Food provides us nutrients and the energy required for growth, reproduction, and maintenance. Energy is required to perform all voluntary and involuntary activities like digestion, respiration, circulation, carrying out professional, household and recreational activities. Despite having rich food diversity, we are using only a few items as our staple food. With the adoption of eastern cooking practices and cookwares, risk of both pre-and post-transitional diseases like diabetes, cardiovascular diseases,
malnutrition, obesity, etc. has increased significantly. Aluminium toxicity and nutrients breakdown has become a common
problem in pressure cooking. To overcome this problem, it is important to shift from the modernized cooking methods to our traditional cooking practices, i.e., use of earthen cookwares, clay pots and some selected metal utensils, e.g., copper, iron, brass, etc. It has been shown that earthen, copper, iron, and soapstone cookwares do not leach toxic trace elements into the food and enhance the sensory qualities without decreasing the food nutrients. Adoption of traditional Indian cooking practices (such as fermentation, roasting, germination, etc.), cookwares (such as earthen, copper, iron, soapstone, etc.) and increasing the consumption of healthy diet grains like millets, etc. can easily combat the pre- and post-transition health problems in India, effectively. This review would provide a deep understanding to the people to decide the best cookware and cooking processes that will improve their health and provide ample nutritional value to them.
Cookwares, Earthen, Food, Metal toxicity, Millets, Nutri-cereals, Underutilized food
Alabi, O. A. and Adeoluwa, Y. M. (2020). Production Usage, and Potential Public Health Effects of Aluminium Cookware: A Review. Annals of Science and Technology, 5(1), 20-30.(ahead-of-print).https://doi.org/10.2478/ast-2020-0003.
Ali, M. A., El Tinay, A. H., and Abdalla, A. H. (2003). Effect of fermentation on the in vitro protein digestibility of pearl millet. Food Chemistry, 80(1), 51-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00234-0
Ambati, K., and Sucharitha, K. V. (2019). Millets-Review on Nutritional Profiles and Health Benefits. International Journal of Recent Scientific Research, 10(7), 33943-33948. https://doi.org/10.24327/IJRSR.
Anderko, L., and Pennea, E. (2020). Exposures to per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS): Potential risks to reproductive and children's health. Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care, 100760.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cppeds.2020.100760.
Annapure, U. S., Singhal, R. S., and Kulkarni, P. R. (1998). Studies on deep-fat fried snacks from some cereals and legumes. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 76(3), 377-382. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199803)76:3<377::AID-JSFA957>3.0.CO;2-R
Anthony, B., Ojekale, C., Chukwu, G., Oladipupo, L. O., and Titilola, S. O. (2013). Some Nigerian Traditional Food Milling Techniques and Cookware Increase Concentrations of Some Heavy Metals in Lycopersicon Esculentum and Citrullus Lanatus. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy, 3(3), 6-13. http://www.iosrphr.org/papers/v3i3/B033106013.pdf
Assefa, K., Cannarozzi, G., Girma, D., Kamies, R., Chanyalew, S., Plaza-Wüthrich, S., and Tadele, Z. (2015). Genetic diversity in tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter]. Frontiers in Plant Science, 6, 177. https://doi.org/10.3 389/fpls.2015.00177.
Baba, W. N., Rashid, I., Shah, A., Ahmad, M., Gani, A., Masoodi, F. A., and Wani, S. M. (2016). Effect of microwave roasting on antioxidant and anticancerous activities of barley flour. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, 15(1), 12-19.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jssas.20 14.06.003.
Bai, Q., Fan, G., Gu, Z., Cao, X., and Gu, F. (2008). Effects of culture conditions on ?-aminobutyric acid accumulation during germination of foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.). European Food Research and Technology, 228(2), 169-175. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-008-0920-0.
