Maize (Zea mays L.) crop is attacked by number of fungal, bacterial and viral diseases, out of which banded leaf and sheath blight (BLSB) caused by anastomosis group 1-IA of Rhizoctonia solani f. sp. sasakii Exner. is one of the most widespread and destructive disease of maize in Southeast Asian countries. The occurrence of this disease has also been reported from other parts of the world, which causes significant yield loss up to 100%. R. solani can survive in the soil for several years and able to infect plants belonging to more than 32 families, including many economically important monocots and dicots plants. The severity of the disease favoured by humid weather with temperature around 28°C, poses challenge to maize growers due to its soil borne nature and lack of resistance cultivars. It is indicated that none of the disease management approaches are effective against BLSB. Banded leaf and sheath blight is difficult to control through either fungicide or crop rotation alone. A number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling BLSB have been identified that would help the development of maize hybrids resistance to this disease. Management of BLSB requires an integrated approach based on the knowledge of each stage of the disease and molecular aspect of maize defence responses against R. solani. Mention conclusion statement and novelty of the work. The present review summarizes consolidated information on distribution, yield loss, symptoms, pathogen life cycle, epidemiology, genetic structure of the pathogen population, molecular aspect of pathogenicity and its integrated management through cultural, biological, chemical and genetic means. The consolidated knowledge presented in this review should help better disease management and reduce crop yield loss due to banded leaf and sheath blight pathogen.
Banded leaf and sheath blight, Biological control, Genetic variability, Rhizoctonia solani f. sp. sasakii, Zea mays
Ahuja, S.C. and Payak, M. M. (1985). Comparative biology, pathology and karyology of rice and maize isolates of Rhizoctonia solani f. sp. sasakii. Int. Rice Res. Newsl.10: 5-6.
Ahuja, S.C. and Payak, M. M. (1986). In vitro response of maize and rice isolates of Rhizoctonia solani to antibiotic and fungi-toxicants. Int. Rice Res. Newsl.11: 16
Ahuja, S.C. and Payak, M. M. (1988). Banded leaf and Sheath blight of maize. In: Agnihotri, V.P.; Sarbhoy. A.K. and Kumar, D. (eds.) Perspectives in Mycology and Plant Pathology, Malhotra Publishing House, New Delhi, India. pp. 1:186.
Ahuja, S.C. and Payak, M.M. (1982). Symptoms and signs of banded leaf and sheath blight in maize. Phytopapasitica 10: 41-49
Akhtar, J., Jha, V.K. and Lal, H.C. (2009). Occurrence of Banded Leaf and Sheath blight of Maize in Jharkhand with Reference to Diversity in Rhizoctonia solani. Asian J. Agri. Sci. 1 (2): 32-35.
Akhtar, J., Kumar, V., Tiu, K.R. and Lal, H.C. (2010). Integrated management of banded leaf and sheath blight disease of maize. Plant Dis. Res. 25 (1): 35-38.
Alexander, D., Goodman, R.M., Gut-Rella, M., Glascock, C., Weymann, K., Friedrich, L., Maddox, D., Ahl-Goy, P., Luntz, T. and Ward, E. (1993). Increased tolerance to two oomycete pathogens in transgenic tobacco expressing pathogenesis-related protein 1a. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 90: 7327-7331.
Anderson, N. A. (1982). The genetics and pathology of Rhizoctonia solani, Annu. Rev. Phtopathol. 20, 329-344.
Anuratha, C.S., Zen, K.C., Cole, K.C., Muthukrishnan, S. and Mew, T. (1996). Induction of chitinases and ?-1,3- glucanases in Rhizoctonia solani-infected rice plants: Isolation of an infection-related chitinase cDNA clone. Physiol. Planta., 97(1): 39-46.
Asea, G., Vivek, B.S., Lipps, P.E. and Pratt, R.C. (2012). Genetic gain and cost efficiency of marker-assisted selection of maize for improved resistance to multiple foliar pathogens. Mol. Breeding 29: 515-527.
Back, M.A., Haydock, P.P.J. and Jenkinson, P. (2002). Disease complexes involving plant parasitic nematodes and soilborne pathogens. Plant Pathol. 51: 683-697.
