Phenology, the timing of various events in a species life cycle, is an important life history trait for both plants and animals. Dharali site situated in the highest altitudinal range i.e. 2800-3300 m above msl and showed the initiation of all the phenological characteristics i.e. leaf fall, leaf emergence, appearance of male and female strobili, pollination, cone maturation and seed dispersal in advance as compared to all the other sites. The comparison of the two years phenological data in all the sites (Mundali, Bhukki, Dheoban, Dharali) showed that in the year 2013 early leaf emergence, prolonged cone maturity and early seed dispersal were observed. Rise in temperature and change in climate in mountainous regions has caused the tree line to advance to higher elevations as temperatures have increased over the past few decades. In addition to changing their spatial distributions, plants are also chang-ing their temporal niches.
Ausin, I., Alonsco-Blanco, C. and Martinez-Zapater, M. (2005). Int. J. Dev. Biol 49: 689–705.
Arroyo, M.T.K., Armesto, J.J. and Villagran, C. (1981). Plant phenological patterns in the high Andean Cordillera of Central Chile. J. Ecol 69: 205-223.
Bliss, L.C. (1971). Arctic and alpine plant life cycles. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst 2: 405–438.
Both, C., Asch, V. M., Bijlsma, R.G., Van den Burg, A.B. and Visser, M.E. (2009). Climate Change and unequal phenological changes across four trophic levels: constraints or adaptations? Journal of Animal Ecology.,
Brearley, F.Q., Proctor, J., Suriantata, Nagy, L., Dalrymple, G. and Voysey, B.C. (2007). Reproductive phenology over a 10-year period in a lowland evergreen rain forest of central Borneo. J. Ecol 95(4): 828–839.
Cannel, M.G.R. and Smith, R.I. (1986). Climatic warming, spring budburst and frost damage on trees. J. Appl. Ecol 23:
Chen, X. and Xu, L. (2012). Temperature controls on the spatial pattern of tree phenology in China’s temperate zone. Agr. Forest Meteorol 154–155: 195–202.
Chen, X., Hu, B. and Yu, R. (2005). Spatial and temporal variation of phenological growing season and climate change impacts in temperate eastern China. Glob Change Biol ,
Chmielewski, F.M. and Rotzer, T. (2001). Response of tree phenology to climate change across Europe. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 108: 101-112.
Chmielewski, F.M., Mu¨ller, A. and Bruns, E. (2004). Climate changes and trends in phenology of fruit trees and field crops in Germany, 1961–2000. Agric. For. Meteorol 121: 69–78.
Chuine, I. (2010). Why does phenology drive species distribution? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Biological Sciences 365: 3149–3160.
Cleland, E.E., Chuine, I., Menzel, A., Mooney, A. and Schwartz, M.D. (2007). Shifting plant phenology in response to global change. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 22(7): 357-365.
Clow, D.W. (2010). Changes in the Timing of Snowmelt and Streamflow in Colorado: A Response to Recent Warming. Journal of Climate 23: 2293-2306.
Crimmins, T.M., Crimmins, M.A. and Bertelsen, C.D. (2009). Flowering range changes across an elevation gradient in response to warming summer temperatures. Global Change Biology 15(5): 1141-1152
Crimmins, T.M., Crimmins, M.A. and Bertelsen, C.D. (2010). Complex responses in onset of spring flowering across a semi-arid elevation gradient. Journal of Ecology 98: 1042-1051.
Davi, H., Gillmann, M. and Ibanez, T. (2011). Diversity of leaf unfolding dynamics among tree species: new insights from a study along an altitudinal gradient. Agr. Forest. Meteorol 151: 1504–1513.
Defila, C. and Clot, B. (2005). Phytophenological trends in the Swiss Alps, 1951–2002. Meteorol. Z 14: 191–196
Diez, J.M., Ibanez, I., Miller-Rushing, A.J., Mazer, S.J., Crimmins, T.M., Crimmins, M. A., Bertelsen, C.D. and Inouye, D.W. (2012). Forecasting phenology: from species variability to community patterns. Ecology Letters 15: 545–553.
Doi, H. and Katano, I. (2008). Phenological timings of leaf budburst with climate change in Japan. Agr. Forest. Meteorol 148: 512–516.
Dunne, J.A., Harte, J. and Taylor, K.J. (2003). Subalpine meadow flowering phenology responses to climate change: Integrating experimental and gradient methods. Ecological Monographs 73: 69-86.
Forrest, J., Inouye, D.W. and Thomson, J.D. (2010). Flowering phenology in subalpine meadows: does climate variation influence community co-flowering patterns? Ecology 91: 431–440.
Harte, J., Torn, M.S., Chang, F.R., Felfarek, B., Kinzig, A.P., Shaw, R. and Shen, K. (1995). Global warming and soil microclimate: results from a meadow-warming experiment. Ecological Applications 5: 132-150.
Hulber, K., Winkler, M. and Grabherr, G. (2010). Intra-seasonal climate and habitat specific variability controls the flowering phenology of high alpine plant species. Functional Ecology 24: 245-252.