Balli, D., Bellumori, M., Pucci, L., Gabriele, M., Longo, V., Paoli, P., and Innocenti, M. (2020). Does Fermentation Really Increase the Phenolic Content in Cereals? A Study on Millet. Foods, 9(3), 303.https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030303.
Bhat, R. B., Etejere, E. O., and Oladipo, V. T. (1990). Ethnobotanical studies from central Nigeria. Economic Botany, 44(3), 382-390. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03183923
Bhattacharya, P. T., Misra, S. R., and Hussain, M. (2016). Nutritional aspects of essential trace elements in oral health and disease: an extensive review. Scientifica, 5464373, 12 pages,https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/5464373
Birania, S., Rohilla, P., Kumar, R., and Kumar, N. (2020). Post harvest processing of millets: A review on value added products. International Journal of Chemical Studies, 8(1),1824-1829.https://doi.org/10.22271/chemi.2020.v8.i1 aa.8528.
Chakrabarty, J., Sharma, G. D., and Tamang, J. P. T. (2010). Substrate utilisation in traditional fermentation technology practiced by tribes of North Cachar Hills district of Assam. Assam University Journal of Science and Technology, 4(1), 66-72. https://www.bilaspurunive rsity.ac.in/PDF/ResearchPublication s/163.pdf
Cheng, Y. J., and Brittin, H. C. (1991). Iron in food: effect of continued use of iron cookware. Journal of Food Science, 56(2), 584-585. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-26 21.1991.tb05331.x
Chera, M. (2020). Tamil Traditions: Women Cooking and Eating for Heritage and Health in South India (Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University).
Cornejo, F., Caceres, P. J., Martínez-Villaluenga, C., Rosell, C. M., and Frias, J. (2015). Effects of germination on the nutritive value and bioactive compounds of brown rice breads. Food Chemistry, 173, 298-304. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.10.037
Dan, E. U., and Ebong, G. A. (2013). Impact of cooking utensils on trace metal levels of processed food items. Annals. Food Science and Technology, 14(2), 350-5. http://afst.valahia.ro/images/documente/2013/issue2/full/section3/s03_w09_full.pdf
Deori, C., Begum, S. S., and Mao, A. A. (2007). Ethnobotany of Sujen---A local rice beer of Deori tribe of Assam. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge. 6(1), 121–25. http://nopr.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/841/1/IJTK%206%281%29%20%282007%29%20121-125.pdf
Dordevic, D., Buchtova, H., Jancikova, S., Macharackova, B., Jarosova, M., Vitez, T., and Kushkevych, I. (2019). Aluminium contamination of food during culinary preparation: Case study with Aluminium foil and consumers’ preferences. Food Science & Nutrition, 7(10), 3349-3360.https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1204.
Dutta, A., Shukla, P., Tilara, S., Prasad, N., Khan, R., Suri, S., and Bharadwaj, S. B. (2019). Comparative Evaluation of Antioxidant Potential in Thermally Processed, Underutilized Food Grains of the Himalayan Region. European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, 277-286.https://doi.org/10.9734/EJNFS/2019/v9i330067.
Duttagupta, S. (2013). Foreign travellers’ recommendation of culinary tourism in India based on cuisine image and satisfaction with experiences at culinary establishments: an exploratory study (Master's thesis, University of Waterloo).
Duwe, A., and Niedzwiecki, A. (2018). Aluminium toxicity in Alzheimer‘s disease, breast cancer and vaccine adjuvants. Journal of Cellular Medicine and Natural Health.; 1–8. https://www.jcmnh.org/Aluminium-toxicity-in-alzheim ers-disease-breast-cancer-and-vaccine-adjuvants/
Dykes, L., and Rooney, L. W. (2006). Sorghum and millet phenols and antioxidants. Journal of Cereal Science, 44(3), 236-251.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2006.06.007.
