Wasteland reclamation strategy for household timber security of tribes in Jharkhand, India
The study sought to examine the timber dependency on forests and evolve wasteland reclamation strategy to eliminate the forest dependency in Bundu block of Ranchi District in Jharkhand, India. Multi-stage random sampling technique was applied to select 164 tribal households from 9 sample villages. Data were collected using structured interviews and non-participant observations which were analyzed using descriptive statistics viz., frequency, percentage, mean and range. Results revealed that forests contributed maximum timber (136.36 m3 annum-1) followed by traditional agroforestry (69.09 m3 annum-1), community forestry (41.33 m3 annum-1) and homestead forestry (35.71 m3 annum-1). Timber extracted is mostly consumed in housing (124.66 m3 annum-1) followed by agricultural implements (82.71 m3 annum-1), furniture (35.25 m3 annum-1), carts/ carriages (17.60 m3 annum-1), fencing (10.23 m3 annum-1), cattle shed/ store house (9.10 m3 annum-1) and others (2.94 m3 annum-1). Forests were exposed to timber pressure of 136.36 m3 annum-1 (48.27%) posing ample deforestation and degradation. The strategy consisted of timber and bamboo plantations is designed which would secure 1065.60 m3 annum-1 of timber, 0.455 lakh annum-1 of bamboo culms, 568.26 tons annum-1 of bamboo leaf and agricultural products. The strategy would yield income of Rs. 34210.78 household-1 annum-1 and employment of 67.15 person-days household-1 annum-1. Financial viability of proposed interventions has been worked out by meticulous economic calculations of Net Present Value, Benefit Cost Ratio and Internal Rate of Return. The execution of strategy would eliminate the current unsustainable timber extraction, safeguard the future timber predicament and ensure environmental security.
Bamboo, Timber, Tribes, Wasteland reclamation
Anonymous (2009). State of Jharkhand – Overview. Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Govt. of Jharkhand, Ranchi, Jharkhand.
Anonymous (2016). The Draft for National Forest Policy, 2016. Centre for Policy Studies, Indian Institute of Forest Management, Bhopal, M.P. pp. 5-9.
Baba, M.Y., Islam, M.A. and Sofi, P.A. (2016). Household dynamics and small timber consumption in rural Kashmir, India. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 8(4): 2021-2028.
Belcher, B., Achdiawan, R and Dewi, S. (2015). Forest-based livelihood strategies conditioned by market remoteness and forest proximity in Jharkhand, India. World Development, 66(1): 269-279.
Binkley, C.S. and Earhart, J.E. (2005). A Global Emerging Markets Forestry Investment Strategy, Global Environment Fund. http://www.ifiallc.com/PDFs/EmergingMarkets.pdf.
Census of India, 2011. A - 5 State Primary Census Abstract – 2011, India.
Champion, H.G. and Seth, S.K. (1968). Revised survey of forest types in India. Manager of Publication, FRI Press, Dehra Dun.
Chandra, R., Soni, P. and Yadav, V. (2008). Fuelwood, fodder and livestock in Himalayan watershed in Mussoorie hills, Uttarakhand, India. The Indian Forester, 135(10): 894-905.
Chandramolly and Islam, M.A. (2015). Fuel wood, fodder and timber consumption status in a forest fringe tribal society of Jharkhand, India. International Journal of Forestry and Crop Improvement, 6(1): 71-76.
Dangwal, D.D. (2005). Commercialization of forests, timber extraction and deforestation in Uttaranchal. Conservation and Society, 3(1): 110 – 133.
Forest Survey of India (2013). India State of Forest Report. New Delhi: Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India. pp. 286.
Gangoo, S.A., Masoodi, T.H., Murtaza, Shah and Islam, M.A. (2015). Management of exotic poplars for production of quality timber and reducing cotton menace in Kashmir. The Indian Forester, 141(5): 514-519.
Htun, T.T., Wen, Y. and Ko Ko, A.C. (2017). Assessment of forest resources dependency for local livelihood around Protected Area: A case study in Popa Mountain Park, Central Myanmar. International Journal of Sciences, 6(1): 34-43.
Islam, M.A. (2008). Availability and consumption pattern of fuelwood, fodder and small timber in rural Kashmir. Environment and Ecology, 26(4A): 1835-1840.
Islam, M.A., Quli, S.M.S., Rai, R., Ali, A. and Gangoo, S.A. (2015b). Forest biomass flow for fuel wood, fodder and timber security among tribal communities of Jharkhand. Journal of Environmental Biology, 36(1): 221-228.