Inouye D.W., and Wielgolaski F.E. (2013) Phenology at High Altitudes. In: Schwartz M. (eds) Phenology: An Integrative Environmental Science. Springer, 249-272
Inouye, D.W. (2008). Effects of climate change on phenology, frost damage, and floral abundance of montane wildflowers. Ecology 89: 353-362.
Inouye, D.W., Morales, M.A. and Dodge, G.J. (2002). Variation in timing and abundance of flowering by Delphinium barbeyi Huth (Ranunculaceae): the roles of snowpack, frost, and La Niña, in the context of climate change. Oecologia 130: 543-550.
IPCC. (2007). Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. In: Solomon, S.D., Qin, M.M., Chen, Z.M., Marquis, K.B., Averyt, M.T. and Miller, H.L. (Eds.), 2007. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 996p.
Janzen, D.H. (1967). Synchronization of sexual reproduction of trees within the dry season in Central America. Evolution 21: 620–637.
Johnson, D.M., Buntgen, U. and Frank, D.C. (2010).Climatic warming disrupts recurrent Alpine insect outbreaks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 107, 20576–20581 pp.
Jump, A.S., Matyas, C. and Penuelas, J. (2009). The altitude-for-latitude disparity in the range retractions of woody species. Elsevier.
Korner, C. (1999). Alpine Plant Life: Functional Plant Ecology of High Mountain Ecosystem, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 227p.
Kramer, K. (1995). Phenotypic plasticity of the phenology of seven European tree species in relation to climate warming. Plant Cell Environ 18: 93–104.
Kumar S., Chopra N. and Al-Tawaha A. R. M. S. (2017). Phenological variations in tree and shrub species of a banj oak (Quercus leucotrichophoraA. Camus) dominated forest in Kumaun, Central Himalaya. Advances in Environmental Biology 11(5): 35-43
Menzel, A. (2003). Plant phenological anomalies in Germany and their relation to air temperature and NAO. Clim. Change 57: 243–263.
Menzel, A., Estrella, N. and Schleip, C. (2008). Impacts of climate variability, trends and NAO on 20th century European plant phenology. In: Bro¨nnimann, S., Luterbacher, J., Ewen, T., Diaz, H.F., Stolarski, R. and Neu, U. (Eds.) Climate variability and extremes during the past 100 years, vol advances in global change research. Springer 33: 221–233.
Menzel, A., Jakobi, G., Ahas, R., Scheifinger, H. and Estrella, N. (2003). Variations of the climatological growing season (1951–2000) in Germany compared with other countries. Int. J. Climatol 23: 793–812.
Menzel, A., Sparks, T.H. and Estrella, N. (2006). European phenological response to climate change matches the warming pattern. Global Change Biology 12: 1969–1976.
Miller-Rushing, A.J. and Inouye, D.W. (2009). Variation in the impact of climate change on flowering phenology and abundance: An examination of two pairs of closely related wildflower species. American Journal of Botany 96: 1821-1829.
Miller-Rushing, A.J. and Primack, R.B. (2008). Global warming a flowering times in Thoreau’s Concord: a community perspective. Ecology 89: 332-341.
Nord, E.A. and Lynch, J.P. (2009). Plant phenology: a critical controller of soil resource acquisition. Journal of Experimental Biology 60: 1927–1937.
Nordli, O., Wielgolaski, F.E. and Bakken, A.K. (2008). Regional trends for bud burst and flowering of woody plants in Norway as related to climate change. Int. J. Biometeorol 52: 625–639.
Parmesan, C. (2006). Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 37: 637-669.
Pellerin, M., Delestrade, A., Mathieu, G., Rigault, O. and Yoccoz, N.G. (2012). Spring tree phenology in the Alps: effects of air temperature, altitude and local topography. Eur. J. Forest Res 131(6): 1957-1965.
Rossi, S., Anfodillo, T., Čufar, K., Cuny, H.E., Deslauriers, A., Fonti, P., Frank, D., Gričar, J., Gruber, A., King, G.M., Krausel, C., Morin, H., Oberhuber, W., Prislan, P. and Rathgeber, C.B.K. (2013). A meta-analysis of cambium phenology and growth: linear and non-linear patterns in conifers of the northern hemisphere. Annals of Botany 112: 1911-1920.
Rusch, V.E. (1993). Altitudinal variation in the phenology of Nothophagus pumilio in Argentina. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 66: 131-141.
Scheifinger, H., Menzel, A., Koch, E., Peter, C. and Ahas, R. (2002). Atmospheric mechanisms governing the spatial and temporal variability of phenological phases in Central Europe. Int. J. Climatol 22: 1739–1755.
Shah S., Verma A. and Tewari A. (2014). Timing of Shifts in Phenological Events in Rhododendron arboreum Smith. Influenced by Climatic Irregularities in Kumaun Regions of Central Himalaya Global Journal of Scientific Researches 2(2):56-59
Wipf, S. (2010). Phenology, growth and fecundity of eight subarctic tundra species in response to snowmelt manipulations. Plant Ecol 207:53–66.
Ziello, C., Estrella, N., Kostova, M., Koch, E. and Menzel, A. (2009). Influence of altitude on phenology of selected plant species in the Alpine region (1971-2000). Climate Research 39: 227-234.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)