The study aims to explore the beneficial use of fly ash and its effectiveness as low cost adsorbent for wastewater treatment of Pulp and paper industry. A comparative study was also carried out for the better colour reduction of industrial effluent using fly ash and commercial activated carbon. Batch mode adsorption experiments were carried out to optimize the different experimental conditions like adsorbent dose, contact time, rotation per minute (RPM) and pH. The treatment showed that the removal efficiency of colour increased to 86 % with the increase in adsorbent dose (0.5 – 10 g), time (30–240 min), RPM (50 - 150) and pH (4–12) of pulp and paper industry wastewater. The removal efficiency of activated carbon was found to be 100 % using 1 g adsorbent dose of commercial grade activated carbon. The Scan Electron Microscope (SEM) results of the fly ash showed that the particles looked like somewhat spherical large particles. It was concluded that though the activated carbon was very efficient adsorbent in comparison to fly ash, the better solution for disposal of solid waste such as fly ash can be good a substitute as the adsorbent for the colour reduction of the paper mill wastewater.
Adsorbent, Activated carbon, Colour, Fly ash, Pulp and paper, Wastewater
Alinnor, I.J. and Nwachukwu, M.A. (2012) Removal of phenol from aqueous solution onto modified fly ash. International Journal of Research in Chemistry and Environment, 2(2): 124-129.
Amuda, O.S. and Ibrahim A.O. (2006). Industrial wastewater treatment using natural material as adsorbent. African Journal of Biotechnology 5:16.
Ansari, R. and Mosayebzadeh, Z. (2010). Removal of basic dye methylene blue from aqueous solutions using sawdust and sawdust coated with polypyrrole. J. Iran. Chem. Soc., 7: 339–350.
APHA, AWWA, WEF (2012). Spectrophotometric single-wavelength method, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water And Waste Water, (2120 C) (22 Edition)
APHA, AWWA, WEF (2012). Direct Air-Acetylene flame method, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water, (3111B) (22 Edition).
Aworn, A., Thiravetyan, P., and Nakbanpote, W. (2008). Preparation and characteristics of agricultural waste activated carbon by physical activation having micro-and mesopores. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 82(2), 279-285.
Chakradhar B and Shrivastava Sonia (2004) Colour removal of pulp and paper effluents. Journal of Chemical Technology, 11, 617-621.
Clara, J. and Sugiratha P. Kumar (2016). Study of SEM/EDXS and FTIR for flyash to determine the chemical changes of fly ash in marine environment. International journal of scienc and research, 5(7): 1688-1693.
Coates J.P., (1977) The IR Analysis of Quartz and Asbestos, Nelioth Offset LTD., Chesham England
De, Arnab Kumar (2008) Removal of colour of pulp and paper mill effluent by adsorption on coal fly ash." J. of Industrial Pollution Control, 24 (1): 1-8
Devi, R., and Dahiya R. P. (2008). COD and BOD removal from domestic wastewater generated in decentralised sectors. Bioresource Technology, 99(2): 344-349.
Dilek, F.B and Bese, S., (2001). Treatment of pulping effluents by using alum and clay-colour removal and sludge characteristics. Water SA, 27(3): 361-366.
Dimple, Master, and Mehta, Mehali (2014). Comparative Adsorption of an Acid Dye with Different Activation of Fly Ash. International Journal of Engineering Sciences and Research Technology, 3(6): 417-429.
Gupta, M. P. and Bhattacharya, P.K. (1985). Studies on colour removal from bleach plant effluent of a kraft pulp mill. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 35(1): 23-32.
Hamadi, N. K., Dong Chen, X., Farid, M. M. and Lu, M. G.Q., (2001). Adsorption kinetics for the removal of chromium (VI) from aqueous solution by adsorbents derived from used tyres and sawdust. Chemical Engineering Journal, 84(2): 95-105.
Hami, Malik L., M. A. Al-Hashimi, and M. M. Al-Doori (2007) Effect of activated carbon on BOD and COD removal in a dissolved air flotation unit treating refinery wastewater. Desalination, 216(1-3): 116-122.
Hlavay J., Jonas K., Elek S., Inezedy J., 1978 Characterization of the particle size and the crystallinity of certain minerals by infrared spectrophotometry and other instrumental method-II Investigation on quartz and feldspar, Clay Minerals, 26:139.
Igwe, J.C., Arukwe, U., Anioke, S. N. (2013). Isotherm and kinetic studies of residual oil adsorption from palm oil mill effluent (pome) using boiler fly ash.Environmental Engineering and Management Journal (EEMJ) .12 (3), 417-427.