Baker, C.J. and Bateman, D.F. (1978). Cutin degradation by the plant pathogenic fungi. Phytopathol. 68: 1577-1584.
Banniza, S. and Rutherford, M.A. (2001). Diversity of isolates of Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IA and their relationship to other anastomosis groups based on pectic zymograms and molecular analysis. Mycol. Res. 105: 33-40.
Banniza, S., Sy, A.A., Bridge, P.D., Simons, S.A. and Holderness, M. (1999). Characterization of populations of Rhizoctonia solani in paddy rice fields in Cote d’ Ivoire. Phytopathol. 89: 414-420.
Baruah, P. and Lal, S. (1981). Host range of Rhizoctonia solani f. sp. sasakii, then incitant of banded sclerotial disease of maize. Indian Phytopathol. 34: 494-496.
Bernardes-De-Assis, J., Storari, M., Zala, M., Wang, W.X., Jiang, D.H., Li, S.D., Jin, M., McDonald, B.A. and Ceresini, P.C. (2009). Genetic structure of populations of the rice-infecting pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG1- IA from china. Phytopathol.,99:1090-1099
Bertagnolli, B.L. Dal Soglio, F.H. and Sinclair, J.B. (1996). Extracellular enzyme profiles of the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani isolate 2B-12 and two antagonists, Bacillus megaterium strain B153-2-2 and Trichoderma harzianum isolate Th008. I. Possible correlations with inhibition of growth and biocontrol. Physiol. Mol. Plant Path. 48: 145-160.
Bertus, L.S. (1927). Year book. Department of Agriculture, Ceylon, pp 44-46.
Binder, M., Hibbett, D., Larsson, K., Larsson, E., Langer, E. and Langer, G. (2005). The phylogenetic distribution of resupinate forms across the major clades of mushroomforming fungi (Homobasidiomycetes). Syst. Biodivers.,3 (2): 1-45
Buddemeyer, J.G., Buttner, M.E., Fuhrer, I. and Petersen, J. (2004). Genetic variation in susceptibility of maize to Rhizoctonia solani (AG 2-IIIB) symptoms and damage under field conditions in Germany Ltd. J. Plant Dis. Protec. 111(6): 521-533.
Bunker, R.N., Trivedi, A. and Mathur, K. (2012). Integrated management of banded leaf and sheath blight of maize caused by Rhizoctonia solani f. sp. sasakii. J. Mycol. Plant Pathol. 42:367–371.
Caesar, A.J., Caesar, T. and Maathuis, M.H. (2010). Pathogenicity, characterization and comparative virulence of Rhizoctonia spp. from insect-galled roots of Lepidium draba in Europe. Biol. Control. 52: 140-144.
Campbell, M.A., Fitzgerald, H.A. and Ronald, P.C. (2002) Engineering pathogen resistance in crop plants. Transgenic Res. 11: 599–613.
Charoensopharat, K., Aukkanit, N., Thanonkeo, S., Saksirirat, W., Thanonkeo, P. and Akiyana, K. (2008). Targeted disruption of a G protein alpha subunit gene results in reduction growth and pathogenicity in Rhizoctonia solani. World J. Microb. Biot. 24: 345-351.
Chen, J., Tang, C., Gao, Z., Xue, C., Niu, X. and Song, Z. (2000). On penetration process of sheath blight pathogen in maize. J. Shenyang Agric. Univ. 31: 503–506.
Chen, G.P., Tan, H., Zheng, D.B., Yang, L.T. and Li, Y.R. (2009). QTL mapping of resistance to banded leaf and sheath blight in maize. Southwest China J. Agri. Sci. 22: 950-955.
Chikara, R.K., Malik, V. and Kumar, U. (2015). Identification of RAPD based genetic variability in Rhizoctonia solani isolates from Northern India. Internatl. J. Recent Biotechnol. 3(2): 25-30.
Cubeta, M.A., Dean, R.A., Thomas, E., Bayman, P., Jabaji, S., Neate, S., et al. (2009). Rhizoctoniz solani genome project: providing insight into a link between beneficial and plant pathogenic fungi. Phytopathol., 99: S166.
