Three biocontrol agents viz., Trichoderma viride, T. virens and T. harzianum were evaluated to test the antagonism against Sclerotium rolfsii under in vitro conditions. All the three antagonistsâ€™ viz., T. viride, T. virens and T. harzianum have shown the potential of parasitizing the growth of Sclerotium rolfsii in vitro. The rate of inhibition was fastest in T. harzianum (63.60%) followed by T virens (51.5 %). Least inhibition was recorded in T. viride (50.85% ) after 72 hours of incubation. However, T. viride showed the highest (91.31%) reduction in sclerotia formation followed by T. harzianum (84.92%) and T. virens (84.29%) after 15 days of incubation. The volatile compounds from Trichoderma viride were found most effective in suppressing the mycelial growth (51.11%) and sclerotia production (95.90%) of the target pathogen. The culture filtrate from both T. harzianum and T. viride (15% concentration) was found very effective in inhibiting the radial growth (57.46 and 49.62%) and sclerotia formation (98.20 and 99.83%) of Sclerotium rolfsii. The antagonists such as T. harzianum and T. viride can be used as a bio-control agent against S. rolfsii under field condition.
Collar rot, Efficacy, Lentil, Sclerotium rolfsii, Trichoderma
Amin, F., Razdan, V. K., Bhat, F. A. and Saba, B. M. K. (2010). Potential of Tricoderma species as biocontrol agents of soil borne fungal propagules. Journal of Phytology 2(10): 38â€“41.
Anonymous. (2015). Area and production of India. http://indiastat.com.
Bhagat, S., Birah, A., Kumar, R., Yadav, M.S. and Chattopadhyay, C. (2014). Plant disease management: prospects of pesticides of plant origin. Advances in Plant Biopesticides. 119-129.
Chaurasia, S., Chaurasia. A.K., Chaurasia, S. (2013). Factors affecting the growth and sclerotial production in Sclerotium rolfsii causing foot rot of brinjal. Ind. J Fund. & Appl. Life Sci. 3(2): 73-84.
Dennis, C. and Webster, J. (1971a). Antagonistic properties of species groups of Trichoderma II. Production of volatile antibiotics. Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soci. 57: 41-48.
Dennis, C. and Webster, J. (1971b). Antagonistic properties of species groups of Trichoderma I. Production of non volatile antibiotics. Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soci 57: 25-39.
Dubey, S. C. Suresh, M. and Singh, B. (2007). Evaluation of Trichoderma species against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris for integrated management of chickpea wilt. Biological Control. 40: 118-127.
Dubey, S.C. and Suresh, M. (2006). Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers for Trichoderma species and antagonism against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Ciceris causing chickpea wilt. Journal of Phytopathology. 154: 663-669.
Hanan, I. M. and Mohamed, O. I. (2014). The efficacy of Trichoderma species and Bacillus isolates in the control of chickpea wilt pathogens. Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 3(5): 346-351.
Hemanth, G., Kumar P. K. R., Niharika P. S. and kolli, S. K. (2016). Fungicides effect on soil micro flora in Tekkali Mandal, Srikakulam (Dist.). International Journal of Research and Development in Pharmacy and Life Sciences. 5(4): 2245-2250.
Jegathambigai, V., R. S. Wijeratnam W. and Wijesundera, R.L.C. (2010). Effect of Trichoderma sp. on Sclerotium rolfsii, the causative agent of collar rot on Zamioculcas zamiifolia and an on farm method to mass produce Trichoderma species. Plant Pathology Journal, 9 (2): 47-55.
Khalequzzaman, K. M. (2016). Control of foot and root rot of lentil by using different management tools. ABC Journal of Advanced Research. 5(1): 2312-203.
Mondal, M. M. A., Puteh, A. B., Malek, M. A. and Kabir, A. K. M. R. (2013b). Flowering pattern and reproductive efficiency in lentil. Legume Research, 36: 153-157.
Mortan, D. T. and Straube, N. H. (1955). Antagonistic and stimulatory effects of micro organis Sclerotium rolfsii. Phytopathology 45: 419-420.
Agamani, P., Bhagat, S., Biswas, M. K. and Viswanath, K. (2017). Effect of Volatile and Non Volatile Compounds of Trichoderma spp. against soil borne diseases of chickpea. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 6(7):1486-1491.
Pan, S. and Bhagat, S. (2008). Characterization of antagonistic potential of Trichoderma species against some soil borne plant pathogens. Journal of Biological Control. 22: 43-49.
Pan, S. and Jash, S. (2009). Production and regulation of cell wall degrading hydrolytic enzymes in mycoparasitic Trichoderma species. Journal of Mycology and Plant 39(2): 208-215.
Pan, S., Mukherji R. and Bhagat, S. (2013). Evaluation of Trichoderma species against soil borne plant pathogens. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences. 21(1): 176-223.
Reddy, N. G., Thahir, B. S. and. Eswara, R. N. P. (2013). Evaluation of Trichoderma Sp. against Rhizoctonia bataticola Causing Dry Root Rot of Chick Pea (Cicer arietinum L.).Progressive Research 8: 572-574.
Rao, S. N. and Kulkarni, S. (2003). Effect of Trichoderma spp. on growth of Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. Journal of Biological Control, 17: 181-184
Sain, S. K. and Pandey, A.K. (2016). Spectrum of three isolates of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai against important fungal diseases of tomato. 6th International Conference Plant Pathogens and People. Feb.23-27, New delhi, India.
Singh, S.R., Singh, S.K. and Pandey, R.K. (2012). Integrated management of collar rot of lentil caused by Sclerotium rolfsii. International Journal of Plant Protection. 5(2): 386-390.
Stoppacher, N., Kluger, B., Zeilinger, S., Krska, R. and Schuhmacher, R. (2010). Identification and profiling of volatile metabolites of the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma atroviride by HS-SPME-GCMS. Journal of Microbiology and Methods. 81(2): 187-193.
Sundara Moorthy, S. and Bala Baskar, P. (2013). Biocontrol efficacy of Trichoderma species against wilt of tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Journal of Applied Biology and Biotechnology. 1(3): 36-40.
Vey, A., Hoagland, R., E. and Butt, T. M. (2001). Toxic metabolites of fungal biocontrol agents. Fungi as biocontrol agents: Progress, Problems and Potential. Butt, T.M., Jackson, C.N. (Eds). 311-346 CAB international, Bristol.
Vincent, J. M. (1947). Distortion of fungal hyphae in presence of certain inhibitors. Nature, 154: 850.
Waseem, R., Muhammad, F., Sohail, Y., Faheem, U. R. and Muhammad, Y. (2013). Volatile and nonvolatile antifungal compounds produced by Trichoderma harzianum SQR-T037 suppressed the growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum. Science letters. 1(1): 21-24.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) Â© Author (s)