Etejere, E. O., and Bhat, R. B. (1985). Traditional preparation and uses of cassava in Nigeria. Economic Botany, 39(2), 157-164. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02907839
Ezeji, C., and Ojimelukwe, P. C. (1993). Effect of fermentation on the nutritional quality and functional properties of infant food formulations prepared from bambarra-groundnut, fluted-pumkin and millet seeds. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 44(3), 267-276. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01088322
Farag, M. A., Jomaa, S. A., and El-Wahed, A. A. (2020). The Many Faces of Kefir Fermented Dairy Products: Quality Characteristics, Flavour Chemistry, Nutritional Value, Health Benefits, and Safety. Nutrients, 12(2), 346. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020346
Frink, L., and Harry, K. G. (2008). The beauty of" ugly" Eskimo cooking pots. American Antiquity, 73(1), 103-120. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0002731600041305
Frink, L., Glazer, D., and Harry, K. G. (2012). Canadian Arctic soapstone cooking technology. North American Archaeologist, 33(4), 429-449. https://doi.org/10.2190/NA.33.4.c
Gahlawat, P., and Sehgal, S. (1993). The influence of roasting and malting on the total and extractable mineral contents of human weaning mixtures prepared from Indian raw materials. Food Chemistry, 46(3), 253-256. https://doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(93)90115-V
Ghani, M., Kulkarni, K. P., Song, J. T., Shannon, J. G., and Lee, J. D. (2016). Soybean sprouts: A review of nutrient composition, health benefits and genetic variation. Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, 4(4), 398-412.https://doi.org/10.9787/PBB.2016.4.4.398.
GHI-WHO (2019). Global Heart Initiative. Working Together to Beat Cardiovascular Disease. http://origin.who.int/cardiovascular_diseases/global-hearts/GHI_Brochure.pd f.
GHI (2019). Global Hunger Index (GHI)?: India. https://www.globalhungerindex.org/pdf/en/2019/India.pdf.
Griffith, L. D., and Castell?Perez, M. E. (1998). Effects of roasting and malting on physicochemical properties of select cereals and legumes. Cereal Chemistry, 75(6), 780-784. https://doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM.1918.104.22.1680
Guidetti, R., and P. Simonetti. (2000) “Materials for Cooking.” A Guide to Professional Cookware, S.A.P.S., ; 16–29.http://www.agnelliusa.com/download/cookinginistrume nts.pdf.
Gupta, V., and Nagar, R. (2010). Effect of cooking, fermentation, dehulling and utensils on antioxidants present in pearl millet rabadi—a traditional fermented food. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 47(1), 73-76.https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-010-0018-0.
Gupte, A., and Mumper, R. J. (2009). Elevated copper and oxidative stress in cancer cells as a target for cancer treatment. Cancer Treatment Reviews, 35(1), 32-46.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctrv.2008.07.004.
Hailemariam, G. A., and Wudineh, T. A. (2020). Effect of Cooking Methods on Ascorbic Acid Destruction of Green Leafy Vegetables. Journal of Food Quality, 2020.https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8908670.
Han, J. S., Jang, S., Son, H. Y., Kim, Y. B., Kim, Y., Noh, J. H., ... and Lee, B. S. (2020). Subacute dermal toxicity of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids: comparison with different carbon-chain lengths in human skin equivalents and systemic effects of perfluoroheptanoic acid in Sprague Dawley rats. Archives of Toxicology, 94(2), 523-539. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00204-019-02634-z.
Health Canada (2006). “The Safe Use of Cookware.” It’s Your Health, Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Ministry of Health,; 1–3. https://cetesb.sp.gov.br/laboratorios/wp-content/uploads/sites/2 4/2013/11/utensilios_de_cozinha_ingles.pdf
India Health Report on Nutrition. 2015 http://www.transformnutrition.org/india-health-report-on-nutrition-2015/india-health-report-on-nutrition-2015-explore-state-level-data/
Ingle, A. P., Paralikar, P., Shende, S., Gupta, I., Biswas, J. K., da Silva Martins, L. H., and Rai, M. (2018). Copper in Medicine: Perspectives and Toxicity. In Biomedical Applications of Metals (pp. 95-112). Springer, Cham.https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-74814-6_4.
