A field trial based Agroforestry system was established at Pantnagar during Rabi season 2012-13 for predicting the effect of spacing on growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Melia azedarach. The experiment was carried out in split-plot design consisting of two tree species in main plot, viz, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Melia azedarch and four spacing treatments in sub-plot viz, 3.0mÃ—1.0m, 3.0mÃ—1.5m, 3.0mÃ—2.0m and 3.0mÃ—2.5m with three replications. The wheat crop varietyâ€œUP-2338â€ was sown on December 06, 2012 and harvested on April 27, 2013. Among the tree species, the maximum (15.1 q /ha) and significantly higher grain yield with 21.8% increment was recorded under Melia as compare to Eucalyptus. Whereas, among the different spacings, the wheat growth in terms of dry biomass at 120 DAS (495.4/m2 ), yield attributes and yield in terms of grain (16.0 q/ha), straw (29.4 q/ha) and biological yield (45.4 q/ha) under Melia was significantly higher at 3 Ã— 2.5 m spacing as compared to other planting density. The correlation coefficient (r) studies exhibited that wheat growth and yield attributing characteristics shows significantly (p<0.05) high degree (r=0.75 to 1) positive correlation with each other. The investigation was done to find out the proper planting density for intercropping of wheat with tree species without comprising the wheat growth and enhancing its sustainability.
Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Planting density, Tree species, Wheat, Yield
Attarbashi, M.R., Galeshi, S., Soltni, A. and Zinali, E. (2002). Relationship of phenology and physiological traits with grain yield in wheat under rain-fed conditions. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Science, 33:21-28
Bouycous, G.J. (1962). Direction for making mechanical analysis of soil by hydrometer method. Soil Science. 42: 225-228.
Chauhan, V.K., Sood, S.K., Bhargawa, J.N. and Mishra, V.K. (1995). Effect of different trees on the yield of rainfed wheat crop. Annals of Forestry. 3 (2): 147-151.
Dwivedi,R.P.,Kareemulla,K.,Singh,R.,Rizvi,R.H. and Chauhan, J.(2007). Socio-EconomicAnalysisofAgroforestrySystemsinWesternUttarPradesh.Indian Research Journal of Extension Education.7(2&3):18-22.
Fikreyesus, S., Kebebew, Z., Nebiyu, A., Zeleke, N, Bogale, S. (2011). Allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. on germination and growth of tomato. American-Eurasian J. Agric. Environ. Sci. 11(5):600-608.
Fischer, R.A. (1985). Number of kernels in wheat crops and the influence of solar radiation and temperature. Journal of Agriculture Science(Camb.). 105: 447-461.
Fischer, R.and Stockman, Y.M. (1980). Kernel number per spike in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): responses to pre-anthesis shading. AustralianJournal of Plant Physiology. 7: 169â€“180.
Garrity, D.P. (2004). Agroforestry and the achievement of the millennium development goals. Agroforestry Systems. 61:5-17.
Gibson, N. (1978). The economics of wood biomass. In: Energy from biomass and wastes. Symposium of the Institute of Gas Technology, Washington, D.C. 39-49.
Jackson, M.L. (1973). Soil chemical analysis. Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, India. pp.186-192,195-196
Jiang, J.P., Zhu, J.J., Liu, T.Z., He, S.M., Zhou, Z.M. and Su, F.J. (1994). Related changes of wheat yield and photosynthtically active radiation in Paulownia-wheat intercropping system. Acta Agriculture Boreali Sinica. 9:133-137 (c.f. Agroforestry Abstracts, 1995. 8, 3, 114).
Kaushik, N. and Singh, J. (2001). Performance of pearl millet- wheat in Poplar based agri- silvicultural system in sandy soils of southern Haryana. Indian Journal Agroforestry. 3 (1): 51-54.
Khan, G.S. and Ehrenreich, J.H. (1994). Effect of increasing distance from Acacia nilotica trees on wheat yield. Agroforestry Systems. 25 (1): 23-29.
