G. M. Bhat A. H. Mughal A. R. Malik P. A. Khan P. A. Sofi M. A. Islam


Pinus wallichiana (Blue pine) does not have a good seed every year and hence it becomes necessary to collect abundant quantity of seed during good seed year. It becomes necessary to know the exact time of seed ma-turity. To overcome this problem, the present investigation was conducted in Kashmir valley at four different altitudes and locations i.e. (1,600-2,000 masl–KFD), (2,000-2,400 masl -LFD), (2,400-2,800-PFD) and (2,800-3200 masl– SFD). The results revealed that seed collection clearly showed wide variation in the maturity of cones. Cone colour served as an indicator of maturity and it changed from light green to green and green with brown patches at maturity-ty. Seed colour changed from whitish to light brown and dark brown at maturity. The mean cone weight (118.67- 88.17gm) and specific gravity (1.13-0.90) decreased as the cones proceeded towards maturity. The mean seed weight of 21.79 to 57.13gm increased at all altitudes as the cones advanced towards maturity. Cone length, cone diameter and germination percent differed (P?0.05) significantly between altitudes and increased when the cones advanced towards maturity. The germination per cent was recorded more at altitudinal range of 1,600-2,400 masl (67.25-70.26%) at maturity, while as it was recorded lower at higher altitudes (42.12-47.25%). It is concluded that the altitudinal range of 1,600-2,400 masl is best sites for collection of phenotypically superior seeds in terms of maxi-mum cone length (18.18cm), diameter (5.23mm) and weight (108.94gm), number of seeds per cone (117.72), seed weight (79.99) and germinability (68.75).




Altitude, Cone characters, Germination, Maturity, Pinus wallichiana, Seeds

Ahirwar, J. R. (2012). Effect of seed size and weight on seed germination of Alangium lamarckii, Akola, India. Research Journal of Recent Sciences, 1: 320-322
Barnet, J.P. (1979). Maturation of tree seeds. In : Proceedings of a symposium on Flowering and Seed Development in Trees. South Forestry Experimentation Station, Miss State University, IUFRO, pp. 272-280
Sajad Bhat, A., Sofi, P. A., Masoodi, T. H., Islam, M. A., Bhat, G. M. and Malik, A. R. and Bhat, Reyaz A. (2016). Maturity Indices and Cold Moist Stratification of Himalayan Maple (Acer caesium Wall.) Under Temperate Conditions of Kashmir. Indian Journal of Ecology, 43 (1): 58-64
Edwards, D.G.W. (1980). Maturity and quality of tree seed a state of art review. Seed Sciences and Technology, 8 : 625-657
ISTA (1993). International rules for seed testing 1STA. Seed Science and Technology, 21: 4-300
Joshi, G. (2000). Physiological investigation on germination and viability of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. Seed for ex-situ germplasm conservation. Ph. D. Thesis submitted to FRI-Deemed University, Dehradun
Lavania, S.K., Singh, V. and Prasad, B. (2010). Influence of cone collection date on seed and germination characteristics in blue pine Pinus wallichiana AB Jacks. Indian Forester , 136(11): 1486-1491
Malik, A.R., Shamet, G.S., Butola, J.S., Bhat, G. M., Mir, A.A. and Nabi, Gowher. (2013). Standardization of seed storage conditions in Chilgoza pine (Pinus gerardiana Wall.): an Endangered pine of Hind Kush Himalaya. Tree-Structure and Function,-DOI 10.1007/s00468-013-0868-y
Mirgall, B.A., Gunaga, Rajesh P. and Salunkhe, C. B. (2017). Seed traits, germination pattern and seedling vigour in Antiaris toxicaria (Pers.) Lesch., a rare plant species of Western ghats. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 8(3): 1710 – 1713
Mirgall, B.A., Gunaga, Rajesh P. and Salunkhe, C.B. (2016). Seed size and its influence on germination, seedling growth and biomass in Saraca asoca (Roxb). De Wilde, critically endangered tree species of Western ghats, India. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 8 (3): 1599 - 1602
Mughal, A.H. and Thapliyal, R.C. (2006). Cone and seed maturity indices in Cedrus deodara (D. don, G. don). Indian Journal of Forestry, 29(2) : 167- 174
Mumtaz Majeed, Khan, M.A., Mughal, A.H. and Altamash Bashir. (2009). Maturity Indices of Indian Horse-Chestnut (Aesculus indica Colebr) seeds under temperate Kashmir conditions. Silva Lusitana, 17(2):211–219.ANS
Oliver, W.W. (1974). Seed maturity in White fir and Red fir. USDA Forest Series Research Paper PSW, 90 : 1-12
Rediska, J.H. and Nicholson, D. (1964). Maturation of noble fir seed-a biochemical study. Wayerhaeuser Forest Paper, 2: 1-15
Singh, A. (2011). Standardization of nursery technology of Allepo pine (Pinus halepensis) an introduced pine in Kashmir Valley. Ph.D.Thesis, submitted to SKUAST-K.
Singh, O. (1998). Seed maturity indices in Silver fir (Abies pindrow). Indian Forester, 124(3) : 243-246
Singh, O. and Kachari, J. (2006). Seed maturity indices in Khasi pine (Pinus kesia). Indian Forester, 132(12): 1689-1691
Singh, R.V. and Singh, V. (1981). Preliminary studies on the quality of spruce and silver fir seed as affected by its source. Indian Forester, 107(9): 571-577
Sofi, P. A., Bhat, Sajad A., Masoodi, T. H., Islam, M. A., Bhat, G. M. and Malik, A. R. (2016). Propagation of Himalayan maple (Acer caesium Wall.) through seed and softwood cuttings. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 8 (3): 1235 – 1240
Stockler, J.H. and Jones, G.W. (1957). Forest nursery practice in the lake states. U.S. Department Agriculture Handbook, 110: 124
Upadhayay, L., Singh, R.P., Tewari, A., Bisht, S., Shah, S. (2006). Seed maturation indicators in Bauhinia retusa Ham. in Kumaun central Himalayas. Indian Journal of Forestry, 29(4): 367-371
Research Articles

How to Cite

Cone and seed maturity indices in Pinus wallichiana under temperate conditions of Kashmir Himalayas, India. (2017). Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 9(4), 1987-1993. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v9i4.1478