Ampelomyces is a naturally occurring hyperparasite on powdery mildews. Survey was conducted in major bhendi (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) growing districts of Tamil Nadu during June 2014 to assess the incidence of powdery mildew and to collect different isolates of Ampelomyces spp. The results of the survey revealed that the disease incidence ranged from 15.54 to 63.45 %. Ten isolates of Ampelomyces spp. were collect-ed from surveyed areas of powdery mildew. Isolation of Ampelomyces spp. was done from powdery mildew infected bhendi leaf parasitized by Ampelomyces spp. using tissue segment method. All the isolates were identified by their morphological characters. The colour of the colonies in various medium was brownish black to greenish white. Most of the isolates showed radial and fluffy growth pattern with raised growth. The pycnidia of different isolates of Ampelomyces varied in their shape and were mostly ovoid, ellipsoid, cylindrical, pyriform to globose in shape. The size of pycnidia varied from 29.2-72.5×22.4-43.1 ?m. The number of pycnidia was found to be more in isolates viz., TNAU-AQ101 and TNAU-AQ103. Pycnidiospores are hyaline, unicellular and guttulate in shape. The pycnidial production was higher in TNAU-AQ101 and TNAU-AQ103. Application of agrochemicals is one of the oldest and most effective methods to manage powdery mildew disease. However, incessant use of these agrochemicals has many demerits such as development of resistance to pathogens, residual toxicity and environmental pollution. Hence, search for an alternative means for disease management is envisaged. The genus Ampelomyces are the major antagonists as an alternative of Erysiphales fungi being a significant group of phytopathogens.
Ampelomyces, Bhendi, Erysiphales, Hyperparasite, Pycnidia, Tissue segment method
Angeli, D., Pellegrini, E and Pertot, I. (2009b). Occurrence of Erysiphe necator chasmothecia and their natural parasitism by Ampelomyces quisqualis. Phytopathology, 99:704-710.
Glawe, D. A. (2008). The powdery mildews: a review of the world's most familiar (yet poorly known) plant pathogens. Phytopathology, 46: 27.
Kim, J.Y., Lee, W.H. and Kim, H.M. (2009). Physical Characteristics and Antagonistic Effect of Ampelomyces. Research in Plant Disease, 15: 209-216.
Kiss, L. (1998). Natural occurrence of Ampelomyces intracellular mycoparasites in mycelia of powdery mildew fungi. New Phytologist, 140: 709-714.
Kiss, L. (2008). Intracellular mycoparasites in action: interactions between powdery mildew fungi and Ampelomyces. British Mycological Society Symposia Series,37-52.
Liang, C., Yang, J., Kovacs, G.M., Szentivanyi, O., Xu, X. and Kiss, L. (2007). Genetic diversity of Ampelomyces mycoparasites isolated from different powdery mildew species in China inferred from analyses of rDNA ITS sequences. Fungal Diversity, 24:225-240.
Prasad, M. R., Bailey, J.A., Chandler, Jeff. St. A. (2013). Impact of Plant Spacing and Picking Interval on the Growth, Fruit Quality and Yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, pp. 48-54.
Paulitz, T. C. and Belanger, R. R. (2001). Biological control in greenhouse systems. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 39: 103-133.
Ravinder Reddy, M. (1982). Evaluation of fungicides against major diseases of chilli. M. Sc.(Ag.) Thesis. Tamil Nadu Agric. Univ., Coimbatore, India.
Sharma, S. (2006). Integrated Management of Powdery Mildew Of Apple, ICAR Adhoc Research Scheme.: Final Report (2003-2006).
Sundheim, L. and Krekling, T. (1982). Host?parasite relationships of the hyperparasite Ampelomyces quisqualis and its powdery mildew host Sphaerotheca fuliginea. Journal of Phytopathology, 104: 202-210.
Yarwood, C. E. (1957). Powdery mildews. The Botanical Review, 23:235-301.
Younes, N.A. and Abo-Elyousr, K.A. (2014). Screening of some okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) genotypes to powdery mildew resistance and yield under agro-climatic conditions of Assiut, Egypt. International Journal of Agricultural Economics Dev., 2: 59-76.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) © Author (s)