The present laboratory study was conducted to determine the effect of chlorpyrifos on growth and reproduction of the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae. Chlorpyrifos was mixed with soil substrate at four different dose formulations i.e. D1 (2.5ml/1000ml); D2 (5.0ml/1000ml); D3 (7.5ml/1000ml); D4 (10.0ml/1000ml). Soil substrate without
chlorpyrifos served as control. Growth and survival rates were determined till four weeks and effects on reproduction are assessed after eight weeks of exposure. A non significant decrease (p > 0.05) was observed in body weight of earthworms which was recorded on day 1, 2, 3, 7, 10 and 14. A dose dependent effect on cocoon production and survivability of hatchlings was observed in all treated groups. The effect of chlorpyrifos on life cycle of earthworm was more in dose D3 (54.25 days) when compared to control (28.75 days) while no worm survived in D4 dose. The present study revealed that chlorpyrifos at high dose levels(7.5ml/1000ml and 10.0ml/1000ml) affect the reproduction and growth of earthworms, primary bioindicators of soil fauna, whereas the base dose (5.0ml/1000ml) may be considered as safe for soil applications.
Chlorpyrifos, Eudrilus eugeniae, Growth, Reproduction
Bartllet, M. D., Briones, M. J. J., Neilson, R., Schmidt, O., Sprugeon, D. and Creamer, R. E., (2010). A critical review of current methods in earthworm ecology: from individuals to populations. Eur. J. Soil. Biol. 46:67-73.
Booth, L. H. and O’Halloran, K. (2000). A comparsion of biomarker responses in the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa to the organophosphorus insecticides diazinon and chlorpyrifos. Ecotoxicol. Toxicol. Chem. 20:2494-2502.
Capoweiz, Y., Bastardie, F. and Costagliola, G. (2005) Sub lethal effects of imidacloprid on the burrowing behavior of two earthworm species: modifications of the 3D burrow systems in artificial cores and consequences on gas diffusion in soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 38:285-293.
Charlesworth, B. (1980). Evolution in age structural populations (Cambridge University Press).
Espinoza- Navarro, O. and Bustos- Obregon, E. (2005). Effect of malathion on the male reproductive organs of earthworms E. fetida. Asian J. Androl. 7:97-101.
Georgescu, B. and Werber, C. (2007). The role of earthworms as biological indicators of soil contamination, Bulletin. Environ. Contam. USAMV-CN. 63-64.
Gupta, S. K. and Saxena, P. N. (2003). Carbaryl – induced behavioral and reproductive abnormalities in the earthworm Metaphire posthuma: a sensitive model, alternatives to laboratory animals. 31: 587-593.
Haque, A. and Ebing, W. (1983). Toxicity determination of pesticides to earthworms in the soil substrate. J. Plant Dis. Protect. 90:395-408.
Jouquet, P., Plumere, T., Thu, T. D., Rumpel, C., Duc, T. T. and Orange, D. (2010) The rehabilitation of tropical soils using compost and vermicompost is affected by the presence of endogeic earthworms. Appl. Soil Ecol. 46:125-133.
Kooijman, S. A. L. M. (1986). Energy budget models can explain body size relations. J. Theor. Biol. 121:268-282.
Kurawar, R. (2010). Effects of few pesticides on earthworm activity and soil fertity, Ph.D. Thesis, M. L. S. University, Udaipur.
Lourenco, J. I. , Pereira, R. O., Silva, A. C., Morgado, J. M., Carvalho, F. P., Oliveira, J. M., Malta, M. P., Paiva, A. A., Mendo, S. A. and Goncalves, F. J. (2011) Genotoxic endpoints in the earthworms sub lethal assay to evaluate natural soils contaminated by metals and radionuclides. J. Hazard. Mater. 186(1):788-95.
Matsumura, F. (1975). Toxicity of insecticides. Plenum Press, New York.
Muir, D. C. G., Teixeira, C. and Wania, F. (2004). Empirical and modeling evidence of regional atmospheric transport of current-use pesticides. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 23: 2421-2432.
Muthuviveganandavel, V., Muthuraman, P., Muthu, S. and Srikumar, K. (2008). Toxic effects of carbendazin at low dose levels in male rats. J. Toxicol. Sci. 33:25-30.
Olvera-Velona, A., Capoweiz, Y., Mascle, O., Ortiz- Hermandaz L and Benoit, P. (2008). Assessment of the toxicity of ethyl-parathion to earthworm (Aporrectodea caliginosa) using behavioral, physiological and biochemicals markers. Appl. Soil Ecol. 40:476-483.
Ouellet, G., Lapen, D. R., Topp, E. and Sawada, M. (2008) A heuristic model to predict earthworm biomass in agroecosystems based on selected management and soil properties. Appl. Soil Ecol. 39: 35-45.
Rai, N. and Bansiwal, K. (2009). Impact of sub lethal doses of an organophosphate pesticide-malathion on growth and reproduction of earthworm Eisenia fetida (Savigny 1826). J. Environ. Sci. 3:87.
Ricketts, H. J., Morgan, A. J., Spurgeon, D. J. and Kille, P. (2004). Measurement of annetocin gene expression: a new reproductive biomarker in earthworm ecotoxicology. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 57: 4-10.
Rozman, K. K., Doull, J. and Hayes W. J. ( 2001). Dose, time and other factors influencing toxicity. In: Kriegler, R., Doull, J., Ecobichon, D., Gammon, D., Hodgson, E., Reiter, L., Ross, J. (ed), Handbook of pesticide toxicology, vol. 1: Principles (2nd ed). San Diego: Academic Press. pp 1–95.
Sahu, S. K. and Senapati, B. K. (1988). Alternative proposals for quantification of reproduction in a tropical earthworm. Trop. Ecol. 29:6-14.
Singh, M. and Rishi, S. (2005). Plasma acetyl cholinesterase as a biomarker of triazophos neurotoxicity in young and adult rats, Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 19:147.
Song, Y., Kai, J., Song, X., Zhang, W. and Li, L. (2015). Long-term toxic effects of deltamethrin and fenvalerante in soil. J. Hazard. Mater. 289: 158-164.
Sprugeon, D. J. and Hopkin, S. P. (1999). Life – history patterns in reference and metal – exposed earthworm populations. Ecotoxicol. 8:133-141.
Spurgeon, D. J., Sturzenbaum, S. R., Svendsen, C., Hankard, P. K., Morgan, A. J., Weeks, J. M. and Kille, P. (2004). Toxicological, cellular and gene expression responses in earthworms exposed to copper and cadmium. Comp. Biochem. Phys. 138:11–21.
Suthar, S., Singh, S. and Dhawan, S. (2008). Earthworms as bioindicator of metals (Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb and Cd) in soils: is metal bioaccumulation affected by their ecological category. Ecol. Engine. 32:99-107.
Wang, K., Pang, S., Mu, X., Qi, S., Li, D., Cui, F. and Wang, C. (2015). Biological response of earthworm, Eisenia fetida, to five neonicotinoid insecticides. Chemosphere. 132: 120-126.
Yasmin, S. and D' Souza, (2007). Effect of pesticides on the reproductive output of Eisenia fetida. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 79: 529-532.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) © Author (s)