498-2503.
Ley, S.H., Hamdy, O., Mohan, V. and Hu, F.B. (2014). Prevention and management of type 2 diabetes: dietary components and nutritional strategies. Lancet, 383: 1999-2007.
Lin, Y., Bolca, S., Vandevijvere, S., De Vriese, S., Mouratidou, T., De Neve, M., Polet, A., Van Oyen, H., Van Camp, J., De Backer, G., De Henauw, S. and Huybrechts, I. (2011). Plant and animal protein intake and its association with overweight and obesity among the Belgian population.” Br. J. Nutr., 105: 1106-16.
Ludwig, D.S. (2000). Dietary glycemic index and obesity. J. Nutr., 130: 280-83.
Ludwig, D.S., Majzoub, J.A., Al-Zahrani, A., Dallal, G.E., Blanco, I. and Roberts, S.B. (1999). High glycemic index foods, overeating and obesity. Pediatr., 103: 261-66.
Merchant, A.T., Vatanparast, H., Barlas, S., Dehghan, M., Shah, S.M., De Koning, L. and Steck, S.E. (2009). Carbohydrate intake and overweight and obesity among healthy adults. J. Am. Diet. Assoc., 109: 1165-72. 
Nikbazm, R., Rafie, M., Ghanebasiri, M., Nourshahi, N., Sotoudeh, G., Eshranghian, M., Jalali, M. and Koohdani, F. (2013). The relationship between waist circumference and macronutrient intake in patients with type 2 diabetes in Tehran. Intl. Res. J. Appl. Basic. Sci., 5: 1021-24.
Park, K.B., Park, H.A., Kang, J.H., Kim, K., Cho, Y.G. and Jang, J. (2018). Animal and Plant Protein Intake and Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in a Korean Elderly Population. Nutrients, 10: E577.
Piper, M.D., Partridge, L., Raubenheimer, D. and Simpson, S.J. (2011). Dietary restriction and aging: A unifying perspective. Cell Metab., 14: 154-60.
Ponton, F., Wilson, K., Cotter, S.C., Raubenheimer, D. and Simpson, S.J. (2011). Nutritional immunology: A multi-dimensional approach. PLoS Pathog., 7: e1002223.
Roberts, S.B. (2000). High-glycemic index foods, hunger and obesity: Is there a connection? Nutr. Rev., 58: 163-69.
Romaguera, D., Ängquist, L., Du, H., Jakobsen, M.U., Forouhi, N.G., Halkjær, J., Feskens, E. J., Van der A.D., Masala, G., Steffen, A., Palli, D., Wareham, N.J., Overvad, K., Tjønneland, A., Boeing H, Riboli, E. and Sørensen, T.I. (2011). Food composition of the diet about changes in waist circumference adjusted for body mass index. PLoS ONE, 6: e23384.
Simpson, S.J. and Raubenheimer, D. (2009). Macronutrient balance and lifespan. Aging, 1: 875-80.
Via, M. (2012). The Malnutrition of obesity: Micronutrient deficiencies that promote diabetes. ISRN Endocrinol., 2012: 103472. 
Wallström, P., Wirfält, E., Lahmann, P.H., Gullberg, B., Janzon, L. and Berglund, G. (2001). Serum concentrations of beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol are associated with diet, smoking, and general and central adiposity. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 73: 777-85.
WHO (2008). Waist Circumference and Waist-Hip Ratio: Report of a WHO Expert Consultation World Health Organization, Geneva.
Citation Format
How to Cite
Grewal, D. K., Bains, K., & Kaur, H. (2018). A comparison of macro and micronutrient intake of adult men with different degrees of abdominal obesity. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 10(4), 1173–1179. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v10i4.1896
More Citation Formats:
Research Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)