Ishiwata, H., Inoue, T., and Yoshihira, K. (1986). Migration of copper and some other metals from copper tableware. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 37(1), 638-642. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF0 1607816
Jain, S., Bhatia, G., Barik, R., Kumar, P., Jain, A., and Dixit, V. K. (2010). Antidiabetic activity of Paspalum scrobiculatum Linn. in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 127(2), 325-328. https://doi.or g/10.1016/j.jep.2009.10.038.
James, L. E. A. (2009). Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Wild.): composition, chemistry, nutritional, and functional properties. Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, 58, 1-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1043-4526(09)58001-1
Jiang, Z. W., Yu, W. W., Li, Y., Zhu, L., and Hu, C. Y. (2019). Migration of copper from nanocopper/polypropylene composite films and its functional property. Food Packaging and Shelf Life, 22, 100416.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fpsl.2019.100416.
Kamerud, K. L., Hobbie, K. A., and Anderson, K. A. (2013). Stainless steel leaches nickel and chromium into foods during cooking. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 61(39), 9495-9501.https://doi.org/10.1021/jf402400v.
Kandavel, S., Iyenkani, N., Kumar, M., and Junaid, M. (2015). Effect of boiling and storage in five different commonly used cooking vessels on water fluoride concentration. Der Pharmacia Lettre Journal, 7(6), 192-197. https://www.scholarsresearchlibrary.com/articles/effect-of-boiling-and-storage-in-five-different-commonly-used-cooking-vessels-on-water-fluoride-concentration.pdf
Khetarpaul, N., and Chauhan, B. M. (1990). Effect of fermentation by pure cultures of yeasts and lactobacilli on the available carbohydrate content of pearl millet. Food Chemistry, 36(4), 287-293. https://doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(90)90068-F
Kim, J., and Park, J. (2020). Millet vs rice: an evaluation of the farming/language dispersal hypothesis in the Korean context. Evolutionary Human Sciences, 2.https://doi.o rg/10.1017/ehs.2020.13 .
Kontoghiorghes, G. J., and Kontoghiorghe, C. N. (2020). Iron and Chelation in Biochemistry and Medicine: New Approaches to Controlling Iron Metabolism and Treating Related Diseases. Cells, 9(6), 1456. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9061456.
Koontz, J. L., Liggans, G. L., and Redan, B. W. (2020). Temperature and pH affect copper release kinetics from copper metal foil and commercial copperware to food simulants. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 37(3), 465-477.https://doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2019.1704447.
Kora, A. J. (2020). Traditional soapstone storage, serving, and cookware used in the Southern states of India and its culinary importance. Bulletin of the National Research Centre, 44, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s42269-020-00340-w.
Krishnan, S. S., McLachlan, D. R., Krishnan, B., Fenton, S. S. A., and Harrison, J. E. (1988). Aluminium toxicity to the brain. Science of the Total Environment, 71(1), 59-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-9697(88)90299-9
Kumar, A., Arya, R. K., Kumar, S., Kumar, D., Kumar, S., and Panchta, R. A. V. I. S. H. (2012). Advances in pearl millet fodder yield and quality improvement through breeding and management practices. Forage Research, 38, 1-14. http://forageresearch.in/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/1-14.pdf
Kumar, S. R., Sadiq, M. B., and Anal, A. K. (2020). Comparative study of physicochemical and functional properties of pan and microwave cooked underutilized millets (proso and little). LWT-Food Science and Technology, 109465.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2020.109465.
Kuo, Y. H., Rozan, P., Lambein, F., Frias, J., and Vidal-Valverde, C. (2004). Effects of different germination conditions on the contents of free protein and non-protein amino acids of commercial legumes. Food Chemistry, 86(4), 537-545. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2003.09.042.
