A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of varying Cr (VI) levels [0.0â€“4.0 mg Cr (VI) kg-1 soil in the form of potassium dichromate] on the some quality parameters of sorghum Sorghum bicolor (L.). Quality parameters was measured in terms of protein content, chlorophyll content, and IVDMD ( In vitro dry matter digestibility) content at different growth stages, i.e. 35 DAS, 70 DAS and 90 DAS (Days after sowing) that were adversely affected with an increase in Cr (VI) levels from 0.0 to 4.0 mg Cr (VI) kg-1 soil. The decline in protein content 4.67 g/ kg dry weight at T4 was observed as compared to control (T1) ( 8.96 g/kg dry weight basis) at 35 DAS in leaves , Total chlorophyll content declined from 3.25 mg g-1 fresh weight (T1) to 2.40 mg g-1 fresh weight (T4) at 35 DAS and IVDMD content declined from 43.60 to 33.60 per cent dry weight basis with increment in chromium concentration. It is concluded that Cr (VI) at higher doses (4.0 mg Cr (VI) kg-1 soil) adversly affects the quality parameters of Forage sorghum Sorghum bicolor (L.) however, quality parameters are responsible for nutritive value of sorghum Sorghum bicolor (L.).
Chlorophyll content, Chromium toxicity, Quality parameters, Sorghum bicolor
Ahmad, P. Sharma, S. and Srivastava, P.S. (2006). Differential physio-biochemical responses of high yielding varieties of Mulberry (Morus alba) under alkalinity (Na2 CO3 ) stress in vitro. Physiol. Mol. Biol. Plants ,12:59-66
Ali, N.A. Alter, M. Sunahara, G.I. and Robidoux, P.Y. (2004). Phytotoxicity and bioaccumulation of copper and chromium using barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) in spiked artificial and natural forest soils. Ecotoxical. Environ. Safety, 57:363-374
Barnes, R.F., Muller, L.D., Bauman, L.F. and Colenbrander,V.F. (1971). In vitro dry matter disappearance of brown midrib mutants of maize. J. Anim. Sci., 33: 881.
Bera, A.K. Kanta-Bokaria and A.K. Bokaria, K. (1999). Effect of tannery effluent on seed germination, seedling growth and chloroplast pigment content in mungbean (Vigna radiataL. Wilczek). Environ. Ecol., 17(4):958-961.
Bhardwaj, J. (1998). Effect of Cr (VI) on growth and lipid components of Brassica juncea. M.Sc. Thesis, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar.
Bishnoi, N.R., Chugh, L.K. and Sawhney, S.K. (1993). Effect of chromium on photosynthesis, respiration and nitrogen fixation in pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings. J. Plant Physiol. 142 : 25-30.
Chatterjee, J. and Chatterjee, C. (2000). Phytotoxicity of cobalt, chromium and copper in cauliflower. Environ. Pollut. 109 : 69-74.
Diwan, H., Ahmed, A. and Iqbal M., (2012). Chromium- induced alterations in photosynthesis and associated attributes in Indian mustard. J. Environ. Biol., 33:239-244
Elloumi, N. Ben, F. Rhouma, A. Ben, B. Mezghani, I. and Boukhris, M. (2007). Cadmium induced growth inhibition and alteration of biochemical parameters in almond seedlings grown in solution culture. Acta Physiol. Plant. 29: 665- 672.
Gajalakshmi, S. Iswarya, V. Ashwini, R. Divya,G. Mythili, S. and Sathiavelu , A. (2012). â€œEvaluation of heavy metals in medicinal plants growing in Vellore District. European Journal of Experimental Biology, 2 (5): 1457â€“1461.
Hawley, E. L. Deeb, R. A. Kavanaugh, M. C. and Jacobs, J. A. (2004). Treatment technologies for chromium(VI),in Chromium(VI) Handbook, Guertin, J. Jacobs, J. A. and Avakian,C. P.Eds., pp 275â€“309, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA.
Hiscox, J.D. and Israelstam, G.F.(1979). A method for extraction of chlorophyll from leaf tissue without maceration. Can. J. Bot.57:1332-1334.
Johna , L. R. Ahmadb, P. Gadgila , K. and Sharmab S. (2008). Effect of cadmium and lead on growth, biochemicalparameters and uptake in Lemna polyrrhiza L. Plant soil Environ., 54 (6): 262â€“270
Johna, L. R. Ahmadb, P. Gadgila, K. and Sharmab S. (2009). Effect on plant growth, biochemical parameters and metal accumulation by Brassica juncea Intnat. Journal of Plant prod. 3(3):65-76.
Joshi, U.N. (1991). Effect of sulphur dioxide on carbon and nitrogen metabolism in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.). Ph.D. Thesis, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar.
Joshi, U.N. Arora, S.K. and Rathore, S.S. (1999). Biochemical studies in legumes in relation to environmental pollutants. Final Report of Adhoc Research Scheme submitted to ICAR. pp. 1-47.
Kovacik J. Klejdus B. Hedbavny J. and Backor M. (2010). Effect of copper and salicylic acid on phenolic metabolites and free amino acids in Scenedesmus quadricauda (Chloro-phyceae). Plant Sci., 178: 307-311.
Kumar, A. and Maiti, S. K.( 2013). â€œAvailability of chromium, nickel and other associated heavy. metals of ultramafic and serpentine soil/rock and in plants,â€ International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, 3(2)256â€“268
Kumar, S. Joshi, U.N. and Sangwan, S. (2010). Chromium influenced nutritive value of forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.). Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 157:190-194.
Luthra, Y.P. and Joshi, U.N. (2002). Quality improvement in forage crops. In proc. of the seminar on â€œQuality improvement in cropsâ€ held at CCSHAU, Hisar (Saini, M.L. and Md. Yunus) ed. pp 55-61.
