##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

Rajeev Rajput Rinki Nidhi Ahuja Nigam

Abstract

E-waste coming out from the electronic sector of the entire world is harming the world's environment. There has been a pattern of a substantial increase in the production of E-waste worldwide. This is as a consequence of population increase, industrialization, urbanization and economic activity. Since the last decade, the rate of consumerism has been found to be very high due to higher economic growth, which has resulted in increased E-waste production. Almost all countries are recycling more and more E-waste, but a million tonnes of E-waste still coming out. Experts believe that the rise of E-waste is due to our rapidly changing lifestyles. We have started adopting new electronic devices coming into the market, trying to make life more convenient. In  India, electronic waste is growing at 10% per annum.  The trend of urbanization has played a significant role in the enhancement of E-waste generation. The population living in urban areas was 27.67% in 2000, 38.03% in 2018, and is expected to reach approximately 42% in 2025. As the population increases, the amount of E-waste will also rise to an alarming situation. This review paper provides the present scenario of E-waste and its management practices and legislation in the
present Indian context. This would help all the stakeholders involved in the production of electrical equipment to gain better understanding of E-waste.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

Keywords

Environmental pollution, E-waste, Human health, Legislation, Management

References
Agoramoorthy, G. & Chakraborty, C. (2012). Control electronic waste in India. Nature, 485, 309. https://doi.org/10.1038/485309b.
Alabi, O. A., Adeoluwa, Y. M. & Bakare, A. A. (2020). Elevated Serum Pb, Ni, Cd, and Cr Levels and DNA Damage in Exfoliate d Buccal Cells of Teenage Scavengers at a Major Electronic Waste Dumpsite in Lagos, Nigeria. Biological Trace Element Research, 194 (1), 24-33. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-019-01745-z
Arya, S., & Kumar, S. (2020). E-waste in India at a Glance: Current Trends, Regulations, Challenges and Management Strategies. Journal of Cleaner Production, 122707. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.122707 
Ashfaq, A., & Khatoon, A. (2014). Environmental impacts assessment of electronic waste 1011 management. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 3, 772-779.
Awasthi, A.K., Zeng, X. & Li, J. (2016). Environmental pollution of electronic waste recycling in India: A critical review. Environmental Pollution, 211, 259–270. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2015.11.027
Baldé, C.P., Forti, V., Gray, V., Kuehr, R. & Stegmann, P. (2017). The Global E-waste Monitor: Quantities, Flows and Resources (Bonn/Geneva/Vienna). United Nations University (UNU), International Telecommunication Union (ITU) & International Solid Waste Association (ISWA). Bonn/Geneva/Vienna. https://collections.unu.edu/view/UNU: 6341.
Bertram, M., Graedel, T.E., Rechberger, H. & Spatari, S. (2002). The Contemporary European copper cycle: waste management subsystem. Ecological Economics, 42(1-2), 43–57. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-8009(02)00100-3
Borthakur, A., & Govind, A. (2017). How well are we managing E-waste in India: evidences from the city of Bangalore. Energy, Ecology and Environment, 2(4), 225-235. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40974-017-0060-0
Chatterjee, S. (2012). Sustainable electronic waste management and recycling process. American Journal of Environmental Engineering, 2(2), 23-33. https://doi.org/10.5923/j.ajee.20120201.05
CPCB. (2016). E-waste Management. Gazette of India, Extraordinary Part II, Section-3, Sub-Section-i, Government of India, Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change, New Delhi.
Cobbing, M. (2008). Toxic Tech: Not in Our Backyard: Uncovering the Hidden Flows of E-waste. Greenpeace International, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Corsini, F., Rizzi, F., Gusmerotti, N.M. & Frey, M. (2015). Extended producer responsibility and the evolution of sustainable specializations: evidences from the E-waste sector. Bussiness Strategy and the Environment, 24: 466-476.  https://doi.org/10.1002/bse.1831
Cui, J. & Zhang, L. (2008). Metallurgical recovery of metals from electronic waste: A review, Journal of Hazardous Material, 158(2-3), 228–256. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.02.001
Favot, M., Veit, R. & Massarutto, A. (2016). The evolution of the Italian EPR system for the management of household Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE)-Technical and economic performance in the spotlight. Waste Management, 56, 431-437. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2016.06.005
Forti, V., Balde, C.P., Kuehr, R. & Bel, G. (2020). The Global E-Waste Monitor, Quantities, flows and the circular economy potential. United Nations University (UNU)/ United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) – co-hosted SCYCLE Programme, International Telecommunication Union (ITU) & International Solid Waste Association (ISWA), Bonn/Geneva/Rotterdam.
Frazzoli, C., Orisakwe, O.E., Dragone, R. & Mantovani, A. (2010). Diagnostic health risk assessment of electronic waste on the general population in developing countries' scenarios. Environment Impact Assessment Review, 30(6),388–399. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eiar.2009.12.004
Garlapati, V.K. (2016). E-waste in India and developed countries: Management, recycling, business and biotechnological initiatives. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review, 54, 874-881. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.20 15.10.106
Gaidajis, G., Angelakoglou, K. & Aktsoglou, D. (2010). E-waste: Environmental problems and current management. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review, 3(1): 193-199. https://doi.org/10.25103/jestr.031.32
Gollakota, A.R.K., Gautam, S. & Shu, C.M. (2020). Inconsistencies of E-waste management in developing nations – Facts and plausible solutions. Journal of Environmental Management, 261, 110234.  https://10.10 16/j.jenvman.2020.110234