Li, L., Lietz, G., Bal, W., Watson, A., Morfey, B., and Seal, C. (2018). Effects of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Wild.) consumption on markers of CVD risk. Nutrients, 10(6), 777. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060777.
Liu, K., Zheng, J., Wang, X., and Chen, F. (2019). Effects of household cooking processes on mineral, vitamin B, and phytic acid contents and mineral bioaccessibility in rice. Food Chemistry, 280, 59-64.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.12.053.
Lowndes, S. A., and Harris, A. L. (2005). The role of copper in tumour angiogenesis. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, 10(4), 299-310.https://doi.org/10.1007/s10911-006-9003-7.
Malathi, B., Appaji, C., Reddy, G. R., Dattatri, K., and Sudhakar, N. (2016). Growth pattern of millets in India. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research, 50(4), 382-386. https://doi.org/10.18805/ijare.v50i4.11257.
Meenatchi, R., Brimapureeswaran, R., Loganathan, M., Sujeetha, A. R., and Singaravadivel, K. (2015). Effect of Microwave Treatment on Aflatoxin Content Of Maize. International Journal for Science and Advance Research in Technology.; 1(6): 125–128.
Menger, F., Pohl, J., Ahrens, L., Carlsson, G., and Örn, S. (2020). Behavioural effects and bioconcentration of per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Chemosphere, 245, 125573. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.125573.
Michaelraj, P. S. J., and Shanmugam, A. (2013). A study on millets based cultivation and consumption in India. International Journal of Marketing, Financial Services and Management Research, 2(4), 49-58. http://indianresearchjournals.com/pdf/IJMFSMR/2013/April/5.pdf
Modgil, R., and Sood, P. (2017). Effect of roasting and germination on carbohydrates and anti-nutritional constituents of indigenous and exotic cultivars of pseudo-cereal (Chenopodium). Journal of Life Sciences, 9(1), 64-70.https://doi.org/10.1080/09751270.2017.1336020.
Mohamadou, B. A., Mbofung, C. M., and Thouvenot, D. (2008). Bacterial fermentation induced mineral dynamics during the production of Mbuja from Hibiscus sabdariffa seeds in earthen-ware pots. Annals of Microbiology, 58(3), 447.https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03175542.
Mukherjee, A., Satija, D., Sinha, S., and Sarma, A. P. (2019). Food Imports in India: Prospects, Issues and Way Forward. Journal of Economic Science Research.; 02(03): 18–36. https://doi.org/10.30564/jesr.v2i3.841
Müller, F. D., Hackethal, C., Schmidt, R., Kappenstein, O., Pfaff, K., and Luch, A. (2015). Metal release from coffee machines and electric kettles. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 32(11), 1959-1964.https://doi.org/10.1 080/19440049.2015.1086929.
Nandy, A. (2004). The changing popular culture of Indian food: Preliminary notes. South Asia Research, 24(1), 9-19. https://doi.org/10.1177/0262728004042760.
Neelam, Bamji, M. S., & Kaladhar, M. (2000). Risk of increased aluminium burden in the Indian population: contribution from aluminium cookware. Food Chemistry, 70(1), 57-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00068-6
Obadina, A., Ishola, I. O., Adekoya, I. O., Soares, A. G., de Carvalho, C. W. P., and Barboza, H. T. (2016). Nutritional and physico-chemical properties of flour from native and roasted whole grain pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R. Br.). Journal of Cereal Science, 70, 247-252.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2016.06.005.
