Foraging activity period of different honey bee species on C. moschata (C-1076) flowers at different day hours during August-September (2013) revealed that A. dorsata, A. mellifera, A. cerana and A. florea initiated their activity early in the morning at 0530, 0615, 0625 and 0630 h, respectively and stopped their activity at 1030, 1020, 1025 and 1030 h of the day, respectively while on C. moschata (C-1106, A. dorsata, A. mellifera, A. cerana and A. florea initiated their activity early in the morning at 0535, 0615, 0620 and 0625 h, respectively and ceased their activity at 1045, 1025, 1015 and 1040 h of the day, respectively. The mean foraging speed (time spent per flower) in seconds on flowers of pumpkin (C-1106) was maximum of A. florea (181.72), followed by A. mellifera (7.15), A. cerana (6.05) and A. dorsata spent least time (5.83) and in pumpkin (C-1076), foraging speed was maximum in case of A. florea (178.71), followed by A. mellifera (7.63), A. cerana (6.24) and A. dorsata spent least time (6.06). The mean foraging rate (flowers visited per minute) on flowers of pumpkin (C-1106) was maximum in case of A. dorsata (5.13), followed by A. cerana (4.30), A. mellifera (4.16) and A. florea visited least flower (0.32) and in pumpkin (C-1076), foraging rate was maximum in case of A. dorsata (4.96), followed by A. cerana (4.19), A. mellifera (4.02) and A. florea visited least flower (0.33). Present study advises the farmers that they should not apply the pesticide when the activity of honey bee is on the peak period because pesticides application at the time of bee activity in the field crop causes mortality of bees.
Foraging rate, Foraging speed, Honey bee species, Pumpkin
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