Degenerative histopathalogical alterations were seen in gills due to chronic exposure of the fish, Labeo rohita to chlorides of chromium, nickel and zinc for 30 days. However, more severe degenerative changes were observed in case of zinc chloride exposed fish than nickel chloride and chromium chloride treated fishes, indicating more toxic nature of zinc chloride. Mucus secretion over the gill lamellae was seen prominently in all the experimental fishes. However, in zinc chloride treated fish there was excessive mucus secretion after ten days of exposure and
after thirty days, epithelial lifting was seen. In chromium chloride and nickel chloride treated fishes there was basal hyperplasia, which indicated compensatory mechanism in ion regulation to adjust with the toxic stress.
Chromium, Nickel, Zinc, Labeo rohita, Gill
Adham, K.G., Hamed S.S., Ibrahim H.M. and Saleh R.A. (2002). Impaired functions in nile tilapia, oreochromis niloticus L, from polluted waters. Acta. Hydrochem. Hydrobiol., 28: 278-288.
Ansari, I.M. and Srivastava G.J. (1984). Histopathological changes in the gills of Mystus vitattus (Bloch) induced by sodium nitrate. J. Environ. Biol., 5 (2), 89-93.
Antonio,F-F, V. F-C. Jorge, G-S. Sofia, M.M. Sandra, C. Joao, M.Pedro and Antanio Fontainhas-Fernandes (2007). Histopathological changes in liver and gill epithelium of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, exposed to waterborne copper. Pesq.Vet.Bras., 27(3): 103-109.
APHA (1998). American Public Health Association: Standard methods for examination of water and waste water. 20 th Ed: Lenore SC, Arnold EG and Andrew DE.
Arellano, J.M., Storch V. and Sarasquete, C. (1999). Histological changes and copper accumulation in liver and gills of Senegales sole, Solea senegalensis. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.,44: 62-72.
Au, D.W.T. (2004). The application of histo-cytopathological biomarkera in marine pollution monitoring: A review. Marine Pollut. Bull.,48: 817-834.
Bender, M. E. and Westman J. R. (1979).The toxicity of malathion and it’s hydrolysis products to the eastern mud minnow, Umbra pygmea (Dekay). Chesapeake Science, 17:125-128.
Campbell, H.A., Handy, R.D. and Nimmo, M. (1979). Copper uptake kinetics across the gills of rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss) measured using an improved isolated perfused head technique. Aquat. Toxicol., 46:177-190.
Chauhan, M.S. and Pandey A.K. (1987). Histopathological changes in the gills of Punctius ticto (Ham) following Khan river water exposure under ambient laboratory condition J.Environ.Biol., 8 (2): 121-127.
Chauhan, A. (1991). Effect of distillery effluent on liver Wain Ganga, Indian J. Env. Hlth, 33 (2): 203-207.
Christie, R.M. and Battle H.I., (1963). Histological effects of 3-trifluromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) on larval lamprey and trout. Can. J. Zool., 41: 51-61.
Christy, I. (1995). Respiratory and histopathological responses of Catla catla,exposed to heavy metal,chromium J. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Monit., 5 (4) : 263-268.
Farkas, A., Salanki, J. and Specziar, A. (2002). Relation between growth and heavy metal concentration in organs of bream,Abramis brama L. populating lake Balaton. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 43: 236-243.
Filipovic, V. and Raspor, B.(2003). Metallothionein and metal levels in cytosol of liver, Kidney and brain in relation to growth parameters of Mullus surmuletus and Liza aurata. From the eastern Adriatic Sea. Water Res., 37 (13): 3253-3262.
Gardner, G.R. and Yevich R.P.I. (1970). Histological and haematological responses of an estuarine teleost to cadmium. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can., 27: 2185-2196.
Gould, F. and Karolus, K.J.J. (1974). Physiological responses of cunner Tautogolobus adspersus to cadmium. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS. SSRF 681, 21-25.
Hughes, G.M. (1976). Polluted fish respiratory physiology. In: Effects of pollutants on aquatic organism. (Edt. Lockwood, A.P.M.), Cambridge University press, 160-183.