Igwe, J.C., Onyegbado, C.O. and Abia, A.A. (2010) Adsorption isotherm studies of BOD, TSS and colour reduction from palm oil mill effluent (POME) using boiler fly ash. Eclética Química, 35(3): 195-208.
Karrasch B., Parra, O., Cid, H., Mehrenset, M., Pacheco, P., Urrutia, R., Valdovinosal, C. and Zaror, C., (2006). Effects of pulp and paper mill effluents on the microplankton and microbial self-purification capabilities of the Biobio River, Chile. Science of the Total Environment, 359(1): 194-208.
Khan, T.A., Ali, I., Singh, V.V. and Sharma, S. (2009). Utilization of fly ash as lowcost adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue, malachite green and rhodamine B dyes from textile wastewater. J. Environ. Protect Sci., 3: 11-22.
Lacorte S., Latorre A., Barcelo D., Rigol A., Malmqvist A. and Welander T. (2003). Organic compounds in paper-millprocess waters and effluents. Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 22(10), 725-737.
Liu, J., Tang, K., Qiu, Q., Pan, D., Lei, Z., and Xing, F. (2014). Experimental investigation on pore structure characterization of concrete exposed to water and chlorides. Materials, 7(9), 6646-6659.
Lu, C., Chung, Y. L., and Chang, K. F. (2006). Adsorption thermodynamic and kinetic studies of trihalomethanes on multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Journal of hazardous materials, 138(2), 304-310.
Malaviya, P. and Rathore, V.S. (2007) Seasonal variations in different physico-chemical parameters of the effluents of Century Pulp and Paper Mill, Lal Kuan, Uttarakhand. Journal of environmental biology, 28(2): 219-224.
Medhi, U.J., Talukdar, A.K. and Deka, S. (2011) Impact of paper mill effluent on growth and development of certain agricultural crops. 32(2):185-188
Mohammed M.A., Shitu A. and Ibrahim A.(2014). Removal of Methylene Blue Using Low Cost Adsorbent: A Review. Research Journal of Chemical Sciences 4(1): 91-102,
Mohan, D., P.S. Kunwar and K.S. Vinod. 2008. Wastewater treatment using low cost activated carbons derived from agricultural byproducts-A case study. J. Hazard. Mat., 152: 1045-1053
Patel, H. and Vashi R.T. (2010) Adsorption of Crystal Violet Dye onto Tamarind Seed Powder.E-Journal of Chemistry, 7(3): 975-984
Pokhrel, D. and Viraraghavan, T. (2004). Treatment of pulp and paper mill wastewater—a review. Science of the total environment 333.1: 37-58.
Popuri Ashok Kumar, Mandapati, Ramesh Naidu, PagalaBangaraiahandGuttikonda, Prashanti, (2016). Colour Removal from Dye Wastewater using Adsorption. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research 39.1:115-118.
Renge, V.C. and Khedkar, S.V. (2012) Removal of heavy metals from wastewater using low cost adsorbents: a review. Scientific Reviews and Chemical Communications 2(4)
Shivnarayan Singh, (2015) Study of Waste Water Effluent Characteristics Generated from Paper Industries. Journal of Basic and Applied Engineering Research 2(17): 1505-1509.
Sivamani, S. and Leena, G.B. (2009). Removal of Dyes from Wastewater using Adsorption-A Review. Int. J. Biosci. Technol 2(4): 47-51.
Thapliyal, B.P and Tyagi, S. (2015). Water pitch analysis- An innovative approach towards water conservation in pulp and paper industry. IPPTA, 27(3):59-66
Uddin, M. T., Rahman, Md. A., Rukanuzzaman, Md. and Islam, Md. Akhtarul (2017). A potential low cost adsorbent for the removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions. Appl .Water Sci., 7:2831–2842
U?urlu M, Karao?lu MH and Kula I (2006). Experimental Investigation of Chemical Oxygen Demand, Lignin and Phenol Removal from Paper Mill Effluents Using Three-Phase Three-Dimensional Electrode Reactor. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 15.4
Varma G, Singh, R.K. and Sahu, V. (2013). A comparative study on the removal of heavy metals by adsorption using fly ash and sludge: a review. International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering and Management 2.7 45-56.
WANG, ChunfengLI, Jiansheng, SUN, Xia, WANG, Lianjun, SUN, Xiuyun (2009). Evaluation of zeolites synthesized from fly ash as potential adsorbents for wastewater containing heavy metals." Journal of Environmental Sciences 21.1: 127-136.
Wang, S. and Wu, H. (2006). Environmental-benign utilisation of fly ash as low-cost adsorbents. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 136(3), 482-501.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) Â© Author (s)