Malaria is a protozoan disease and one of the leading causes of illness and deaths in the world. Malaria is predominant in the tropics and subtropics, and it is reported that malaria kills a child every minute. In Tanzania at least 40% of outpatient attendances are attributable to malaria. This study assessed the impact of Insecticidetreated nets (ITNs) + indoor residual spraying (IRS) in Geita district, IRS alone in Nyangâ€™hwale district and compared the two interventions between the two districts of Tanzania. In a retrospective cross-sectional study, district malaria surveillance data for five years (2011- 2015) and two years (2013-2014) were collected and analyzed for Geita and Nyangâ€™hwale districts respectively. A total of 1,387,805 ITNs were distributed and 435,719 households sprayed between 2011 and 2015, however IRS coverage was uneven. There was evidence of malaria prevalence reduction from 53% to 12% in Geita district within the five years of intervention. The ITNs coverage was associated with a reduction in malaria prevalence while IRS was not. In Nyangâ€™hwale district malaria cases increased from 103,788 to 123,337 cases in 2013 and 2014 respectively, and were accompanied by decreased households sprayed from 49,554 to 41,632. Furthermore, only ITNs had a significant effect in the combination. However, even at 100% ITNs coverage, the estimated probability of finding malaria cases would not be zero. Therefore, based on this study, the use of the two interventions that both use pyrethroids in combination has insignificant benefits and should be avoided unless IRS insecticide is not a pyrethroid.
Geita and Nyangâ€™hwale districts, Insecticide-treated nets, Indoor residual spraying, Tanzania
Corbel V., Akogbeto, M., Damien, G.B., Djenontin, A., Chandre, F., Rogier, C., Moiroux, N., Chabi, J., Banganna, B., Padonou, G.G. and Henry, M. (2012). Combination of malaria vector control interventions in pyrethroid resistance area in Benin: a cluster randomized controlled trial. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 12(8): 617-626. (Accessed on 09/04/2016.
Graham, M. (2011). Integrated vector management: controlling vectors of malaria and other insect vector-borne diseases, First Edition, 163 pp. West Sussex, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hemingway, J. (2014). The role of vector control in stopping the transmission of malaria; threats and opportunities. Philosophical Transaction of Royal Society, B.369: 20130431
Insecticide Resistance Action Committee. (2011). A manual on prevention and management of insecticides resistance in vectors of public health importance. Second Edition
Jo L. and Kleinschmidt, I. (2013). Combining malaria vector control interventions: some trial design. Pathogens and Global Health, 107(1): 1-4
Kamuliwo M., Chanda, E., Haque, U., Mwanza- Ingwe, M., Sikaala, C., Katebe- Sakala, C., Mukonka, V.M., Norris, D.E., Smith, D.L., G. E. Glass, G.E. and M.J.William, M.J. (2013). The changing burden of malaria and association with vector control interventions in Zambia using district â€“ level surveillance data, 2006-2011. Malaria Journal,12: 437
Kigozi R., Baxi, S.M., Gasasira, A., Sserwanga, A., Kakeeto, S., Nasr, S., Rubahika, D., Dissanayake, G., Kamya, M.R., Filler, S. and Dorsey. G. (2012). Indoor residual spraying of insecticide and malaria in high transmission intensity area of Uganda. PLoS One. 7(8): e42857
Kim D., Kristen, F. and Randall, K. (2012). Reduction of malaria prevalence by indoor residual spraying: a meta- regression analysis. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 87 (1): 117- 124.
Kleinschmidt I., Schwabe, C., Shiva, M., Segura, J.L., Sima, V., Mabunda ,S.J.A. and Coleman M. (2009). Combining indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated nets interventions. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 81(3): 519-524
Mashauri F.M., Kinung'hi, S. M., Kaatano, G. M., Magesa, S. M., Kishamawe, C., Mwanga, J. R., Nnko, S. E., Malima, R. C., Mero, C. N. and Mboera L. E. G. (2013). Impact of indoor residual spraying of lambda-cyhalothrin on malaria prevalence and anemia in an epidemic-prone district of Muleba, North-Western Tanzania. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 88 (5): 841â€“849
Mboera L.E.G., Mazigo, H. D., Rumisha S F. and Randall K. A. (2013). Towards malaria elimination and implication for vector control, disease management and livelihoods in Tanzania. Malaria World Journal, 4:19.
Moyer J. D. and Graham E. (2012). Malaria no more expectations for eradication. African Futures Brief; International Futures No. 5
Okonko, I.O, Soleye, F.A., Amusan, T.A., Ogun, A.A., Udeze, O.A., Nkang, I.O.A., Ejembi, J. and Faleye, C.O.T. (2009). Prevalence of malaria plasmodium in Abekuta, Nigeria. Malaysian Journal of Microbiology, 5(2): 113-118.
Okumu O.F. and Moore S.J. (2011). Combining indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated nets for malaria control in Africa: A review of possible outcomes and outline of suggestions for the future. Malaria Journal, 10:208
PMI (2014). Tanzania, malaria operational FY 2014. http://www.pmi.gov/docs/default-source/default-document-libray/malaria-operational-plans/fy14/tanzania_mop_fy14.pdf?sfvrsn=12.Presidentâ€™s Malaria Initiative. (Accessed 08/04/2016)
Raghavendra K., Ghosh, S.K., Eapen, A., Tiwari, S.N., Satyanarayan, T.S., Ravindran, J., Sreehari, U. and Dash, A.P. ( 2011). (ICON 10 CS) Field evaluation of lambda-cyhalothrin (ICON 10 CS) indoor residual spraying against Anopheles culicifacies in India.â€ Journal of Vector Borne Diseases, 48:18- 26
Recognizing mutual benefits through public-private partnerships in Tanzania. The Geita experience; success story. http;//www.rti.org/files/TVCSP-Success-Geita-Tanzania. (Accessed 15.08.2015).
Simon C., Moakofhi, K., Mosweunyane, T., Jibril, H.B., Nkomo, B., Motlaleng, M., Ntebela, D.S., Chanda, E. and Haque, U. (2013). Malaria control in Botswana, 2008â€“2012: The path towards eliminationâ€ Malaria Journal, 12 (1): 458
United Republic of Tanzania (2012). Tanzania national census.
United Republic of Tanzania. (2013). Tanzania HIV/AIDS and malaria indicator survey 2011-12: key findings. Dar- es- Salaam, Tanzania.
West P.A., Protopopoff, N., Wright, A., Kivaju, Z., Tigererwa, R., Mosha, F. W., Kisinza, W., Rowland, M. and Kleinschmidt I. (2014). Indoor residual spraying in combination with insecticide-treated nets compared to insecticide-treated nets alone for protection against malaria: a cluster randomised trial in Tanzania. PLoS Medicine, 11(4), e1001630.
WHO (2016). Malaria fact sheet. http:/www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs094/en/ (accessed on 09/04/2016)
WHO (2014c). Recommended long-lasting insecticidal nets. http;//www.who.int/whopes/quality/newspecif/en/ (Accessed on 15/04/2016)
WHO (2015). World Malaria Programme; World Malaria Report
WHO (2014b). Review of current evidence on combining indoor residual spraying and long-lasting insecticidal nets. Malaria policy advisory committee meeting.http://www.who.int/malaria/mpac/background-combining-irs-llinsmar2014.pdf. (accessed on 09/04/2016)
WHO (2014d). Review of current evidence on combining indoor residual spraying and long-lasting insecticidal nets. Malaria policy advisory committee meeting.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) Â© Author (s)