Otemuyiwa, I. O., Falade, O. S., and Adewusi, S. R. A. (2018). Effect of various cooking methods on the proximate composition and nutrient contents of different rice varieties grown in Nigeria. International Food Research Journal, 25(2), 747-754. http://www.ifrj.upm.edu.my/25%20(02)%202018/(42).pdf
Park, J., and Brittin, H. C. (2000). Iron content, sensory evaluation, and consumer acceptance of food cooked in iron utensils. Journal of Food Quality, 23(2), 205-215. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4557.2000.tb00207.x
Pattnayak, P. K., anjd Misra, M. K. (2004). Energetic and economics of traditional gur preparation: a case study in Ganjam district of Orissa, India. Biomass and Bioenergy, 26(1), 79-88.https://doi.org/10.1016/S0961-9534(03)00061-8.
Pennington, J. A., and Schoen, S. A. (1995). Estimates of dietary exposure to aluminium. Food Additives & Contaminants, 12(1), 119-128. https://doi.org/10.1080/026 52039509374286.
Pingali, P., Aiyar, A., Abraham, M., and Rahman, A. (2019). Transforming food systems for a rising India (p. 368). Springer Nature. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-14409-8
Pradeep, P. M., and Sreerama, Y. N. (2015). Impact of processing on the phenolic profiles of small millets: Evaluation of their antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory properties associated with hyperglycemia. Food Chemistry, 169, 455-463. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.08.010.
Purewal, S. S., Salar, R. K., Bhatti, M. S., Sandhu, K. S., Singh, S. K., and Kaur, P. (2020). Solid-state fermentation of pearl millet with Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus azygosporus: effects on bioactive profile and DNA damage protection activity. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, 14(1), 150-162.https://doi.org/10.1007/s11694-019-00277-3.
Quan, C. (2019). The Effect of Vinegar and Tap Water on the Release of Nickel in Grade 304 Stainless Steel Cups. Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science, 16(2), 7. https://scholarcommons.sc.edu/jscas/vol16/iss2/7/
Quintaes, K. D., Amaya-Farfan, J., Morgano, M. A., and Mantovani, D. M. B. (2002). Soapstone (steatite) cookware as a source of minerals. Food Additives & Contaminants, 19(2), 134-143. https://doi.org/10.1080/026 5203011006620.
Quintaes, K. D., Amaya-Farfan, J., Tomazini, F. M., Morgano, M. A., de Almeyda Hajisa, N. M., and Neto, J. T. (2007). Mineral migration and influence of meal preparation in iron cookware on the iron nutritional status of vegetarian students. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 46(2), 125-141.https://doi.org/10.1080/03670240701285079.
Quintaes, K. D., Haj-Isa, N. M. A., Netto, J. T., and Amaya-Farfan, J. (2011). Soapstone utensils may improve iron status in adult women. A preliminary study. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutricion, 61(4), 429-432. http://ve.scielo.org/pdf/alan/v61n4/art13.pdf
Rao, D.B., Ananthan, R., Hariprasanna, K., Bhatt, V., Rajeswari, K., Sharma, S., and Tonapi, V.A. (2018). Nutritional and Health Benefits of Nutri Cereals. Rajendranagar, Hyderabad: Nutri hub TBI, ICAR_Indian Institute of Millets research (IIMR). 2018. . http://www.nutricere als.dac.gov.in/Publication/Pub_HealthyBenfits_Sep20 18.pdf.
Reardon, A. C. (2011). Discovering metals–a historical overview. Metallurgy for the non-metallurgist, 73-84. https://www.asminternational.org/documents/10192/321 2401/05306G_Sample_BuyNow.pdf/ab60c086-2c71-4de0-91f6-aad1112cf4dc
Rittirong, A., and Saenboonruang, K. (2018). Quantification of Aluminium and heavy metal contents in cooked rice samples from Thailand markets using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and potential health risk assessment. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture, 372-380.https://doi.org/10.9755/ejfa.2018.v3 0.i5.1680.
