S. Roy K Roy S. Sarkar A Rathod J. Hore


All the root inhabiting migratory endoparasitic nematode populations of Radopholus procured from banana crop of Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala were identified as Radopholus similis. Heat killed females were straight to slightly ventrally curved posteriorly. Female’s head was low, rounded, continuous or slightly setoff with the body contour. Females were 500-660 µm long and were comparatively longer than males. Males had button shaped head set off by a constriction; female with three to five lip annuli, four crenate and areolated lateral incisures, stylet 14-18 µm long with rounded knobs, vulva post-equatorial (58%), sometimes with slight protuberant lips, ovary paired and equally developed, oesophageal gland overlapped the intestine dorsally, tail elongate-conoid with narrowly rounded terminus. The stylet length (µm), width of stylet knob (µm), distance of excretory pore from anterior end (µm), distance from head to basal bulb (µm), lateral field structure, shape of stylet knob, head region, position of phasmid, tail shape with its terminus, morphometric values like m%, o% and v% and a, c and c´ ratios of females were stable (CV<12%) features. There is an existence of intra-specific variability in the morphological and morphometric features of R. similis. The main morphological diversity was observed with P% of male and female, b ratio of female and stylet length, distance of DEGO from stylet base, o% and T% of male. All the root inhabiting migratory endoparasitic nematode populations of Radopholus Thorne, 1949 procured from banana of Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala were identified as Radopholus similis (Cobb, 1893) Thorne, 1949. A high degree of intra-specific morphometric variability was observed with regard to the total body length (µm), body width (µm), stylet length (µm), distance of dosrsal oesophageal gland orifice (DEGO) from stylet base (µm), number of lip annuli, lip height (µm), distance from head to basal bulb (µm), distance of anus from anterior end (µm), tail length (µm), anal body width (µm), distance of phasmid from tail terminus (µm), number of lateral lines, width of lateral field (µm), b ratio and P % among females of R. similis. Morphometric features like m%, o% and v% of females of R. similis showed least variability. These can be considered as the stable morphometric characters for discrimination of females of R. similis. Ratios like ‘a’ and ‘c’ of females of R. similis were found moderately variable. The morphometric feature and of male i.e. distance from head to basal bulb (µm) was found least variable; while number of lip annuli and spicule length (µm) were moderately variable.  


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...




Burrowing nematode, Intra-specific, Morphology, Morphometry, Variability, Radopholus similis

Christie, J.R. and Perry, V.G. (1951). Removing nematode from soil. Proc. Helminth. Soc. Washington 18: 106-108.
Cobb, N.A. (1893). Nematode worms attacking sugar cane. Agric. Gaz. N.S.W. 4: 808-833.
Cobb, N.A. (1914). Antarctic marine free-living nematodes of the Shakelton expedition. Contributions to a Science of Nematology, pp. 3-33.https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009027150
de Maeseneer, J. andd’Herde, C.J. (1963). Méthodesutilisées pour l’étudeanguilluleslibres du sol. Revue Agriculture, Bruxelles 16: 441-447.
de Man, J.G. (1880). Die einheimischen, frei in der reinenErde und imsüssen Wasser lebendenNematoden. VorlaufigerBerichtund descriptive system atischer.
Elbadri, G.A.A., Geraert, E. and Moens, M. (1999). Morphological differences among Radopholus similis(Cobb,1893)Thorne,1949 populations. Russian Journal of Nematology 7(2): 139-153.
Esser, R.P., Taylor, A.L. and Holdeman, Q.L. (1984). Characterization of burrowing nematode Radopholus similis (Cobb, 1893) Thorne, 1949, for regulatory purposes. Nematology Circular,Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Nematology, pp. 219-237.
Haegeman, A., Elsen, A., De Waele, D. andGheysen, G. (2010). Emerging molecular knowledge on Radopholus similis, an important nematode pest of banana. Mol. Plant Pathol. 11(3): 315-323.
Jackson, G. V. H., Ruabete, T. K. and Wright, J. G. (2003). Burrowing and Lesion Nematode of Banana. Plant Protection service Secretariat of Pacific Community, Pest Advisory Leaflet no. -5.
Koshy, P.K. andSosamma, V.K. (2001). Nematode diseases of plantation crop and their management. Proc. Nat. Cong. on Centenary of Nematology in India-appraisal Future Plans. Division of Nematology, IARI, New Delhi, India, 5-7 December 2001, pp. 48-49.
Krishnappa, K. and Reddy, B.M.R. (1995). Nematode problems of banana in India pp.233–238. In.Nematode Pest Management - an Appraisal ofEcofriendly Approaches (Eds. Swarup, G., Dasgupta, D.R. and Gill, J.S.). NematologicalSociety of India, New Delhi, India, pp. 300.
Luc, M. (1987). Areappraisal of Tylenchina (Nemata). 7. The family Pratylenchidae Thorne, 1949. Rev. Nématol. 10(2): 203-218.
MacGowan, J.B. (1982). The burrowing nematode infecting black pepper. In: Nematology Circular No. 93, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Service, http://www.freshfromflorida.com/pi/enpp/nema/nemacirc/nem093. pdf; consulted: November, 2011.
Nair, K.P.P. (2010). 1. Arecanut (Areca catechu L.). In: The Agronomy and Economy of Important Tree Crops of the Developing World. Elsevier Inc., pp. 1-20. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-384677-8.00001-1
OEPP/EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization) (2008). Radopholus similis PM 7/88 (1). OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 38: 374–378.
Ramana, K.V. and Eapen, S.J. (2000). Nematode induced disease of black pepper. In: Kavindran, P. N. (ed.). Black Pepper, Piper nigrum. Harwood Academic, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp.269-295.
Roy, K., Roy, S., Sarkar, S., Rathod, A. and Pramanik, A. (2014). Diversity of migratory nematode endoparasites of banana. Journal of Crop and Weed 10 (2): 375-391.
Seenivasan, N., Manoranjitham, S.K., Auxilia, J. and Soorianathasundaram, K. (2013). Management of nematodes in banana through bio-rationale approaches. Pest Manage. Hort. Ecosystems, 19:38-44
Seinhorst, J.W. (1959). A rapid method for the transfer of nematodes from fixative to anhydrous glycerine. Nematologica 8: 67-69.
Thorne, G. (1949). On the classification of the Tylenchida, new order (Nematoda, Phasmida). Proc. Helmin. Soc. Washington 16: 37-73.
Uchida, J.Y., Sipes, B.S. and Kadooka, C.Y. (2003). Burrowing nematode on anthurium: recognizing symptoms, understanding the pathogen, and preventing disease. Plant Disease PD-24. Cooperative Extension Service, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Service (CTAHR), Honolulu, Hawaii.
Williams, K.J.O. and Siddiqi, M. R. (1973). CIH Descriptions of Plant Parasitic Nematodes, Set 2, No 27 Radopholus similis. CAB International,Wallingford (GB).
Xu, C.L., Li, Y., Xie, H., Huang, X., Wu, W.J., Yu, L. and Wang, D.W. (2014). Morphological and karyotypic differences within and among populations of Radopholus similis. ZooKeys 444: 69–93. doi:10.3897/zookeys.444.8186
Citation Format
How to Cite
Roy, S., Roy, K., Sarkar, S., Rathod, A., & Hore, J. (2018). Intra-specific morphological and morphometric variability of Radopholus similis (Cobb, 1893) Thorne, 1949. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 10(3), 841–846. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v10i3.1717
More Citation Formats:
Research Articles