The study examined the extraction and consumption pattern of small timber and its socioeconomic and forest resource determinants among the rural people in district Ganderbal of Kashmir. The results showed that the total extraction of small timber from different sources in the sample villages was 39.46 tons annum-1, which is mostly consumed in housing and roofing (39.63%) followed by cattle shed/ store house (15.25%), rural furniture/ packing cases (14.75%), agricultural implements (13.25%), fencing (12.50%) and others (4.62%). The total small timber demand was 47.88 m3 annum-1, which is mostly procured from agroforestry (42.57%) followed by forests (26.09%), homestead forestry (17.05%) and social/ community forestry (14.29%). The people were destitute with respect to socioeconomic attributes while they are well-off regarding forest resource characteristics. Correlation and multiple regression analysis established a robust relationship between small timber consumption and socioeconomic and forest resource parameters. The small timber flow from forests to the sample villages is excessive as compared to the national estimates, creating threats to the biodiversity conservation and ecological stability of the adjoining forests. The over-utilization of forest biomass by the local people is leading to degradation of forest resources and diminished biomass productivity, which in turn induce socioeconomic and livelihood stress. Therefore, some alternative interventions are essential to be implemented efficiently to keep pace with current development and future challenges.
Consumption, Extraction, Forest resource, Kashmir, Small timber, Socioeconomic
Anonymous (2011). Directorate of economics and statistics, district statistics and evaluation office, Ganderbal, J&K, India.
Bedia, S. (2014). Study on the forest based livelihood for the selected tribal population of Ranchi district of Jhar-khand. B.Sc. Dissertation, Unpublished. Faculty Centre for Integrated Rural & Tribal Development and Man-agement, School of Agriculture and Rural Develop-ment, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India.
Binkley, C. (2005). A global emerging markets forestry investment strategy, Washington D.C: Suit 900.
Census of India (2011). A - 5 State Primary Census Abstract – 2011, India.
Chandra, R., Soni, P. and Yadav, V. (2008). Fuel wood, fodder and livestock in Himalayan watershed in Mussoorie hills, Uttarakhand, India. The Indian Forest-er, 135(10): 894-905
Chandramolly and Islam, M.A. (2015). Fuel wood, fodder and timber consumption status in a forest fringe tribal society of Jharkhand, India. International Journal of Forestry and Crop Improvement, 6(1): 71-76
Chaudhary, M.C. and Panjabi, N.K. (2005). Adoption behav-iour of tribal and non-tribal farmers regarding improved Social Forestry Practices. Rural India, 67(6): 140-141
Chaudhary, M.C., Panjabi, N.K. and Bhimawat, B.S. (2004). Factors responsible for adoption of Social Forestry pro-gramme in tribal areas of Rajasthan. Rural India, 66(4): 65-68
Dangwal, D.D. (2005). Commercialization of forests, timber extraction and deforestation in Uttaranchal. Conserva-tion and Society, 3(1): 110 – 133
Egeru, A., Majaliwa, J.G.M., Isubukalu, P.S., Mukwaya, P. and Katerega, E. (2010). The determinants of fuelwood demand: A case of Olio sub-county eastern Uganda. In: Second RUFORUM Biennial Meeting, pp. 1593-1598
FSI (2013). India State of Forest Report. Forest Survey of India, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govern-ment of India, New Delhi, pp. 286
Gangoo, S.A., Masoodi, T.H., Murtaza, Shah and M.A. Islam. (2015). Management of exotic poplars for pro-duction of quality timber and reducing cotton menace in Kashmir. The Indian Forester, 141(5): 514-519
Islam, M.A., Masoodi, T.H., Gangoo, S.A., Sofi, P.A., Bhat, G.M., Wani, A.A., Gatoo, A.A., Singh, A. and A.R. Malik. (2015a). Perceptions, attitudes and preferences in agroforestry among Rural Societies of Kashmir, In-dia. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 7(2): 976-983
Islam, M.A., Quli, S.M.S., Rai, R., Ali, Angrej and Gangoo, S.A. (2015b). Forest biomass flow for fuel wood, fodder and timber security among tribal communities of Jhar-khand. Journal of Environmental Biology, 36(1): 221-228
Khanduri, V.P., Sharma, C.M., Ghildiyal, S.K. and Puspwan, K.S. (2002). Forest composition in relation to socio-economic status of people at three altitudinal villages of a part of Garhwal Himalayas. The Indian Forester, 128(12): 1335-1345
Kumar, G.T.P. and Siddaramaiah, B.S. (1996). Influence of socio-psychological characteristics of participant farm-ers on their knowledge about Joint Forest Planning and Management. My Forest, 32(4): 259-63
Kumaresan, P. and Devi, R.G.G. (2009). Factors discriminat-ing the adoption of separate silkworm rearing houses in south India. Indian Journal of Sericulture, 48(1): 49-55
Larinde, S.L. and Olasupo, O. (2011). Socio-economic im-portance of fuel wood production in Gambari forest reserve area, Nigeria. Agriculture and Social Research, 11(1):201-210
MoEF (2009). Asia-Pacific Forestry Sector Outlook Study II: India Country Report. Ministry of Environment and Forests, Working Paper No. APFSOS II/WP/2009/06, FAO, Bangkok: pp. 78
Mukherjee, N. (1993). Participatory Rural Appraisal. Meth-odology and Applications, Concept Publishing Compa-ny, Delhi.
