Anju Bhatnagar


Cymbopogon species from the Poaceae family are widely distributed in the Himalayan region of India and commonly used as flavors, fragrances, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. It is known to contain compound citral, which give the lemon scent to many of the plants of the cymbopogon genera. The essential oil of  Cymbopogon flexuosus has high polyphenolic content which is responsible for antioxidant properties.  Beside citral is also used for the synthesis of vitamin B and Ionones. The bioactive potential of Lemongrass and constituent are rapidly increasing which is reflected from growing number of reports being published.  The present study was to know the chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of essential oil of C. flexuosus from Uttarakhand. The essential oils of Cymbopogon collected in the region of Uttarakhand were obtained by hydrodistillation of the leaves and analyzed for chemical composition by GC/MS. The antioxidant activity of essential oils at different concentrations was determined against DPPH radical activity and vitamin C as the standard antioxidant compound.  The IC50    value and percentage of DPPH inhibition were recorded.  Twenty-five compounds were identified in essential oil extracted from leaves representing 93.15% of the oil composition. The yield of essential oil of Cymbopogon was 0.6 + 0.1 %and the major compound in the essential oil was citral (a racemic mixture of two isoforms geranial and nearl) followed by heptenone(1.98%) , linalool(1.65%), geraniol (1.47%), ?-caryophyllene (1.14% ) , limonene (0.92%),  nearl acetate (0.82%), citronellal(0.44 %) and citronellol (0.22%). Radical scavenging capacity (Inhibition, %) of the C. flexuosus essential oil was high (78.19+1.11) at the concentration level of 150 ?g/ml and  IC50 value of the essential oil was 43.67?g/ml.  The data of this study encourages to consider the essential oil of C. flexuosus  as a source of bioactive compounds which may add great industrial value to this crop.


Download data is not yet available.




Cymbopogon flexuosus, Bioactivities, Antioxidant activity, Citral, Monoterpene

Adams R.P. (1995). Identification of Essential Oil Constituents by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy. Allured Publ. Corp., Carol Stream, Illinois.
Adukwu, E.C., Alllen, S.C.H., and Phillips, C.A., (2012) The anti-biofilm activity of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) and grapefruit (Citrus paradise) essential oils against five strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Journal of Applied Microbiology, 113, 1217-1227.
Akter, S., Ahmed, M., Eun, J.B.,(2010). Solvent effect on antioxidant properties of persimmon (Diospyros Kaki L.Cu. Daebong) Studs. Int. J. Food Sci. Tech., 45, 2258-2264.
Bhatnagar, A, (2018). Composition variation of essential oil of cymbopogon spp. Growing in Garhwal region of Uttarakhand, India, Journal of Applied and Natural science, 10(1): 363-366.
Bor, N.L., (1960). The Grasses of Burma, Ceylon, India, and Pakistan, Pergamon Press, London, pp. 767.
Davies D.W. (1990). Gas chromatographic retention indices of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes on methyl silicone and Carbowax 20M phases, J. Chromatograph., 503, 1-24.
Ganjewala, D., (2009) Cymbopogon essential oil: chemical compositions and bioactivities, International Journal of essential oil therapeutics, 3, 56-65.
Ganjewala, D. and Gupta, A.K (2013), Lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuous steud.) wats essential oil: overview and biological activities, RPMP Vol. 37: essential oil-II, 233-274.
Geckil H, Ates B, Durmaz G, Erdogan S. Yilmaz I.(2005). Antioxidant, free radical scavenging and Metal chelating characteristic of Propilis. American J. of Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 1:27-31.
Gupta, B.K. and Daniel, P. (1982). Aromatic grasses of India and their utilization: A plea for further research, Pafai J. 4, 13-27.
Gupta, B.K. and Jain, N. (1978). Cultivation and utilization of genus Aromatic Cymbopogon in India, Indian Perfume. 22, 55-68.
Khanuja, S.P.S; Shasany, A.K., Pawar, A., Lal, R.K. (2005). Essential oil constituents and RAPD markers to establish species relationship in Cymbopogon Spreng. (Poaceae), Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 33, 171-186.
Kulkarni, R.N.., Baskaran, K . and Ramesh S. (2003). Five cycles of recurrent selection for increased essential oil content in East Indian Lemongrass: Response to selection, and effects on heritabilities of traits and inter trait correlation, Plant Breed. 122:131-135.
Lawrence B.M. (1988). Progress in essential oil: citronella oil,Perfum. Flav. 23, 80-82.
Mata, A.T., Proenca, C., Ferreira, A. R., Serralheiro, M.L.M., Nogueira, J.M.F and Noqueira, J. M.F and Araujo, M.E.M,(2007), Antioxidant and antiacetylcholinesterase activities of five plants used as Portuguese food species. Food Chemistry,103:778-786.
Negrelle,R.R.B., and Gomes,E.C.,(2007) Cymbopogon citrates (DC.) stapf chemical compostion and biological activities. RevistaBrasileira de PlantasMedicinaisBotucatu (Brasil), 9(1) 80-92.
Padalia, R.C., verma.R.S., Chanotiya,C.S ., Yadav, A,(2011). The chemical fingerprint of the fragrant volatiles of Nineteen Indian Cultivars of Cymbopogon Spreng.5:4, 290-99.
Lawrence, R; Lawrence K.; Srivastave R., and Gupta, Deeti (2015), Antioxdant activity of lemon grass essential oil grown in North Indian plains. PThe scientific temper, IV; 23-29.
Sangwan, N.S., Yadav, U and Sangwan, R.S.,(2001), Molecular analysis of genetic diversity in elite Indian cultivars of essential oil trade types of aromatic grasses (Cymbopogon species). Plant Cell Rep., 20; 437-444.
Soenarko, S. (1997). The genus Cymbopogon. Reinwardtia 9, 225-226.
Sharma, K.K., Nath, S.C. and Leclercq, P. A. (1999). The essential oil of a variant of Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees ex Steud.) Wats from Northeast India, J. Essential Oil Res., 11:381-385.
Citation Format
How to Cite
Bhatnagar, A. (2020). Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oil of Cymbopogon flexuosus . Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 12(1), 25-29. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v12i1.2207
More Citation Formats:
Research Articles