Roy, A., Khanra, K., Bhattacharya, C., Mishra, A., and Bhattacharyya, N. (2012). Bakhar-Handia fermentation: General analysis and a correlation between traditional claims and scientific evidences. Advances in Bioresearch, 3(3), 28-32. http://www.soeagra.com/abr/abrsept_2012/5.pdf
Saini, S., Saxena, S., Samtiya, M., Puniya, M., and Dhewa, T. 2021. Potential of underutilized millets as Nutri-cereal: an overview. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-021-04985-x
Samtiya, M., Aluko, R. E., and Dhewa, T. (2020). Plant food anti-nutritional factors and their reduction strategies: an overview. Food Production, Processing and Nutrition, 2(1), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s43014-020-0020-5.
Saxena, H. O., and Dutta, P. K. (1975). Studies on the ethnobotany of Orissa. Nelumbo, 17(1-4), 124-131. http://www.nelumbo-bsi.org/index.php/nlmbo/article/view/7578 6/59034
Seena, S., Sridhar, K. R., Arun, A. B., and Young, C. C. (2006). Effect of roasting and pressure-cooking on nutritional and protein quality of seeds of mangrove legume Canavalia cathartica from southwest coast of India. Journal of Food Composition and analysis, 19(4), 284-293. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2005.05.004.
Semwal, A. D., Padmashree, A., Khan, M. A., Sharma, G. K., and Bawa, A. S. (2006). Leaching of aluminium from utensils during cooking of food. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 86(14), 2425-2430.https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2635.
Sharma, S., Saxena, D. C., and Riar, C. S. (2016). Analysing the effect of germination on phenolics, dietary fibres, minerals and ?-amino butyric acid contents of barnyard millet (Echinochloa frumentaceae). Food Bioscience, 13, 60-68.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbio.2015.1 2.0 07.
Simi, D., and Matusitz, J. (2017). Glocalization of subway in India: How a US giant has adapted in the Asian subcontinent. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 52(5), 573-585.https://doi.org/10.1177/0021909615596764 .
Soibam, H., and Ayam, V. S. (2018). The traditional fermented foods of Meiteis of Manipur, India: a case study. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 7(4), 535-539. https://www.phytojournal.com/archives/20 18/vol7issue4/PartJ/7-3-481-793.pdf
Srivastav, P. P., Das, H., and Prasad, S. (1990). Effect of roasting process variables on in-vitro protein digestibility of Bengal gram, maize and soybean. Food Chemistry, 35(1), 31-37. https://doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(90)90128-Q
Stahl, T., Falk, S., Rohrbeck, A., Georgii, S., Herzog, C., Wiegand, A., Hotz, S., Boschek, B., Zorn, H. and Brunn, H. (2017). Migration of aluminium from food contact materials to food—a health risk for consumers? Part III of III: Migration of aluminium to food from camping dishes and utensils made of aluminium. Environmental Sciences Europe. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12302-017-0117-x.
Steenland, K., Fletcher, T., and Savitz, D. A. (2010). Epidemiologic evidence on the health effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Environmental Health Perspectives, 118(8), 1100-1108. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.0901827
Street, R. A., Mathee, A., Tanda, S., Hauzenberger, C., Naidoo, S., and Goessler, W. (2020). Recycling of scrap metal into artisanal cookware in the informal sector: A public health threat from multi metal exposure in South Africa. Science of the Total Environment, 699, 134324.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134324.
Subastri, A., Ramamurthy, C., Suyavaran, A., Mareeswaran, R., Mandal, P., Rellegadla, S., and Thirunavukkarasu, C. (2015). Nutrient profile of porridge made from Eleusine coracana (L.) grains: effect of germination and fermentation. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(9), 6024-6030. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-015-1713-7.
Suma, P. F., and Urooj, A. (2014). Influence of germination on bioaccessible iron and calcium in pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoideum). Journal of Food Science and Technology, 51(5), 976-981.https://doi.org/10.1007/s1319 7-011-0585-8.
