Kaithal District is comprised of 2317 Km² Sq. Km area having six blocks Viz.:Kaithal, Kalayat, Pundri, Rajound, Ghula and Siwan located at a distance of 150 Kms from New Delhi toward North West. Its geographical position lies between 29° 48' 0 N latitude and between 76° 22' 60 E longitude.The present studies were carried between 2005-2008 with the help of Zenith Camera and telelens. In all, 63 species of Wetland birds belonging to 10 Orders, 38 genera and 16 families were observed in various village ponds in Kaithal District. Out of 63 species of wetland birds, 31 are winter migratory, 9 local migratory, 3 summers migratory and 20 species are resident birds. Considering IUCN categories, Black Ibis (Pseudibis papillosa) which belongs to Biome Restricted Species (BRS) was observed in three blocks viz. Kaithal, Pundri and Rajound of Kaithal district. In addition, Spotted Greenshank (Tringa guttifer) which has been placed in endangered category of IUCN was observed as single individual. But Black Ibis (Pseudibis papillosa) was observed in a group of three to seven. Northern Shoveller (Anas clypeata), which is reportedly coming from Central Russia and Caspian Siberia has been observed in very large groups of 200-250 and virtually spotted in each and every pond in Northern Haryana. Similarly, Northern Pintail (Anas acuta), Common Teal (Anas crecca), Common Pochard (Aythya ferina), Spot-billed Duck (Anas poecilorhyncha), Lesser-whistling Teal (Dendrocygna javanica) were also seen in relatively large groups. Common Pochard (Aythya ferina) is always observed in pure groups floating in the centre of relatively big ponds. In contrast, Gadwall (Anas strepera), Northern Shoveller (Anas clypeata), Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) and Common Teal (Anas crecca), share close proximity with each other in water and are found in mixed groups. Northern Shoveller (Anas clypeata), Bar- headed Goose (Anser indicus) and Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) stay between Octobers to April. Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) stays in winter for shortest period between December and January. Maximum wetland birds observed in Kaithal District belong to Order Charadriiformes and to family Anatidae of Order Anseriformes. Spotted Greenshank (Tringa guttifer) is the peculiar to Pundri block only, in Kaithal District.
Migratory Birds, Wetland Birds, Kaithal District, Rural Ponds, Haryana
Aitkin, E.H. (1891). The migration of birds. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 6(2):268-270.
Alfred, J. R. B, Kumar, A., Tak, P. C. and Sati, J.P. (2001). Waterbirds of northern India. Rec. Zool. Surv. India, Occ. Paper No. 190: i-xxiv, 1-227.
Ali, S. and Ripley, S. D. (1968). Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan together with those of Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan and Ceylon. 1 Vols. Oxford University Press. New Delhi.
Ali, S. and Ripley, S. D. (2001). Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan together with those of Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan and Sri Lanka. 10 Vols. Oxford University Press. New Delhi.
Ali, S. (1996). The Book of Indian Birds. 12th Edition (Revised & enlarged), Oxford University Press, Mumbai.
Bailey, R.S. (1971). Sea bird observation off Somalia. Ibis, 113: 29- 41.
Bairlein, F. (2003). The study of bird migrations- some future perspectives. Bird study, 50:243-253
Besten, J.W.D. (2004). Birds of Kangra. Moonpeak Publisher, Pp. 173.
Birdlife International (2001). Threatened Birds of Asia: Birdlife International Red Data Book. Cambridge, U.K: Birdlife International, 3026pp.
Bisbet, I.C.T. (1963). Weight loss during migration, part-I. Bird –Banding, 34:139-159.
Bodenstein,G. and Schuz,E.(1944).Vom shleitenzug des Prachttauchers Colymbus arcticus) ornithologysche montsberichte,52:98-105.
Collman. J. R. and Croxall, J.P. (1967). Spring migration at the Bosphorus. Ibis, 109: 359 – 372.
Dewar, D. (1908). Local bird migration in India. J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc., 18(2):343-356.
Donald, C.H. (1952). Bird migration across the Himalayas. J.Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 51 (1): 269-271.
Drisscoll, R.V. and Ueta, M. (2002). The migration route and behavior of Eastern Curlews Numenjus madagascariensis. Ibis, 144(3): E119-E130.
Feeny, P.P., Arnold, R.W and Railey, R. S. (1968). Autumn migration in the south Caspian region. Ibis, 110: 35-86
Gandhi, S. S. and S.K. Singh (1995). Avifauna of Asan Barrage. Cheetal, 34(1): 29–34.
Grewal. B., Harvey, B. and Pfister, P. (2003). A Photographic Guide to the Birds of the Indian subcontinents. Singapore, APA Publication.
Grimmet, R., Inskipp, T. and Inskipp, C. (1998). Birds of the Indian subcontinent. Oxford University Press, Delhi, 888pp.
Gupta, R. C. and Bajaj, M. (1997). Preliminary investigations into the migratory birds of Braham Sarovar at Kurukshetra. Jeevanti, 15:29-41.