Islam, M.A., Quli, S.M.S., Sofi, P.A., Bhat, G.M. and Malik, A.R. (2015a). Livelihood dependency of indigenous people on forest in Jharkhand, India. Vegetos, 28(3): 106-118.
Islam, M.A., Rai, R. and Quli, S.M.S. (2014). Manpower potential, employment status and forest based livelihood opportunities among tribal communities of Jharkhand, India. Journal of Human Ecology, 47(3): 305-315.
Khanduri, V.P., Sharma, C.M. Ghildiyal, S.K. and Puspwan, K.S. (2002). Forest composition in relation to socio-economic status of people at three altitudinal villages of a part of Garhwal Himalayas. The Indian Forester, 128(12): 1335-1345.
Kithan, L.N. (2014). Socio-economic Importance of Bamboo among the Nagas of Nagaland. Journal of Human Ecology, 48(3): 393-397.
Lalhmingsangi, K. and Sahoo, U.K. (2016). Utilization of Non-timber forest products from village managed by Aizawl Forest Development Agency, Mizoram, India. Research Journal of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, 4(8): 1-9.
Langat, D.K., Maranga, E.K., Aboud, A.A. and Cheboiwo, J.K. (2016). Role of forest resources to local livelihoods: The case of East Mau Forest Ecosystem, Kenya. International Journal of Forestry Research, 2016(1): 43-52.
Mani, R. (2006). Watershed planning and employment generation. Mittal publications, New Delhi (India).
Ministry of Environment and Forests. (2009). Asia-Pacific Forestry Sector Outlook Study II: India Country Report. Working Paper No. APFSOS II/WP/2009/06. Bangkok: FAO pp. 78.
Mukherjee, N. (1993). Participatory Rural Appraisal. Methodology and Applications, Concept Publishing Company, Delhi.
Nayak, B.P., Kohli, P. and Sharma, J.V. (2014) Livelihood of Local Communities and Forest Degradation in India: Issues for REDD+. Tata Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), New Delhi, India.
Pandey, K.P. and Naik, B.C. (2003). Working Plan of Ranchi East Division, Govt. of Jharkhand, pp. 187-189.
Pant, M.M. (1984). Forest Economics and Valuation. Madhavi Publishers, Dehradun.
Pirard, R., Secco, L.D. and Warman, R. (2016). Do timber plantations contribute to forest conservation? Environmental Science & Policy, 57(2016): 122-130.
Rai, S.N. and Chakrabarti, S.K. (2001). Demand and Supply of fuelwood and Timber in India. The Indian Forester, 127(3): 23-29.
Rawat, G.S., Kumar, A., Jain, S.S. and Singh, C. (2008). Bamboo planting and utilization. Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE), Dehradun.
Ray, G.L. and Mondol, S. (2004). Research Methods in Social Sciences and Extension Education, Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi, 66-76.
Sapkota, I.P. and Odén, P.C. (2008). Household characteristics and dependency on community forests in Terai of Nepal. International Journal of Social Forestry, 1(2): 123-144.
Sarmah, R. and Arunachalam, A. (2011). Contribution of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) to livelihood economy of people living in forest fringes in Changlang district of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences, 1(2): 157-169.
Sati, V.P. and Song, C. (2012). Estimation of forest biomass flow in the montane mainland of the Uttarakhand Himalaya. International Journal of Forest, Soil and Erosion, 2(1), 1-7
Shukla, C.M. (2003). Eucalyptus and Timber plantation on Wastelands in Northern India. In: Paper submitted to the XII World Forestry Congress, 2003, Quebec City, Canada.
Singh, P.K. (2007). Economic analysis of participatory agroforestry practices. Ph.D. Thesis (Unpublished), Forest Research Institute University, Dehradun, Uttaranchal.
Singh, P.K. and Quli, S.M.S. (2011). Economic valuation of Non-Timber Forest Product’s contribution in tribal livelihood in West Singhbhum district of Jharkhand. The Indian Forester, 137(11): 1258-1264.
Snedecor, G. and Cochran, W.G. (1967). Statistical Methods. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames, Iowa, USA, 17-36.
World Bank. (2006). India: Unlocking Opportunities for Forest Dependent People in India. Report No. 34481 - IN, World Bank: South Asia Region. pp. 85.
Yadav, M. and Basera, K. (2013). Status of Forest Products Production and Trade Working paper - Centre for SFM & FC, IIFM Bhopal, pp. 1-14.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) © Author (s)