Mushtaq, T., Sood, K.K. and Peshin, R. (2015). Delineating key determinants of domestic fuel wood consumption of rural households in western Himalaya- policy implica-tions. J. Mt. Sci., 11(1): 195-204
Mushtaq, T., Sood, K.K. and Raina, N.S. (2012). Species preferences for fuel wood in Shiwalik Himalayas- im-plications for agroforestry plantations. Indian Journal of Hill Farming, 25(2): 18-21.
Nagesha, G. and Gangadharappa, N.B. (2006). Adoption of agroforestry systems in north eastern districts of Karna-taka. My Forest, 42(4): 337-347
Pal, G. (2011). Socio-economic characteristics of lac growers in Kanker district of Chhattisgarh. The Indian Forester, 137(11): 1294-1297
Pandey, R. and Mishra, A. (2011). Livestock fodder require-ments and household characteristics in rural economy of hilly region, Uttarakhand. Himalayan Ecology, 34(4): 35-40
Ponnusamy, K. and Gupta, J. (2006). Factors influencing sustainable livelihood parameters in different farming systems. Asian Journal of Extension Education, 25(1&2): 5-9
Prakash, O. and Sharma, R. (2008). Determining people’s participation in forest fire control: a study of Himachal Pradesh. Indian Journal of Forestry, 31(1): 1-6
Rai, S.N. and Chakrabarti, S.K. (2001). Demand and supply of fuel wood and timber in India. The Indian Forester, 127(3): 23-29
Rai, S.N. and Chakrabarti, S.K. (1996). Demand and supply of fuel wood, timber and fodder in India. Forest Survey of India, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Deh-radun, pp. 36
Ray, G.L. and Mondol, S. (2004). Research Methods in So-cial Sciences and Extension Education, Kalyani Pub-lishers, New Delhi, 66-76
Sapkota, I.P. and Odén, P.C. (2008). Household characteris-tics and dependency on community forests in Terai of Nepal. International Journal of Social Forestry, 1(2): 123-144
Sarmah, R. and Arunachalam, A. (2011). Contribution of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) to livelihood econ-omy of people living in forest fringes in Changlang district of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Ind. J. Fund. Appl. Life Sci., 1(2): 157-169
Sati, V.P. and Song, C. (2012). Estimation of forest biomass flow in the montane mainland of the Uttarakhand Hima-laya. International Journal of Forest, Soil and Erosion, 2(1): 1-7
Sharma, J., Gairola, S. Gaur, R.D. and Painuli, R.M. (2012). Forest utilization patterns and socio-economic status of the Van Gujjar tribe in sub-Himalayan tracts of Uttarak-hand, India. Forestry Studies in China, 14(1): 36-46.
Singha, A.K., Talukdar, R.K. and Singha, J.K. (2006). Maintenance behaviour of forest resources by the peo-ple of forest villagers in Assam. Indian Journal of For-estry, 29(1): 47-54
Snedecor, G.W. and Cochran, W.G. (1967). Statistical meth-ods. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa-50010
Sood, K.K., Najiar, C., Singh, K.A., Handique, P., Singh, B. and Rethy, P. (2008). Association between socio-economic parameters and agroforestry uptake: evidenc-es from eastern Himalaya. Indian Journal of Forestry, 31(4): 559-564
Srivastava, S. (2006). Dependence of local people and issues in conserving local resources: case of Dalma wildlife sanctuary, Jharkhand. Indian Forester, 132(1): 31-42
Thamban, C., Vasanthakumar, J., Arulraj, S., Mathew, A.C. and Muralidharan, K. (2008). Farmer’s participation in the field implementation of micro-irrigation systems. Journal of Plantation Crops, 36(3): 522-525
Venkataramaiah, P. (1990). Development of socio-economic status scale, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Agricultural Extension, UAS, Bangalore
World Bank (2006). India: Unlocking Opportunities for Forest Dependent People in India. Report No. 34481 - IN, World Bank: South Asia Region, pp. 85
Yadav, M. and Basera, K. (2013). Status of Forest Products Production and Trade Working paper - Centre for SFM & FC, IIFM Bhopal, pp. 1-14
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) © Author (s)