Cubeta, M.A., Thomas,E., Dean, R.A., Jabaji, S., Neate, S.M., Tavantzis, S., Toda, T., Vilgalys, R., Bharathan, N., Fedorova-Abrams, N., Pakala, S.B., Pakala, S.M., Zafar, N., Joardar, V., Losada, L. and Nierman, W.C. (2014). Draft genome sequence of the plant-pathogenic soil fungus Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 3 stari Rhs 1 AP. Genome Announc. 2(5): e1072-14.
Dahima, V., Sharma, S.S., Khokhar, M.K. and Hooda, K.S. (2014). Post-infectional biochemical changes in maize leaves affected by banded leaf and sheath blight disease. Indian Phytopathol. 67 (4): 370-373.
Dalmacio, S.C., Lozano, G.P., De, L.P. and Candole, B.L. (1990). Mechanical, biological and chemical control of banded leaf and sheath blight on maize caused by Rhizoctonia solani [Philippines]. Plant Dis. Res., 20:133–156
Dangl, J.L. and Jones, J.D. (2001). Plant pathogens and integrated defense responses to infection. Nature 411: 826-33.
Datta, K., Velazhahan, R., Oliva, N., Ona, I., Mew, T., Khush, G.S., Muthukrishnan, S., Datta, S.K. (1999). Over-expression of the cloned rice thaumatin-like protein (PR-5) gene in transgenic rice plants enhances environmental friendly resistance to Rhizoctonia solani causing sheath blight disease. Theor. Appl. Genet., 98: 1138-1145.
Demirci, E. and Döken, M.T. (1998). Host penetration and infection by the Anastomosis groups Rhizoctonia solani Kühn isolated from potatoes. Turk. J. Agri. For. 22: 609-613.
Dodman, R.L. and Flentje, N.T. (1970). The mechanism and physiology of plant penetration by Rhizoctonia solani. In: Parmeter, J.R. (ed) Rhizoctonia solani, Biology and Pathology, University of California Press, Berkeley/Los Angeles/London, pp 149-160.
Fang, X., Finnegan, P.M. and Barbetti, M.J. (2013). Wide variation in virulence and genetic diversity of binucleate Rhizoctonia isolates associated with root rot of strawberry in Western Australia. PloS One, 8(2): e55877.
FAO (2015). FAOSTAT, Production. Accessed on February 2 3, 201 6. h t tp: / / fao s t at . fao .org/ s i t e /56 7 /DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=567#ancor.
Fenille, R.C., Ciampi, M.B., Kuramae, E.E. and Souza, N.L. (2003). Identification of Rhizoctonia solani associated with soybean in Brazil by rDNA-ITS sequences. Fitopatologia Brasileira 28: 413-9.
Fiers, M., Edel-Hermann, V., H?raud, C., Gautheron, N., Chatot, C., Hingrat, Y.L., Bouchek-Mechiche, K. and Steinberg, C. (2011). Genetic diversity of Rhizoctonia solani associated with potato tubers in France. Mycologia 103(6): 1230-1244.
Flor, H.H. (1971). Current status of the gene-for-gene concept. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 9: 275-296.
Gad, M.A., Ibrahim, N.A. and Bora, T.C. (2013). RAPD Based Genetic Variation in Rhizoctonia sp. in India. J. Biochem. Chem. Res. 30(1): 67-75.
Gao, J., Chen, Z., Luo, M., Peng, H., Lin, H., Qin, C., Yuan, G., Shen, Y., Ding, H., Zhao, M., Pan, G. and Zhang, Z. (2014). Genome expression profile analysis of the maize sheath in response to inoculation to R. solani. Mol. Biol. Rep. 41: 2471-2483.
Gao, S. and Nuss, D.L. (1996). Distinct roles for two G protein a subunits in fungal virulence, morphology, and reproduction revealed by targeted gene disruption. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 93: 14122-14127.
