Post-harvest fungal pathogens are reported to cause 10 to 25 percent losses in apple. Among various pathogens, white rot caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea is one of the important post-harvest diseases. Incidence of white rot was recorded between3.0-14.1 percent in important marketing yards of Himachal Pradesh. Golden Delicious variety of apple has been found to be most susceptible to white rot pathogen. Two botanical formulations by mixing equal quantity of leaves of Karu (Roylea elegans), Artemisia (Artemisia roxburghiana), Neem (Azadirachta indica), Bana (Vitex negundo), Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) and seeds of Darek (Melia azedarach) made in water and cowurine were evaluated against the white rot pathogen. Fruit dip for 30 minutes in cow urine based formulation did not allowed the disease development to form lesions in artificially inoculated apple fruits. Also, fruits dipped in cow urine based formulation followed by their storage in card board boxes at room temperature (25± 30C) for 30 days storage had minimum incidence (2.8%) of white rot disease. Therefore, dip treatment of apple fruits with different bio -resources including water and cow urine based botanical formulation separately proved effective in the management of white rot (Botryosphaeria dothidea) of apple.
Apple, Botanicals, Botryosphaeria dothidea, Lesion size, White rot
Anonymous, (2013). Crop production statistics. Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations, Rome.
Biggs, A. R. and Miller, S. S.(2003). Relative susceptibility of selected apple cultivars to Botryosphaeria dothidea. HortScience 38 (3): 400-403
Brown, A. E. (1984). Relationship of endopolygalacturonase inhibitor to the rate of fungal rot development in apple fruits. Phytopathol. Z., 111: 122-132
Cosoveanu, A., Cabrera, R., Marino, C. G., Iacomi, B. M.and Coloma, A. G. (2013). Antifungal activity of plant extracts against pre and postharvest pathogens. Scientific Papers. Series A. Agronomy, Vol. LVI: 206-211
Dharma, K.,Rajesh, R., Chauhan, R. S. and Simmi, T. (2005). Panchgavya (Cowpathy): an overview,” International Journal of Cow Science, 1(1):1–15
Eckert, J.W. and Ogawa, J. M. (1988). The chemical control of postharvest diseases: deciduous fruit, berries, vegetables and root tuber crops. Annu Rev Phytopathol 26: 433-446
Freeman, S., Katan, T. and Shabi, E. (1996). Differentiation between Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes from avocado and almond using molecular and pathogenicity tests. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62: 1014-1020
Fulkerson, J. F. (1960).Botryosphaeria ribis and its relation to rot of apple. Phytopathology 50: 394-398
Gomez, K. A.and Gomez, A. A. (1983). Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research. 2nd edition. John Willey and Sons Inc, New York, USA. p.680
Ikeura, H., Somsak, N., Kobayashi, F., Kanlayanarat, S.and Hayata, Y.(2011). Application of selected plant extracts to inhibit growth of Penicillium expansum on apple fruits. Plant Pathol. J.10: 79-84
Ilyas, M. B., Ghazanfar, M. U., Khan, M. A., Khan, C. A. and Bhatti, M. A.R. (2007). Post-harvest losses in apple and banana during transport and storage. Pak J Agri Sci 44(3): 534-539
Ivic D, Server Z. and Milicevic T. (2012). Estimation of economic loss due to postharvest diseases of apple (cv. Idared) during four seasons.Pomologia Croatica18:1-4
Jadesha, G., Haller, H., Mondhe, M. K., Hubballi, M., Prabakar, K and Prakasam, V.(2012). Application of plant extracts induced the changes in biochemical composition of banana fruits. Ann Biol Res 3 (11): 5133-5140
Jijakli, M. H., and Lepoivre, P. (2004). State of the art and challenges of post-harvest disease management in apples. Fruit and Vegetable Diseases-Volume 1, Mukerji K G ed. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands, pp: 59-94
Kasso, M. and Bekele,A. (2016). Post-harvest loss and quality deterioration of horticultural crops in Dire Dawa Region, Ethiopia.Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences.1-9
Kaul, J. L. (1979). Studies on important postharvest diseases of apple caused by fungi and their control, Ph.D. Thesis, Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishva Vidyalaya, Solan (HP), India p. 214
Khan, N. A., Ahmad, M. and Ghani, M. Y.(2010).Botryosphaeria dothidea associated with white rot and stem bark canker of apple in Jammu and Kashmir. Appl. Biol. Res 12(2): 69-63
Mandavgane, S. A., Rambhal, A. K. and Mude, N. K. (2005). Development of cow urine based disinfectant,” Natural Product Radiance, (4): 410–412
McCollum, T. G. (2002). Molecular biology of host-pathogen interactions in harvested horticultural crops. HortScience 37 (2): 456-458
McVay J. R., Walgenbach J. F., Sikora, E, J. and Sutton, T. B. (1993). A growers guide to apple insect and diseases in South-East. Alabama Cooperative Extension System. Auburn University Circle, p. 838
Montealegre, J. R., Lopez, C., Stadnik, M. J., Henriquez, J. L., Herrera, R., Polanco, R., Piero, R. M.and Perez L. M.(2010). Control of grey rot of apple fruits by biologically active natural products. Trop Plant Pathol 35(5): 271-276
Okigbo, R. N and Ogbomaya, V. O. (2006).Antifungal effects of two tropical plant leaf extracts (Ossimum gratissimum and Aframomum meleguata) on post-harvest yam (Diascorea spp.) rot. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 5: 727-731
Onyeani, C. A., Osunlaja, S. O., Oworu, O. O. and Joda, A. O. (2012). Evaluation of effect of aqueous plant extract in the control of storage fungi. IJRST 1(6): 76-79
Pathak,M. L and Kumar, A.(2003).Cow praising and importance of Panchyagavya as medicine. Sachitra Ayurveda, 5: 56–59.
Putterill, V. A. (1919). A new apple tree canker. S AFR J SCI 16: 258-271
Raj, H. and Sharma, R. L.(2013). Bioefficacy of aqueous- and cow urine based bioformulations against grey mould of strawberry. J Plant Pathol 43(3): 319-322
Raj, H. and Tomar, M. (2013). Use of aqueous and cow urine based plant extracts against post-harvest diseases of apple. J Plant Pathol43 (2): 246-249
Rosenberger, D.A. (1997). Recent research and changing options for controlling postharvest decays of apples. Proc. Harvesting, Handling and Storage Workshop. Northeast Reg. Agric. Eng. Serv. Publ. NRAES-112. Cornell University, Ithaca, NY
Spotts, R. A., Cervantes, L. A. and Mielke, E. A. (1999). Variability in postharvest decay among apple cultivars. Plant Dis., 83: 1051- 1054.
Sutton, T. B. (1990). White rot. In: Compendium of Apple and Pear Diseases. Jones A L, Aldwinckle H S eds., American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, Minnesota pp. 16-18
Torres, R., Valentines, M. C., Usall, J., Vinas, I. and Larrigaudiere, C. (2003). Possible involvement of hydrogen peroxide in the development of resistance mechanisms in ‘Golden Delicious’ apple fruit. Postharvest Biol. Technol., 27: 235- 242.
Wadia, K. D. R., Manoharachary, C. and Janaki, C. H. (1983). Fruit surface mycoflora of Vitis vinifera L. and Capsicum annum L. in relation to their fruit rot diseases. Proceeding of Indian National Science Acadamy B46: 371-379
Wang, J., Li, J., Cao, Jand Jiang, W.(2010). Antifungal activities of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel extracts on postharvest diseases in fruits. Afr. J. Microbiol. Res.4 (11): 1100-1104
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) © Author (s)