Sixty women of 45-55 years, belonging to middle income group were selected on basis of their Bone Mineral Density (BMD) from a – “Clinic After Forty” of Ludhiana city, Punjab. Serum calcium and BMD were tested using techniques called o-Cresolphthalein complexone (oCPC) method and Dual energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) respectively.
Subjects were given nutrition counseling (NC) twice a month for a period of 4 months. Assessment of nutritional status was done by dietary survey and anthropometric parameters before and after study. Dietary survey revealed that daily intake of milk and milk products (p<0.05), roots and tubers (p<0.01), green leafy vegetables (GLVs) (p<0.01), other vegetables and fruits (p<0.01) increased significantly whereas intake of sugar and jaggery and fats and oils (p<0.01) decreased significantly after NC. Intake of beta
carotene, vitamin C, iron, calcium and phosphorus also increased significantly. Mean weight, Body Mass Index (BMI) waist-circumference, hip circumference and WHR decreased significantly after NC. Biochemical assessment revealed significant improvement in serum calcium levels and BMD from 7.82mg/dl to 8.99mg/dl (p<0.01) and -2.2 to -2.01 (p<0.01) respectively. Subjects were classified as osteopenic and osteoporotic on basis of their t-scores. Majority of the subjects were osteopenic and the rest were osteoporotic. But after NC %age of osteopenic subjects increased while %age of osteoporotic subjects decreased. Study emphasized the importance of NC to bring about positive changes in dietary intake of menopausal women which in turn improved their serum calcium levels and BMD. Hence NC can be taken as an effective and sustainable tool to tackle osteoporosis as it is a serious public health issue among Indian menopausal women.
Bone Mineral Density, Menopausal women, Osteoporosis, Serum Calcium
Chowdhary, D. (2012). Nutritional and Lifestyle factors for the risk for the risk assessment of osteoporosis in pre and post menopausal women. M.Sc. thesis, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India.
Deepti, L., Joyti Lakshmi, and Prakash, J. (2006) Diet related risk factor for osteroporosis in per and postmenopousal Indian women. The. Ind. J. Nutr. Dietet. 43: 341.
Dempster, D. W. and Lindsay, R. (1993) Pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Lancet., 341: 797-801.
Gitelman, H. J. (1967). An improved automatic procedure for the determination of calcium in biologic specimens. Anal Biochem., 18: 521.
ICMR (2011). Nutrient requirements and recommended dietary allowances for Indians: A report of the expert group of the Indian Council of Medical Research. New Delhi.
Jelliffe, D. B. (1966) The assessment of nutritional status of the community, Monograph Series No. 53. Asian Indian Foods. Nutritional Analysis Computer Programme Michigan State University, USA.
Kushwaha, S. (2011). Impact of supplementation of drumstick (Moringa Olifera) and amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor) leaves on the antioxidant status of the post menopausal women. M.Sc. thesis, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India.
Prasad, P. (2010). Obesity and its associated risk factors among post menopausal women. M.Sc. thesis, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India.
Singh, M. (2012) Early age of natural menopause in India, a biological marker for early preventive health programs.Climacteric,15(6):581-6.
Song, W.O., Mann, S.K., Sehgal, S., Devi, P.R., Guradu, S., and Kakarala, M. (1992) Nutriguide: Asian Indian Foods. Nutritional Analysis Computer Programme. Michigan State University, USA.
Susan, N. (2001). Natural thought on menopause. Retreived from www.menopauseonline.com.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) © Author (s)