Hughes, G.M. (1985). Comparative studies of respiration as a guide to the selection of bio-indicators. Symp. Biomonitoring State Environ.,126-141.
Kock, G., Triendl, M. and Hofer, R. (1996). Seasonal patterns of metal accumulation in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) from an oligotrophic Alpine lake related to temperature. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 53:780-786.
Laurent, P. and Perry, S.F. (1991). Environmental effects on fish gill morphology. Physiol. Zool., 53:4-25.
Mallat, J. (1985). Fish gill structural changes induced by toxicants and other irritants: a statistical review. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 42 : 630-648.
Naidu, A. K., Abhinender Naidu, K., and Ramamurthy, R. (1983). Acute effect of mercury toxicity on gill of teleost, Sarotherodon mossambicus. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Safty., 7: 455.
Nicolaidou, A. and Nott, J. (1989). Heavy metal pollution induced by ferronickel smelting plant in Greece. Sci. of the Total Environ., 84:113-117.
Nriagu, J.O. and Pacyna, J.M. (1988). Quantitative assessment of worldwide contamination of air, water and soils by trace metals. Nature, 333:134-139.
Ojha, J. (1993). Functional organization of teleostean gills. In: Advances in fish research,1:71-98.
Olojo, E.A.A., Olurin, K.B., Mbaka G. and Oluwemimo A.D. (2005). Histopathology of gill and liver tissue of the african catfish Clarias gariepinus exposed to lead. African J. Biotechnol., 4(1) : 117-122.
Osman, M. M., EL-Fiky, S. A., Soheir, Y.M. and Abeer, A. I. (2009). Impact of water pollution on histopathological and eletrophoretic characters of Auriochromis niloticus fish. Res. J. Environ. Toxicol.,3(1): 9-23.
Perry, S.F. and Laurent, P. (1993). Environmental effects on fish gill structure and function, p.231-264. In: Rankin J.C. and Jensen F.B. (ed.), Fish Ecophysiology. Chapman and Hall, London.
Ramesh kumar, B., Vijayalakshmi S. and Rajmanickam C., (1988). Toxicity effect of zinc sulfate on gill in the freshwater fish Mystus vittatus. Abst. No 67 National Symposium on Ecotoxicology, Annamalai Nagar.
Roy, K.J. and Dutta Munshi, J. S. (1991). Mallathion induced structural and maphometric changes of gills of a fresh water major carp Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham). J. Environ. Biol., 12: 79-87.
Roy, P.K., Datta Munshi, J.S. and Datta Munshi, J. (1986). Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of saponin on ills of the climbing perch, Anabas testudineus (Bloch), Ind.J. Expt. Biol., 24: 511-516.
Sastry, K.V. and Sunitha K.M. (1984). Chronic toxic effects of chromium in Channa punctatus. J. Environ. Biol., 5: 4-5.
Srinivas, V.S. and Rao, M.B. (1999). Chromium induced alterations in the oxygen consumption of the freshwater fish, Labeo rohita (Ham.). Poll. Res., 18 (4): 377-380.
Srivastava, V.M.S. and Maurya, R.S. (1991) Effect of chromium stress on gill and intestine of Mystus vittatus (Bloch): Scanning EM study. J. Ecobiol., 3 (1): 69-71.
Srivastava, V.M.S., Tripathi R.S. and Saxena A. K. (1982). Chromium induced histopathologic changes in some tissues of Punctius sophere (Ham). J. Biol. Res., 2: 67-68.
Vinodhini R. and Narayanan M.., (2009). Heavy metal induced histopathological alterations in selected organs of the Cprinus carpio L. (Common Carp). Int. J. Environ. Res., 3 (1):95-100.
Weissnman, K. (1972). In: General zoological microtechniques, Blakiston company. Philadelphia.
Wilson, B.L., Schwarzer, R.R. and Etonyeaku N. (1986). The evaluation of heavy metals (Cr, Ni and Co) in the aqueous sediment surrounding a coal burning generating plant. J. Enviorn. Sci. Health, 21: 791-808.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) © Author (s)