Mehta, R. (1996). Effect of Cr (VI) on growth and biochemical constituents of sunflower (Helianthus annuusL.). M.Sc. Thesis, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India
Mohanty, M. and Patra, H. K. (2013). Effect of ionic and chelate assisted hexavalent chromium on mung bean seedlings (Vigna radiata L. wilczek. var k-851) during seedling growth,â€ Journal of Stress Physiology & Biochemistry. 92:232â€“241
Nagajyoti PC, Dinakar N, Prasad TNVKV, Suresh C. and Damodharam, T. (2008). Heavy metal toxicity : Industrial Effluent effect on Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Seedlings. J. Appl. Sci. Res., 4(1):110â€“121.
Nichols, P.B., Couch, J.D. and Al Hamdani, S.H. (2000). Selected physiological responses of Salvinta minima to different chromium concentrations. Aquat Bot., 68:313-319
Oliveira H. (2012). Chromium as an environmental pollutant: insights on induced plant toxicity. J. Bot., Article ID 375843.
Palma J.M. Sandalio L.M. Javier Corpas F. Romero-Puertas M.C. McCarthy I. del Rio L.A. (2002). Plant proteases protein degradation and oxidative stress: role of peroxisomes. Plant Physiol. Biochem., 40:521â€“530.
Pandey N, Pathak GC (2006). Nickel alters antioxidative defense and water status in green gram. Ind. J. Plant Physiol. 11:113â€“118.
Rani, M., Joshi, U.N., (Arora, S.K. and Rathore, S.S. (1998). Effect of chromium (VI) on structural and non-structural carbohydrates of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Forage Res., 24 (2):71-75.
Samantaray, S., Das, P. and Rout, G.R. (1998). Role of chromium on plant growth and metabolism. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum. 20 (2):201-212
Samantaray, S., Rout, G.R. and Das, P. (2001). Induction, selection and characterization of Cr and Ni-tolerant cell lines of Enchinochloa colona (L) in vitro. J. Plant Physiol. 158 : 1281-1290.
Shanker AK. (2003). Physiological, biochemical and molecular aspects of chromium toxicity and tolerence in selected crops and tree species. PhD Thesis, Tamil Nadu Agricultural Universty, Coimbatore, India.
Shanmugam V. Lo J. C. Wu C. L. Wang S. L. Lai C. C. Connolly E. L. (2011). Differential expression and regulation of iron-regulated metal transporters in Arabidopsis halleri and Arabidopsis thaliana - the role in zinc tolerance. New Phytol., 190: 125-137.
Sharma D. C. and Pant R. C. (1994). Chromium uptake: its effects on certain plant nutrients in maize (Zea mays L. cv. Ganga 5). J. Environ. Sci. Health., 29: 941-948.
Sharma, D. C., Chatterjee, C. and Sharma, C. P., (1995). Chromium accumulation by barley seedlings (Hordeum vulgare L,). J. Exp. Bot. 25 : 241-251
Sharma, D.C. and Sharma, C.P. (1996). Chromium uptake and toxicity affect on growth and metabolic activities in wheat, Triticum aestivum L. cv. UP2003. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 34:689-691.
Sheetal, K.R. Singh, S.D. Anand, A. and Prasad, S. (2016). Heavy metal accumulation and effects on growth, biomass and physiological processes in mustard. Indian journal of Plant Physiology, 21 (2): 219-223.
Sihag, S. Wadhwa N. and Joshi U.N. (2016). Chromium toxicity affects antioxidant enzyme activity in Sorghum bicolor (L.) J. Forage Res., 42 (1): 30-35.
Singh, G. Agnihotri, R.K. Sharma, R. and Ahmad, M.(2012). Effect of lead and nickel toxicity on chlorophyll and proline content of Urd (Vigna mungo L.) seedlings. International Journal of Plant Physio. and Biochem., 4(6):136-141
Singh, H. P., Mahajan, P., Kaur,S., Batish,D. R. and Kohli, R. K. (2013).Chromium toxicity and tolerance in plants. Environmental Chemistry Letters. 11(3):229â€“254
Singh, S. Sinha, S. (2005). Accumulation of metals and its effects in Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. (cv. Rohini) grown on various amendments of tannery waste. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Safety 62:118- 127
Sinha, P., Dube, B.K. and Chatterjee, C. (2005). Amelioration of chromium phytotoxicty in spinach by withdrawal of chromium or iron application through different modes. Plant Sci. 169: 641-646.
Stockdale, C.R. (1993). The influence of herbage water consumption on the nutritive value of persian clover for dairy cows and sheep. Aust. J. Agri. Res., 44 (7):1577-1589
Sumanlata (1995). Effect of chromium (VI) on biochemical constituents of clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub.). M.Sc. Thesis, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India.
Sumanlata, Joshi, U.N., Arora, S.K. and Rathore, S.S. (1999). Nutritive value of guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.) as affected by chromium pollution. Indian J. Agric. Biochem. 12 (1) :14-16.
Vajpayee, P., Tripathi, R.D., Rai, U.N., Ali, M.B. and Singh, S.N. (2000). Chromium (VI) accumulation reduces chlorophyll biosynthesis, nitrate reductase activity of protein content in Nymphaea alba L. Chemosphere. 41 (7): 1075-1082.
Zengin, F.K. and Munzuroglu, O. (2006). Toxic effects of cadmium (Cd++) on metabolism of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings. Acta Agricul. Scand., Sect. B, Plant Soil Sci. 56 : 224-229.
Zou, J. Wang, M., Jiang, W. and Liu D. (2006). Chromium accumulation and its effects on other mineral elements in Amaranthus viridis L, Acta Biologica Cracoviensia Series Botanica, 48 (1):7â€“12.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) © Author (s)