Kidanu, S., Mamo, T. and Stroosnijder, L. (2005). Biomass production of Eucalyptus boundary plantations and their effect on crop productivity on Ethiopian highland Vertisols. Agroforestry Systems. 63 (3): 281-290.
Kumar, B.M. (2006). Agroforestry: the new old paradigm for Asian food security. Journal of Tropical Agriculture. 44(1-2):1- 14.
Kumar, V, Rajput, P.R. (2003). Studies on yield and yield components of wheat varieties in open and under poplar (Populus deltoides Bartr. Ex. Marsh) based agro-silviculture system. Plant Archives. 3(2):183-189.
Lakshmamma, P. and Subba Rao, I.V. (1996). Influence of shading and Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) on yield and yield component in black gram (Vigna mungo. L). Annalsof Agriculture Research. 17 (3): 320-321.
Mu, H., Jiang, D., Wollenweber, B., Dai, T., Jing, Q. and Cao, W. (2010). Long-term low radiation decreases leaf photosynthesis, photochemical efficiency and grain yield in winter wheat. Crop ScienceJournal. 196:38-47
Nandal, D.P.S. and Singh, R.R. (2001). Productivity of different cropping sequences in Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. based agro-silviculture system. Indian Journal of Forestry. 24 (4): 433â€“436.
Nazir, M.S., Ahmad, R., Eshanullah and Cheema, S.A. (1993). Quantitative analysis of effect of Shisham tree shade in wheat. Pakistan J. Agric. Res. 14 (1): 12-17.
Pande, P.K. (2011). Variation in Wood Properties and Growth in Some Clones of Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh. American Journal of Plant Sciences. 2: 644-649.
Panse, V.G. and Sukhatme, P.V. (1967). Statistical Methods for Agriculture Workers. 4thed., New Delhi, ICAR. pp.359.
Patil, R.H., Hunshal, C.S. and Itnal, C.J. (2002). Influence of bund planted Eucalyptus tree row on winter wheat. Allelopathy Journal. 10 (1): 21-28.
Puri, S. and Nair, P.K.R. (2004). Agroforestry research for development in India: 25 years of experience of a national program. Agroforestry Systems. 61/62: 437-452.
Puri, S., Sao, B. and Swamy, S.L. (2001). Growth and productivity of wheat varieties in an agrisilviculture system. Indian Journal of Agroforestry. 3 (2): 134-138.
Sarvade, S., Mishra, H.S., Rajesh Kaushal, Sumit Chaturvedi, Salil Tewari and Jadhav, T.A., (2014). Performance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop under different spacings of trees and fertility levels. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 9 (9): 866-873.
Sidhu, D.S. and Hans, A.S. 1988. Preliminary studies on the effect of Eucalyptus leaf litter on accumulation of biomass in wheat. Journal of Tropical Forestry, 4(4):328-333
Snedecor, G.W., Cochran, G.W.(1967). Statistical methods. 6th ed. Calcutta. IBH Publishing Company, 310.
Stockman, Y.M., Fischer, R.A. and Brittain, E.G. (1983). Assimilate supply and floret development within the spike of wheat. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology. 10: 585-594.
Subbiah, B.V. and Asija, G.I. (1956). A rapid procedure for the determination of available nitrogen in soils. Current Science. 25: 259-260.
Subhani, G.M. and Chowdhry, M.A. (2000). Correlation and path coefficient analysis in bread wheat under drought stress and normal conditions. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science. 3:72â€“77.
Tripathi, M.K., Saini, B.C. and Chaturvedi, S. (2006). Growth and yield of intercropped wheat under Salix and Dalbergia agroforestry system. Annals of Biology, 22 (2): 189-191.
Verma, K.S., Zegeye, M.W. and Kaushal, R. (2002). Growth and yield performance of wheat in agri-horti-silvicultural system of agroforestry in the mid-hills of Himachal Himalayas. Indian Journal of Agroforestry, 4 (1): 1-7.
Walkley, A.J. and Black, I.A. (1934). Estimation of soil organic carbon by chronic acid titration method. Soil Science. 37: 29-38.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) Â© Author (s)