Garg, A., Prasanna, B.M. and Sharma, R.C. (2009). Genetic analysis and mapping of QTLs for resistance to banded leaf and sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani f. sp. sasakii) in maize. In: Proceedings of 10th Asian regional maize workshop (October 20-23, 2008, Makassar, Indonesia). CIMMYT, Mexico DF (in press).
Gonzãlez-Garcia, V., Portal Onco, M.A. and Rubio Susan, V. (2006). Review: biology and systematics of the genus Rhizoctonia. Spanish J. Agri. Res. 4(1): 55-79.
Gonzalez-Vera, A.D., Bernardes-De-Assis, J., Zala, M., McDonald, B.A. Correa-Victoria, F., Graterol-Matute, E.J. et al. (2010). Divergence between sympatric rice- and maize infecting populations of Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IA from Latin America. Phytopathol. 100: 172-182
Hafiz, A. (1986). Plant Disease. Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad, pp 93-102
Hane, J.K., Anderson, J.P., Williams, A.H., Sperscneider, J. and Singh, K.B. (2014). Genome Sequencing and Comparative Genomics of the Broad Host-Range Pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG8. PLoS Genet. 10(5): e10042281
Hooda, K.S., Khokhar, M.K., Parmar, H., Gogoi, R., Joshi, D., Sharma, S.S. and Yadav, O.P. (2015). Banded Leaf and Sheath Blight of Maize: Historical Perspectives, Current Status and Future Direction. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., India, Sect. B Biol. Sci., 1-12
Huang, M., Tan, J., Yang, J. and Yang, K. (2007). Research advances on Banded leaf and Sheath Blight of maize. Southwest China J. Agric. Sci. 8: 129-137
Huang, S.W., Wang, L., Wang, Q.Y., Tang, S.Q., Chen, H.Z. and Zhu, D.F. (2008). Rice sheath blight pathogen impacts the activities of disease resistance-related enzymes in leaves of different rice verities. Chinese J. Rice Sci. 22: 219-222.
Izhar, T. and Chakraborty, M. (2013). Genetic analysis of banded leaf and sheath blight resistance (Rhizoctonia solani) in maize. J. Pharmacogn. Phytochem. 1: 1-5
Jain, S., Akiyama, K., Mae, K., Ohguchi, T. and Takata, R. (2002). Targeted disruption of a G protein ? subunit gene results in reduced pathogenicity in Fusarium oxysporum. Curr. Genet. 41: 407-413.
Jayaraj, J., Ranganathan, B., Ramalingam, R., Muthukrishnan, S. and Rethinasamy, V. (2010). Oxalic acid-induced resistance to Rhizoctonia solani in rice is associated with induction of phenolics, peroxidase and pathogenesis-related proteins. J. Plant Interaction 5: 147-157.
Jayasinghe, C.K., Wijayaratne, S.C.P. and Fernando, T.H.P.S. (2004). Characterization of cell wall degrading enzymes of Thanatephorus cucumeris. Mycopathologia 157: 73-79
Jedidah, D., Kikuo, W. and Akihiro, N. (2000). Invertase activities in sheath-blight infected rice selection lines and fungus culture filtrates. J. Gen. Plant Pathol., 66 (3): 202-205.
Joshi, P.K., Singh, N.P., Singh, N.N., Gerpacio, R.V. and Pingali, P.L. (2005). Maize in India: production systems, constraints, and research priorities. International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT), Mexico. D.F.
Kato, A. and Incue, Y. (1995). Resistance to banded leaf and sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani Kühn) after fall of lower sheaths in maize (Zea mays L). Bulletin of the National Grass/and Research Institute (Japan) 51:1–5.
Keijer, J. (1996a). The initial steps of the infection process in Rhizoctonia solani. In: Sneh, B., Jabaji-Hare, S., Neate, S. and Dijst, G. (eds) Rhizoctonia species: Taxonomy, Molecular Biology, Ecology, Pathology and Disease control. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands. pp 149-162.
Keijer, J., Houterman, P.M., Dullemans, A.M. and Korsman, M.G. (1996b). Heterogeneity in electrophoretic karyotype within and between anastomosis groups of Rhizoctonia solani. Mycol. Res. 100: 789-797.
