The purpose of this study was to know the hepatotoxicity of ethanol in laboratory rats Rattus rattus and to observe the individual and combined phytotherapeutic role of five herbs viz. Arctium lappa, Curcuma longa, Piper longum, Plumbago zeylanica and Terminalia chebula through biochemical and histopathological parameters. Ethanol is commonly used as solvent, pharmaceutical, drugs and alcohol abuse. Lipidperoxidation, glutathione content, urinary hydroxyproline, collagen and histopathological studies showed hepatotoxicity of 1 ml/kg body
weight dose of ethanol and protective role of 100 mg/kg body weight dose of herbs. Histopathological changes observed in the liver of rats after ethanol treatment showed hepatitis, collagenesis, fatty infiltration, sclerosis, perilobular necrosis, cytoplasmic degeneration, enlarged bile canaliculi, hydropic degeneration, focal necrosis, binucleated hepatocytes and nuclear degeneration. Mild cytoplasmic degeneration, necrosis, collagenesis and hepatocytes regenerations were observed in rats treated with same dose of ethanol and herbal combination.
Ethanol treatment decreased the glutathione content, increased tissue malondialdehyde and collagen content, thus causing tissue injury and liver collagenesis. Urinary hydroxyproline level and biochemical parameters also showed the protective role of herbs against ethanol induced toxicity. Herbal combination i. e. 100ml/kg body weight from the mixture of five herbs given orally was found more effective than their individual role. Herbs and plants contain aromatic substances, secondary metabolites, alkaloids and polyphenols which act as antioxidant thus showing protective role.
Hepatotoxicity, Histopathology, Ethanol, Herbal Combination, Antioxidant
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