Gutpa, R. C. and Bajaj, M. (1998). Preliminary observations on winter avifauna of a perennial sewer wetland body of Kurukshetra. Jeevanti, 16: 46-57.
Gupta, R. C. and Bajaj, M. (1999). An analysis of Ecological and behavioral patterns of migratory Shoveller (Anasclypeata) (Linnaeus) in certain wetlands of Haryana. Jeevanti, 17: 27-35.
Gutpa, R. C. and Bajaj, M. (2000). Preliminary observation on a rare lapwing species, White- tailed, (Vanellus leucurus) (Lichtenstein). J. NATCON, 12(2): 197-203.
Gupta,R. C. and Kumar,S. (2009). Determination of avian bio diversity in Morni hills in district Panchkula, Haryana. J Adv. Zool., 2009: 30 (1):44-53.
Gupta,R. C., Kaushik, T.K. and Kumar, S.(2009).Analysis of Winter migratory Wetland Birds in Karnal district in Haryana. J. Adv. Zool., 2009: 30 (2):104-117.
Hartley, P. H. T. (1949). The biology of the Mourning Chat in winter Quarters. Ibis, 91:393-413.
Inskipp, C., Inskipp, T. and Grimmet, R. (1999). Pocket guide to the Birds of Indian Subcontinent. Oxford University Press.
Javed, S., Higuchi, H., Nagendran, M. and Takekawa, J. Y. (2003). Satelllite Telemetry and Wildlife studies in India: Advantages, options and challenges. Curr. Sci., 85(10) 1439-1443.
Kalsi, R.S. (1998). Birds of Kalesar Wild Life Sanctuary, Haryana, India Forktail, 13: 29-32.
Khacher, L. J. (1986). Duck migration across the Himalaya Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula at 13,700’on Rohtang Pass, Himachal Pradesh. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 83 (Suppl.): 199-200.
Khan, M.A. (2002). Avifauna of Kughan Valley, North West Frontier province, Pakistan. Tiger Paper, 29(3): 16-19.
Krishna Raju, K.S.R. (1978). Ecological notes on some migrants in India. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 75: 1080-1089.
Kumar, A., Sati, J.P., Tak, P.C. and Alfred, J.R.B. (2005). Handbook on Indian Wetland Birds and their Conservation: i-xxvi; 1-468 (Published by Director, Zool. Surv. India).
Kumar, S. and Sivaperuman, C. (2005). Bird Community structure in Ranthombhore National Park. Tiger Paper , 32(2): 16-24.
Lasiewski, R.C. (1962). The energetics of migrating humming birds. Condor, 64:324.
Lincoln, F.C. (1950). Migration of Birds. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Circular No.16, Washington, D.C.
Lucca, C.D. (1969). Bird migration over the Maltese Islands. Ibis, 111: 322-336.
McClure, H.E. (1974). Arrival and departure of migratory birds at Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 71:31-34.
Mohapatra, K. K. and Rao, P. (1994). Winter migrants seen at Pulicat Bird Sanctuary and neighboring hills. Forktail, 16: 101–123.
Pandey, S. (1989). The Pong Dam Lake Bird Sanctuary, Himachal Pradesh. Newsletter for Birdwatchers, 29(7 & 8): 3-4.
Pasha, M.K.S, Jaypal, R., Areendran, G., Qureshi, Q., and Sankar, K. (2004). Birds of Pench Tiger Reserve, Madhya Pradesh, Central India. Newsletter for ornithologists, 1(1-2): 2-8.
Pennycuick, C.J. (1969). The mechanics of bird migration. Ibis, 111: 525-555
Prater, S.H. (1931): The migration of White Stork. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 35(2): 459.
Rahmani, A.R. (1991). Birds of the Karera Bustard Sanctuary, Madhya Pradesh. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 88: 170 -194.
Ram, L. (1978). Bird migration in Suraha Lake, Ballia, U.P. Cheetal, 20(1): 23-25.
Rowan,W. (1929). Experiment in bird migration, manipulation of the reproductive cycle: seasonal histological changes in the gonads. Proceeding of the Boston society of Natural History, 39:151-208.
Sharma, V. and Pandey, S. (1989). Pheasant surveys in the Shimla Hills of Himachal Pradesh, India.The World Pheasant Association Journal, 14: 64-78.
Singh, A. P. (2000). Birds of the lower Garhwal Himalayas: Dehra Dun valley and Sriharikota Island during 1989-90 and 1990-91 seasons. Mayura, (11): 9-11.
Stressmann, E. (1927-1934). In Kukenthal, W. and Krumbach, T. Handbuchder Zoologic. Sauropsida. Aves W.de Gruyter and Co., Berlin and Leipzig.
Tak, P. C., Padiwal, R. and Sharma, R.M. (2001). Occurrence of huge wintering population of Bar-headed Goose, Anser indicus, at Pong Dam Wetland, Himachal Pradesh. Bionotes, 5(4): 88-89.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) © Author (s)