Khan, A.A. and Sinha, A.P. (2007). Screening of Trichoderma spp. against Rhizoctonia solani the causal agent of rice sheath blight. Indian Phytopathol. 60(4): 450-456.
Khodayari, M., Safaie, N. and Shamsbakhsh, M. (2009). Genetic Diversity of Iranian AG1-IA Isolates of Rhizoctonia solani, the Cause of Rice Sheath Blight, Using Morphological and Molecular Markers. J. Phytopathol. 157: 708-714.
Knight, B.C. and Bunil, W.D. (1964). Sharp eye spots of maize. Plant Pathol. 13: 138.
Kumar, R. and Singh, I.S. (2002). Inheritance of resistance to banded leaf and sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani f. sp. sasakii) of maize (Zea mays L.). Proceeding of the 8th ASIAN Regional Maize Workshop, Bangkok, Thailand, pp 356-365.
Lal, S., Baruah, P. and Butchaiah, K. (1980). Assessment of yield losses in maize cultivars due to banded leaf sclerotial disease. Indian Phytopathol. 29: 129-132.
Lal, S., Butchaiah, K. and Baruah, P. (1985). Comparative efficacy of some fungicides and antibiotics in control of banded sclerotial disease of maize. Pesticides 19: 17-19.
Li, L., Wright, S.J., Krystofova, S., Park, G. and Borkovich, K.A. (2007). Heterotrimeric G protein signalling in filamentous fungi. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 61: 423-452.
Li, L., YongYi, M., ZhiMing, Z., PengFei, L., GuangTang, P. and MaoJun, Z. (2009). Functional effects of different defence enzymes on banded leaf and sheath blight of maize. J. Maize Sci. 17: 99-102.
Lin, H.J., Tan, D.F., Zhang, Z.M., Lan, H., Gao, S.B., Rong, T.Z. and Pan, G.T. (2008). Analysis of digenic epistatic and QTL × environment interaction for resistance to banded leaf and sheath blight in maize (Zea mays L.). Int. J. Agri. Biol. 10: 605-611
Linde, C.C., Zala, M., Paulraj, R.S.D., McDonald, B.A. and Gnanamanickam, S. (2005). Population structure of the rice sheath blight pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IA from India. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 112: 113-121.
Liu, L., Ma, Y.Y., Zhang, Z.M., Pan, G.T. and Zhao, M.J. (2009). cDNA-AFLP analysis of Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IA-induced maize differential gene expression. Acta. Phytopathol. Sinica., 39(4): 385-391.
Liu, L., Zhang, Z., Zhao, .M, Wang, J., Lin, H., Shen, Y. and Pan, G. (2011). Molecular cloning and characterization of pathogenesis-related protein 5 in Zea mays and its antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 10: 19286-19293.
Liu, Z.L. and Sinclair, J.B. (1993b). Differentiation of intraspecific group within anastomosis group 1 of Rhizoctonia solani using ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer and isozyme comparison. Canadian J. Plant Pathol. 15: 271-280.
Liu, Z.L. and Sinclair, J.B. (1993a). Differentiation of intraspecific groups within anastomosis group I of Rhizoctonia solani species complex. Mycologia 85: 797-800.
Lu, Y.L, Xu, J., Yuan, Z.M., Hao, Z.F. Xie, C.X., Li, X.H., Shah, T., Lan, H., Zhang, S.H., Rong, T.Z. and Xu, Y.B. (2012). Cooperative LD mapping using single SNPs and haplotypes identifies QTL for plant height and biomass as secondary traits of drought tolerance in maize. Mol. Breeding 30: 407-418.
Madhavi, G.B., Bhattiprolu, S.L., Bharathi, S., Reddy, V.C. and Ankaiah, R. (2011). Studies on the management of banded leaf and sheath blight disease of maize (Rhizoctoniz solani f. sp. sasakii) using fluorescent Pseudomonads. In: Proc. 2nd Asian PGPR Conference, Beijing P.R. China, pp 567-576.
Marshall, D.S. and Rush, M.C. (1980). Relation between infection by Rhizoctonia solani and R. oryzae and disease severity in rice. Phytopathol. 70: 941-946.