Tandon, N., Anjana, R.M., Mohan, V., Kaur, T., Afshin, A., Ong, K., Mukhopadhyay, S., Thomas, N., Bhatia, E., Krishnan, A. and Mathur, P. (2018). The increasing burden of diabetes and variations among the states of India: the Global Burden of Disease Study 1990–2016. The Lancet Global Health, 6(12), e1352-e1362.https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30387-5.
Tang, Q. Q., Feng, L., Jiang, W. D., Liu, Y., Jiang, J., Li, S. H. and Zhou, X. Q. (2013). Effects of dietary copper on growth, digestive, and brush border enzyme activities and antioxidant defense of hepatopancreas and intestine for young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Biological Trace Element Research, 155(3), 370-380.https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-013-9785-6.
Thakur, M., and Tiwari, P. (2019). Millets: the untapped and underutilized nutritious functional foods. Plant Archives, 19(1), 875-883. http://plantarchives.org/PDF%2019-1/875-883%20(4529).pdf
Trivedi, J., Soni, B., and Rahim, M. S. M. (2017). Clay Cookware and tableware: Old is Gold. Management Journal of Siva Sivani Institute of Management , 9(2): 5–24. https://www.ssim.ac.in/pdfs/IX-2.pdf#page=5
UNICEF(2019). Annual report For Every Child reimagine. 2019. https://www.unicef.org/sites/default/files/2020-06/UNICEF annual-report-2019_2.pdf.
UNICEF-WHO-The World Bank (2019). Joint Child Malnutrition Estimates. Levels and trends in child malnutrition, 2019.https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/1066 5/331097/WHO-NMH-NHD-19.20-eng.pdf?ua=1.
Usha, B., Krishna Veni, G., Muni Kumar, D., and Hemalatha, K. P. J. (2011). Partial characterization of ?-amylase from germinating little millets (Panicum sumatrense). Journal of Phytology. 3(1): 01–08, https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/236017643.pdf
Wang, F., Jiao, P., Qi, M., Frezza, M., Dou, Q. P., and Yan, B. (2010). Turning tumor-promoting copper into an anti-cancer weapon via high-throughput chemistry. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 17(25), 2685-2698. https://doi.org/10.2174/092986710791859315
Watanabe, M. (1999). Antioxidative phenolic compounds from Japanese barnyard millet (Echinochloa utilis) grains. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 47(11), 4500-4505. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf990498s.
Weidenhamer, J. D., Kobunski, P. A., Kuepouo, G., Corbin, R. W., and Gottesfeld, P. (2014). Lead exposure from Aluminium cookware in Cameroon. Science of the Total Environment, 496, 339-347.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.07.016.
Wells III, E. W., Sherwood, S. C., and Hollenbach, K. D. (2014). Soapstone vessel chronology and function in the southern Appalachians of eastern Tennessee: The Apple Barn site (40BT90) assemblage. Southeastern Archaeology, 33(2), 153-167.
Wokoma, E. C., and Aziagba, G. C. (2001). Sensory evaluation of Dawa Dawa produced by the traditional fermentation of African yam bean (Sphenostylis Stenocarpa Harms) Seeds. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 5(1). https://doi.org/10.4314/jase m.v5i1.54961
Wu, X., Wang, D., Bean, S. R., and Wilson, J. P. (2006). Ethanol production from pearl millet by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In 2006 ASAE Annual Meeting (p. 1). American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers. https://www.ars.usda.gov/ARSUserFiles/30200510/Publi cations-2006/2006%20-%20Ethanol%20Production%20from%20Pearl%20Millet.pdf
Yadav, D. N., Anand, T., Kaur, J., and Singh, A. K. (2012). Improved storage stability of pearl millet flour through microwave treatment. Agricultural Research, 1(4), 399-404. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40003-012-0040-8.
Yamijala, S. S., Shinde, R., and Wong, B. M. (2020). Real-time degradation dynamics of hydrated per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the presence of excess electrons. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 22(13), 6804-6808.https://doi.org/10.1039/c9c p06 797c.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) © Author (s)