The present investigation was aimed at formulating a fermented beverage with incorporation of Moringa Pod Powder (MPP) to develop therapeutic buttermilk. Dahi (prepared from standardized milk) mesophilic/ thermophilic dahi culture. Optimisation of the product formulation was done by using Response Surface Methodolo-gy (RSM) with central composite rotatable design (CCRD) with varying levels of MPP, total milk solids (TMS) in but-termilk and acidity of dahi. It was found that 5.60 % TMS, 0.90 % acidity of dahi and 1.92 % MPP gave the most acceptable product with a desirability of 0.917 which is very high. From amongst various stabilizers, it was found that a blend of 0.04 % pectin and 0.015 % carrageenan most suitable and addition of salt, sugar and spices blend @ 0.5 %, 4.0 %, 0.5% respectively were most acceptable. The proximate chemical composition of Moringa Pod Buttermilk (MPBM) was 11.77 % total solids, 1.51 % protein, 1.84 % fat and 0.89 % ash. One serving size (300 g) of MPBM could be an "excellent source of calcium" having 21 % Daily Value (DV). The product could be labelled as "a good source of Vitamin A, calcium and iron" providing 10, 18 and 11 % DV respectively. MPBM was found to have consid-erable amount of Potassium and Vitamin C and fiber (9.0, 9.0 and 6.5 % DV respectively). The shelf-life of the prod-uct was 20 days under refrigeration (7±2?C). The developed product is rich in fiber and iron, that is conventionally deficient in milk and hence makes the developed product complete food.
Buttermilk, Chhash, Drumstick Moringa, Moringa pod
BIS Handbook of food analysis (1989). SP: 18 (Part XI – Dairy Products). Bureau of Indian Standards, Manak Bhavan, Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, New Delhi, India.
Chandan, R. C. (2006). History and consumption trends. In Manufacturing of yogurt and fermented milks. 1st Edn. Blackwell Publishing Professional. Ames, Iowa Pp. 3-17.
Fahey, J.W. (2005). Moringa oleifera: A review of the medical evidence for its nutritional, therapeutic, and prophylactic properties. Trees Life J., 1:5-15
Indian Standards (1961). IS: 1479 (Part-II). Methods of testing for dairy industry Part-II. Rapid examination of milk. Indian Standards Institution, New Delhi.
Kosikowaski, F. (1982). Cheese and fermented milk products. Kosikowaski F. V. (Ed), Associates Publ., New York Pp, 568
Madukwe, E.U., Ezeugwu, J.O. and Eme, P.E. (2013). Nutrient composition and sensory evaluation of dry Moringa oleifera aqueous extract. Int. J. Basic & Applied Sci., 13(3):1303-1321
Maheta, R. G., Balakrishnan, S. and Aparnathi, K. D. (2014). Standardization of the method for utilization of paneer whey in cultured buttermilk. J. Food Sci. Technol., doi 10.1007/s13197-014-1301-1302
Mistry, V.V. (2001). Fermented milks and cream. In: Marth E. H. and Steele J. L., Eds. Applied Dairy Microbiology, Chapter 9, 2nd edition. Marcel Dekker, New York Pp, 301-325.
Mughal, M. H., Ali, G., Srivasta, P.S. and Iqbal, M. (1999). Improvement of drumstick (M. pterygosperma Gaertn) – a unique source of food and medicine through tissue culture. Harmdad Med., 42: 37-42
Nadeem, M. M., Abdullah, I., Hussain, S., Inayat, A., Javid, A. and Zahoor, Y. (2013). Antioxidant potential of Moringa oleifera leaf extract for the stabilisation of butter at refrigeration temperature. Czech. J. Food Sci., 31: 332-339
Pandey, A. K. (2013). Chapter 4 Composition and uses. In Drumstick (Moringa oileiferaLamk) A miracle health tree. Agrotech Publishing Academy, Udaipur Pp 60-95.
Ramachandran, C., Peter, K. V. and Gopalakrishnan, P. K. (1980). Drumstick (Moringa oleifera): A multipurpose Indian vegetable. Econ. Bot., 34(3):276-283
Rao, A.V. (2003). Selected technological parameters for manufacture of chhash. M. Sc. Thesis submitted to Anand Agricultural University, Anand.
Salem, A.S., Wafaa, M., Salama, A.M., Hassanein, Hanan, M.A. and Ghandour, E.L. (2013). Enhancement of nutritional and biological values of Labneh by adding dry leaves of Moringa oleifera as innovative dairy products. World Applied Sci. J., 22(11): 1594-1602
Stainier, R.Y., Adelberg, E.A. and Ingrahan, J.L. (1985). In: General Microbiology 4th Ed. MacMillian Pub. Ltd., London Pp 256-258
Steel, R.G.D. and Torrie, J.H. (1980). Principles and Procedures of Statistics. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Vanajakshi, V., Vijayendra, S.V.N., Varadaraj, M. C., Venkateswaran, G. and Agrawal, R. (2015). Optimization of a probiotic beverage based on Moringa leaves and beetroot. LWT - Food Sci. and Technol., 63(2): 1268-1273
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) © Author (s)