Matsuyama, N., Moromizato, Z., Ogoshi, A. and Wakimoto, S. (1978). Grouping Rhizoctonia solani with nonspecific esterase zymogram. Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Jpn., 44: 652-658
Meena, R., Rathore, L. and KusumMathur, R.S. (2003a). Evaluation of fungicides and plant extracts against banded leaf and sheath blight of maize. Indian J. Plant Protec. 31 (1): 94-97
Meena, R., Rathore, L. and KusumMathur, R.S. (2003b). Efficacy of biocontrol agents against Rhizoctonia solani f. sp. sasakii causing banded leaf and sheath blight of maize. J. Mycol. Plant Pathol. 33(2): 310-312.
Mehra, R., Kamboj, M.C., Mehla, J.C., Madan, L. and Chand, M. (2012). Status of maize diseases and their management in Haryana. In: Proceedings of national seminar on sustainable agriculture and food security: challenges in changing climate. CCS HAU, Hisar, pp 217. 27–28 Mar 2012.
Mondal, A., Dutta, S., Nandi, S., Das, S. and Chaudhuri, S. (2012). Changes in defence-related enzymes in rice responding to challenges by Rhizoctonia solani. Arch. Phytopath. Plant Protec. 45: 1840-1851.
Muis, A. and Quimio, A.J. (2006). Biological control of banded leaf and sheath blight disease (Rhizoctonia solani Kühn) in corn with formulated Bacillus subtilis BR23. Indonesian J. Agri. Sci. 7(1): 1-7.
Neeraja, C.N., Shenoy, V.V., Reddy, C.S. and Sharma, N.P. (2000a). Isozyme polymorphism and virulence of Indian isolates of the rice sheath blight fungus. Mycopathologia 159: 101-108.
Neeraja, C.N., Vijayabhanu, N., Shenoy, V.V., Reddy, C.S. and Sharma, N.P. (2000b). RAPD analysis of Indian isolates of rice sheath blight fungus Rhizoctonia solani. J. Plant Biochem. Biotechnol. 11: 43-48
Neves, S.R., Ram, P.T. and Iyengar, R. (2002). G protein pathways. Science 296: 1636-1639
Nuss, E.T. and Tanumihardjo, S.A. (2010). Maize: a paramount stable crop in the context of global nutrition. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 9:417-436.
Ogoshi, A. (1975). Grouping of Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and their perfect stages. Rev. Plant Prot. Res. Japan 8: 93-103
Ogoshi, A. (1987). Ecology and pathogenicity of anastomosis and interspecific groups of Rhizoctonia solani Kühn. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 25: 125-143
Parmeter, J.R. (1970). Rhizoctoniz solani: Biology and Pathology. University of California Press, USA, pp 255
Parmeter, J.R., Sherwood, R.T. and Platt, W.D. (1969). Anastomosis grouping among isolates of Thanatephorus cucumeris. Phytopathol. 59: 1270-1278.
Peltonen, S. (1995). Comparison of xylanases production by fungal pathogens of barley with special preference to Bipolaris sorokiniana. Mycol. Res. 99: 717-723
Rakesh, D., Guleria, S.K. and Thakur, D.R. (2011). Evaluation of seed dressing fungicides for the management of banded leaf & sheath blight of maize. Plant Dis. Res. 26 (2): 169
Rani, V.D., Reddy, P.N. and Devi, G.U. (2013). Banded leaf and sheath blight of maize incited by Rhizoctonia solani f. sp. sasakii and its management- A review. Int. J. Appl. Biol. Pharma Tech. 4: 52-6.
Regenfelder, E., Spellig, T., Hartmann, A., Lauenstein, S., Bolker, M. and Kahmann, R. (1997). G protein in Ustilago mayis: transmission of multiple signals. EMBO Journal 16: 1934-1942.
Rosewich, U.L., Pettway, R.E., McDonald, B.A. and Kistler, H.C. (1999). High level of gene flow and heterozygote excess characterize Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA (Thanatephorus cucumeris) from Texas. Fungal Genet. Biol. 28: 148-159.