Herat, S. (2020). Achieving sustainability in solving the electronic waste (e-waste) problem. Environment Conservation Journal, 21(3, 7-15. https://doi.org/10.36953/ECJ.2020.21302
Imran, M., Haydar, S., Kim, J., Awan, M. R., & Bhatti, A. A. (2017). E-waste flows, resource recovery and improvement of legal framework in Pakistan. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 125: 131-138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2017.06.015.
Islam, A., Ahmed, T., Awual, M. R., Rahman, A., Sultana, M., Aziz, A. A., Monir, M.U., Teo, S.H. & Hasan, M. (2019). Advances in sustainable approaches to recover metals from e-waste-A review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 224, 118815.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.20 19.118815 
Johri, R. (2008). E-waste Implications, regulations and management in India and current global best practices. TERI, New Delhi.
Khurrum, M., Bhutta, S., Omar, A. & Yang, X. (2011). Electronic Waste: A Growing Concern in Today's Environment. Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Economics Research International, 2011, 1-8. https://doi.org/1 0.11 55/2011/474230
Kumar, U. & Singh, D. (2014). Electronic waste: concerns & hazardous threats. International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology, 4, 802–811
Lee, J. C., Song, H.T. & Yoo, J.M. (2007). Present status of the recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Korea. Resources Conservation and Recycling, 50(4, 380–397. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2007.0 1.010
Li, W., & Achal, V. (2020). Environmental and health impacts due to e-waste disposal in China – A review. Science of the Total Environment, 139745.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139745 
Liu, Y., Huo, X., Xu, L., Wei, X., Wu, W., Wu, X., & Xu, X. (2018). Hearing loss in children with ewaste lead and cadmium exposure. Science of the Total Environment, 624, 621–627. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.12.091.
Ludwig, C., Hellweg, S. & Stucki, S. (2003). In Municipal solid waste management; Strategies and Technologies for sustainable solutions. Spinger, Berlin, pp 320-322.
Nash, J. & Bosso, C. (2013). Extended producer responsibility in the United States: full speed ahead? Journal of Industrial Ecology, 17, 175-185. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-9290.2012.00572.x 
Pariatamby, A. & Victor, D. (2013). Policy trends of E-waste management in Asia, Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, 15, 411-419. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10163-013-0136-7
Perkins, D.N., Drisse, M.M., Nxele, T. & Sly, P.D. (2014). E-waste: A Global Hazard. Annals of Global Health, 80(4): 286-295.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aogh.2 014.10.001
Puckett, J., Byster, L. & Westervelt, S. (2002). Exporting Harm: The High-Tech Trashing of Asia. The Basel Action Network (BAN) and Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition (SVTC), http://www.ban.org/E-waste/technotrashfinalco mp.pdf.
Purushothaman, M., Inamdar, M. G. & Muthunarayanan, V. (2020), Socio-economic impact of the e-waste pollution in India. Materials Today: Proceedings, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.05.242
Rakib, M.A. & Ali, M. (2014). Electronic waste generation: Observational status and local concept along with environmental impact. International Journal of Scientific Research in Knowledge, 2(10), 470-479. https://doi.org/10.12983/IJSRK-2014-P0470-0479
Rajput, R., Prasad, G. & Chopra, A.K. (2009). Scenario of solid waste management in present Indian context. Caspian Journal of Environmental Science, 7(1), 45–53.
Ravindra, K. & Mor, S. (2019). E-waste generation and management practices in Chandigarh, India and economic evaluation for sustainable recycling. Journal of Cleaner Production, 221, 286-294. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JCLEPRO.2019.02.158
Saoji, A. (2012). E-waste management: An emerging environmental and health issue in India. National Journal of Medical Research, 2(1), 107-110.
Sankhla, M.S., Kumari, M., Nandan, M., Mohril, S., Singh, G.P., Chaturvedi, B., & Kumar, R. (2016). Effect of Electronic waste on Environmental & Human health - A Review, IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 10(9), 98-104. https://doi.or g/10.9790/2402-10090198104
Shamim, A., Mursheda, A.K., & Rafiq, I. (2015). E-waste trading impact on public health and ecosystem services in developing countries. International Journal of Waste Resources, 5, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.4172/2252-5211.1000 188.
Shirodkar, N. & Terkar, R. (2017). Stepped Recycling: The Solution for E-waste Management and Sustainable Manufacturing in India. Materials Today: Proceedings, 4(8), 8911–8917. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2017.07.2 42 
Terazono, A., Murakami, S., Abe, N., Inanc, B., Moriguchi, Y. & Sakai, S.I. (2006). Current status and research on E-waste issues in Asia, Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, 8(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10163-005-0147-0
Widmer, R., Krapf, H.O., Khetriwal, D.S., Schnellmann, M. & Boni, H. (2005). Global perspectives on E-waste. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 25(5), 436–458. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eiar.2005.04.001
Zeng, X., Duan, H., Wang, F. & Li, J. (2017). Examining environmental management of e-waste: China's experience and lessons. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review, 72(5), 1076–1082. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse r.2016.10.015
Zhang, B., Huo, X., Xu, L., Cheng, Z., Cong, X., Lu, X. & Xu, X. (2017). Elevated lead levels from e-waste exposure are linked to decreased olfactory memory in children. Environmental Pollution, 231, 1112–1121. https://doi.or g/10.1016/j.envpol.2017.07.015
Citation Format
How to Cite
Rajput, R. ., Rinki, & Ahuja Nigam, N. . (2021). An overview of E-waste, its management practices and legislations in present Indian context. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 13(1), 34-41. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v13i1.2440
More Citation Formats:
Section
Research Articles