##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

Neelima R. Kumar Anita Devi

Abstract

The glands associated with the sting apparatus of worker honey bee Apis florea produce Venom which is known to be composed of a wide spectrum of biomolecules ranging from biogenic amines to peptides and proteins. The Venom apparatus showed the presence of two important associated exocrine glands i.e. Venom gland and Dufors gland. The secretions of both glands are apocrine and are released into the lumen to be stored in the venom sac. The presence of some exocrine cells in the distal part of venom sac which is otherwise known to only store the component of Venom gland led to the present study. The present study that there were considerable differences in the biochemical composition of Venom gland and Venom sac secretions of Apis species The concentration of lipids (Sting gland =1.423±0.0001 and Reservoir = 1.21±0.0067), proteins (Sting gland=0.440±0.0226, Reservoir = 0.390± 0.032), activity of acid phosphatase (Sting gland=112.09±21.100, Reservoir=22.63±1.467) and hexokinase (Sting gland=20.7±4.016, Reservoir=10.66±2.465) was found to be more in case of Venom gland while cholesterol(Sting gland=0.138±0.0161 reservoir=0.324±0.00323), glucose (Sting gland=189±1.31, Reservoir=321±7.19), free amino acids, and activity of alkaline phosphatase (Sting gland=21.03±0.195 Reservoir=22.4±0.685) was more in Venom sac. Glycogen was absent in both Venom gland and Venom sac of Apis species as confirmed by the absence of glucose-6-phosphatase activity. It is established from the present study that Venom sac also secretes various biochemicals and enzymes which are added to the total Venom.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

Keywords

Apis florea, Dufors gland, Honeybee, Venom, Venom gland

References
Abreu, R.M.M., Silva de Moraes, R.L.M. and Camargo-Mathias, M.I. (2010). Biochemical and cytochemical studies of the enzymatic activity of the venom glands of workers of honey bee Apis mellifera L (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Micron, 41:172-175.
Banks, B.E.C. and Shipolini, R.A. (1986). Chemistry and pharmacology of honey bee venom In:Venoms of the hymenoptera: biochemical, pharmacological and behavioral aspects. (Piek T ed.) Academic Press London. pp, 89-94.
Bergmeyer, H.U. and Bernt, E. (1963). In: Methods of Enzymatic Analysis. (Bergmeyer, H.U ed.) Academic Press, New York. pp, 384-388.
Bousquet, J., Marty, J.P., Clauss, C. and Michael, F.B. (1979). Enzymes of bee venom sac and whole body. Ann. Allergy, 43:110-114.
Crane, E. (1990). Bees and beekeeping: science practice and world resources. Cormstock Publ Ithaca, NY USA. pp, 593.
Crane, R.K. and Sols, A., (1953). The association of hexokinase with particulate fractions of brain and other tissue homogenates. J. Biol. Chem., 203: 273-292.
Dotimas, E.M. and Hider, R.C. (1987). Honey bee venom. Bee world, 68(2): 51-70.
Freedland, R. A. and Harper, A. E. (1959). Metabolic adaptations in higher animals: The study of metabolic pathways by means of metabolic adaptations. J. Biol. Chem., 234:1350-1353.
Fringes, C.S. and Dunn, R.T. (1970). A colorimetric method for determination of total serum lipids based on the sulphophospho-vanillin reaction. Americ. J. Clin. Pathol., 53: 89-91.
Hermann, H.R. and Blum, M.S. (1966). The morphology and histology of hymenopterous poison apparatus. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am., 59: 397-409.
Kerr, W.E. and Lello, E. (1962). Sting glands in stingless bees: A vestigial character (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 70(4): 192-214.
Kim, W.H., Kwon, B.Y., and Ham,( 2003). Acupoint stimulat ion using Bee Venom at tenuate Formalin-Induced pain behavior and spinal cord fos expression in rats. J. Vet. Med .Sci., 65(3): 349-355.
Lello, E. D. (1976). Adnexal glands of the sting apparatus in the bees: Anatomy and histology V (Hymenoptera: Apidae). J. Kansas Entomol. Soc., 49(1): 85-99.
Lello, E.D. (1971). Adnexal glands of sting apparatus of bees: Anatomy and histology (Hymenoptera: Colletidae and Andrenidae). J. Kansas Entomol. Soc., 44: 5-13.
Lowry, O.H., Rosebrough, N.J., Farr, A.L. and Randell, R.J. (1951). Protein measurement with folin phenol reagent. J. Biochem, 193: 65-275.
Mraz, C. (1982). Bee venom for arthritis - an update. Amer. Bee J., 122: 121-123.
Putz, M. (2006). Antitumour action and immune activation through cooperation of bee venom secretory phospholipase A2 and Phosphatidyl inositol-(3,4)- bisphosphate. Cancer immunol. Immunother., 55 (11):1374-1383.
Ruiz-Amil, M. (1962). The hexokinase of the honey bee. J. Inst. Physio., 8(3): 259-265.
Russell, (2004). Cytotoxic properties of immune conjugates containing melittin like peptide against prostate cancer: in vitro and in vivo studies. Cancer Immunol. Immunother., 53(5):411-421.
Saraf, M. (2005). Biochemical comparison of the sting gland of Honey bees. Dissertation submitted to the Panjab University, Chandigarh in the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of M.Sc. (Hons. School) in Zoology.
Seifter S Seymour S Novic, E Muntwyler, E. (1950). Determination of glycogen with Anthrone reagent. In: Methods in Enzymology, 3: 35-36.
Somogyi, M. and Nelson, N. (1945). A photometric adaptation of the Somogyi method for the determination of glucose. J. Biol. Chem., 153: 375-379.
Swarup, H., Pathak, S.C. and Arora S. (1981). Laboratory techniques in modern biology. Kalyani publishers, New Delhi.
Zalatki, A., Zak, B. and Boyle, A.J. (1953). A new method for direct determination of serum cholesterol. J. lab Clin. Med., 41: 486-492.
Citation Format
How to Cite
Kumar, N. R., & Devi, A. (2014). A study on biochemical composition of the sting gland (poison gland) and the reservoir (poison sac) of the dwarf honey bee Apis florea F. workers. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 6(1), 101-105. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v6i1.382
More Citation Formats:
Section
Research Articles