Sahar, A., El-Sayed, Rania, Z., El-Shennawy and Tolba, A.F. (2009). Efficacy of chemical and biological treatments for controlling soil borne pathogens of soybean. J Agri. Sci. 17(1): 163-173.
Saxena, S. C. (1997). Banded leaf and Sheath blight of maize. In: Agnihotri, V.P.; Sarbhoy. A.K. and Singh, D.V (eds) Management of threatening plant diseases of national importance. Malhotra Publishing House, New Delhi, pp 31-50.
Saxena, S.C. (2002). Bio-Intensive Integrated Disease Management of Banded Leaf & Sheath Blight of Maize. In: Proc. of the 8th Asian Regional Maize Workshop, Bangkok, Thailand, pp 380-390.
Sharma, R.C (2005). Banded leaf and sheath blight (Rhizoctona solani f. sp. sasakii) of maize. In: Zaidi P.H. and Singh, N.N. (eds), Stresses of maize in Tropics, pp 159-171.
Sharma, R.C. and Hembram, D. (1990). Leaf stripping: a method to control banded leaf and sheath blight of maize. Current Sci., 59:745–746.
Sharma, R.C. and Rai, S.N. (1999). Chemical control of banded leaf and sheath blight of maize. Indian Phytopathol. 52 (1): 94-95.
Sharma, R.C., Vasal, S.K., Gonzalez, F., Batsa, B.K. and Singh, N.N. (2002). Redressal of banded leaf and sheath blight of maize through breeding, chemical and biocontrol agents, pp. 391-397. In: Proceed of the 8th Asian Regional Maize Workshop; New Technologies for the New Millennium, Bangkok.
Sharma, R.R. (1999). Pathological and biological attribute of Rhizoctonia solani f. sp. sasakii Exner, the causal organism of banded leaf and sheath blight of maize. M. Sc. Thesis, RAU, RCA, Udaipur.
Singh, A. and Shahi, J.P. (2012). Banded leaf and sheath blight: an emerging disease of maize (Zea mays L.). Maydica 57: 215-219.
Singh, A. and Singh, D. (2011). Integrated disease management strategy of banded leaf and sheath blight of maize. Plant Dis. Res., 26:192.
Singh, B.M and Sharma, Y.R. (1976). Evaluation of maize germplasm to banded sclerotial disease and assessment of yield loss. Indian Phytopathol. 29: 129-132.
Sivakumar, G., Sharma, R.C. and Rai, S.N. (2000). Biocontrol of banded leaf and sheath blight of maize by peat based Pseudomonas fluorescence formulation. Indian Phytopathol. 53 (2): 190-192.
Sneh, B., Burpee, L., and Ogoshi, A. (1991). Identification of Rhizoctonia species. St. Paul: The American Phytopathological Society.
Stevens Johnk, J. and Jones, R.K. (1994). Comparison of whole cell fatty acid compositions in intra-specific groups of Rhizoctonia solani AG-1. Phytopathol.84: 271-275.
Susheela, K. and Reddy, C.S. (2013). Variability in Rhizoctonia solani (AG1-IA) isolates causing sheath blight of rice in India. Indian Phytopathol. 64(4): 341-350.
Taheri, P., Gnanamanickam, S. and Höfte, M. (2007). Characterization, genetic structure, and pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia spp. associated with rice sheath diseases in India. Phytopathol.97: 373-383.
Tang, H.T., Rong, T.Z. and Yang, J.P. (2004). Research advance on sheath blight (Zea mays L.) in maize. J. Maize Sci., 12: 93.
Trivedi, A. and Rathore, R.S. (2006). New grass hosts for Banded leaf and sheath blight of maize. Indian Phytopathol. 59: 253-254.
Vimla, B., Mukherjee, B.K and Ahuja, V.P. (1988). Combining ability analysis for resistance to banded leaf and sheath blight of maize. Indian J. Genet. 48: 75-79.
Wang, L., Liu, L.M, Hou, Y.X., Li, L. and Huang, S.W. (2015). Pathotypic and genetic diversity in the population of Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IA causing rice sheath blight in China. Plant Pathol. 64: 718-728.
