Human health risk assessment for heavy metals via intake of contaminated milk and milk products
The present study was conducted to assess the risk of human health against heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cd) through the intake of milk and milk products produced by animals which are feeding the fodder produced by polluted irrigation water. The milk samples contained amounts of Fe (10.43 ppm) Cu (1.23 ppm), Mn
(0.60 ppm ), Zn (2.32),Cr (0.05 ppm), Ni (0.17 ppm) Pb (0.28 ppm ) and Cd (0.13 ppm ) than MAL in buffaloes milk and Ni (0.16 ppm ) and Pb (0.41 ppm) than MAL in cow milk. The milk samples from the small animals (goat) were associated with only Fe (11.24ppm,), Zn (2.47 ppm ), Cr (0.07 ppm) and Pb (0.05 ppm) than maximum allowable limit. The hazardous quotient (HQ) indicated that milks from all types of animals were contaminated with metals. From the results the hazardous quotient (HQ) indicated that higher risk for Pb and Cd (>1) metals contamination in buffalo and cow milk. However HI (2 to 14) for all studied milk sample was found to be not safe. Females are at somewhat higher risk than males. This study projected a high multi-metal threat due to food chain contamination in the study area.
Animal milk, Daily intake rate of metals, Hazard index, Heavy metals
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