Wendland, J. (2001). Comparison of morphogenetic networks of filamentous fungi and yeast. Fungal Genet. Biol. 34: 985-990.
Wibberg, D., Jelonek, L., Rupp, O., Hennig, M., Eikmeyer, F., Goesmann, A., Hartmann, A., Borriss, R., Grosch, R., Pühler, A. and Schlüter, A. (2013). Establishment and interpretation of the genome sequence of the phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani AG-IB isolate 7/3/14. J. Biotechnol. 167: 142-155.
Wiltshire, S.P. (1956). Plant Disease in British Colonial Dependencies; A half-yearly report. F.A.O. Plant Protection Bulletin 5: 66.
Wu, W., Huang, J., Cui, K., Nie, L., Wang, Q., Yang, F., Shah, F., Yao, F., and Peng, S. (2012). Sheath blight reduces stem breaking resistance and increases lodging susceptibility of rice plants. Field Crops Res., 128: 101-108.
Xia, H.B., Wu, E.Y. and Yu, J.F. (2008). The anastomosis groups of the corn sheath blight pathogen Rhizoctonia spp. in huanghuai plain and haihe plain of China. Mycosystema, 27: 360-367.
Yobo, K.S., Laing, M.D., Hunter, C.H. and Morris, M.J. (2004). Biological control of Rhizoctonia solani by two Trichoderma species isolated from South African composted soil. S. Afr. J. Plant Soil, 88: 265-268.
Zhang Z, Li W, Zhao M, Rong T, Pan G, Jeffers DP, Zhang S (2006) Quantitative trait loci for resistance to banded leaf and sheath blight in maize. Crop Sci. 46:1039–1045.
Zhang Z, Liu L, Lin H, Yuan G, Zeng X, Shen Y, Zhao M, Zhao Q, Pan G (2012) Identification of genes differentially expressed in maize (Zea mays L.) during Rhizoctonia Solani Kühn infection by suppression subtractive hybridization. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 11:2827–2838.
Zhang, Z.M., Liu, L., Wang, J., Zhao, M.J. and Pan, G.T. (2010). Cloning and characterization of a senescence a ssociated protein gene (ZmSAP) induced by Rhizoctonia solani in maize. Acta. Phytopathol. Sinica., 40(4): 373-380.
Zhao, M.J., Zhang, Z.M., Zhang, S.H., Li, W., Jeffers, D.P., Rong, T.Z. and Pan, G.T. (2006). Quantitative trait loci for resistance to banded leaf and sheath blight in maize. Crop Sci. 46: 1039-1045.
Zheng, A., Lin, R., Zhang, D., Qin, P., Xu, L., Ai, P., Ding, L., Wang, Y., Chen, Y., Liu, Y., Sun, Z., Feng, H., Liang, X., Fu, R., Tang, C., Li, Q., Zhang, J., Xie, Z., Deng, Q., Li, S., Wang, S., Zhu, J., Wang, L., Liu, H. and Li, P. (2013). The evolution and pathogenic mechanisms of the rice sheath blight pathogen. Nature Communic. 4: 1424.
Zhou, S. Y., Liu, Y., Zhang, M., Li, B.D., Chen, X.J., and Liang, W. X. (2016). Comparison of the virulence and cognate virulence factors of multinucleate, binucleate and uninucleate Rhizoctonia isolates, causing sheath blight on maize plants. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 144: 235-243.
Zhou, S.Y., Ji, Z., Zhao, C.D., Liu, Y. and Li, B.D. (2012). Anastomosis grouping and genetic diversity of miaze pathogen Rhizoctonia solani in Shandong. Mycosystema, 31: 31-39.
Zhou, S.Y., Zhang, M., Liu, Y., Chen, X.J., Ji, Z., Guo, Z.J., and Li, B.D. (2015). A uninucleate Rhizoctonia sp. from maize plant with ITS heterogeneity and hypersensitive to abiotic stresses. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 142: 397-401.
Zhu, T., Song, F. and Zheng, Z. (2006). Molecular characterization of the rice pathogenesis-related protein, OsPR-4b, and its antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani. J. Phytopath., 154: 378-384.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) © Author (s)