Forthcoming

  • Altitudinal variation in the volatile constituents of Cymbopogon flexuosus from Uttarakhand region of Himalaya (2019-04-22)
    Anju Bhatnagar D.B.S. (P.G.) College, Dehradun-248001 (Uttarakhand), India

    The essential oils of Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemon grass) of the family Poaceae collected from different altitudes of the Uttarakhand region of Himalaya were subjected to detailed GC/MS analysis in order to determine the variation of concentration in their constituents. The GC/MS analysis led to the identification of 29 constituents forming 90.62 to 93.58% of their total oil content. The major constituents were citral, geraniol, citronellol,citranellal, linalool, borneol, ?-myrcene limonene, ?-caryophyllene, camphene, ?-cadinene, ? terpineol, neryl acetate and heptenone. Plants collected from 450 m altitude afforded citral (74.58 %) [a isomeric mixture of geranial and nearl] as a major constituents whereas only a less percentage of citral (64.21%, 68.29%) was found in the plants collected from two other altitudes i.e 250m and 1000m respectively. The geraniol, cam-
    phene and neryl acetate were obtained in a high concentration form the plants collected at 250 m altitude but in the plant from two other altitudes, it was found only in less proportion. Similarly, ?-cadinene, ?-terpineol and camphene were the major constituents of plants at 1000m altitude but in other plants it was detected in very low concentration. Since, the concentration of plant constituents affected by altitude and season, medicinal
    properties of such plants and their use in biological application would vary accordingly.

  • Effect of nitrogen and potash on Early shoot borer (Chilo infuscatellus Snellen) incidence in differently maturing varieties of sugarcane (2019-05-08)
    Robin Singh Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India Dilbagh Ahlawat Department of Entomology, Regional Research Station, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Karnal-132 001 (Haryana), India S.S. Yadav Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India Kanika Nagpal Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India Ankur Chaudhary Department of Agronomy, Regional Research Station, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Karnal-132 001 (Haryana), India

    It has been argued that fertilization may influence the susceptibility of insect pests, and thus, can increase the crop production by lowering the incidence of insect-pest. Here, the present investigation was carried out to study the influence of nitrogen and potash levels on the incidence of early shoot borer, Chilo infuscatellus Snellen in sugarcane varieties at Regional Research Station CCSHAU Uchani farm, Karnal. The experiment was laid out in split-split plot design with three differently maturing varieties viz., Co 0238, CoH 119 and CoH 150 as main plot, three doses of nitrogen viz., 150, 200 and 250 kg per hectare (kg/ha) as sub plot and two doses of potash viz., 0 and 50 (kg/ha) as sub-sub plot. The early shoot borer mean per cent incidence recorded in April, May and June, 2015 was highest (7.68, 12.19 and 6.35, respectively) in Co 0238 while, lowest (5.16, 8.51 and 5.40, respectively) in CoH 119 followed by CoH 150 (6.29, 8.79 and 5.43, respectively). In relation to nitrogen application, maximum mean per cent incidence (7.12, 11.19 and 6.48, respectively) in April, May and June, 2015 of early shoot borer was recorded at 250 kg N/ha and the minimum (5.68, 8.57 and 5.23, respectively) at 150 kg N/ha. Application of potassium significantly reduced the shoot borer infestation with mean per cent incidence lower at 50 kg K2O/ha (5.90, 9.24 and 5.33, respectively) in April, May and June, 2015 compared to control i.e., no application of potassium (6.85, 10.42 and 6.12, respectively). Results revealed that application of potassium with optimum dose of nitrogenous fertilizer along with selection of suitable variety acted as preventive measures to avoid shoot borer infestation.

  • Residual effect of nitrogen levels and weed control methods on growth, yield and economics of wheat grown after rice (2019-05-22)
    Vipin Kumar Shukla Department of Agronomy, M.G.C. Gramodaya Vishwavidyalaya Chitrakoot, Satna- 485780 (M.P.), India H. S. Kushwaha Department of Agronomy, JNKVV College of Agriculture, Rewa- 486001 (M.P.), India S. K. Singh Food Corporation of India, Mokama, Patna- 803302 (Bihar), India D. K. Malviya Department of Agronomy, JNKVV College of Agriculture, Rewa-486001 (M.P.), India R. K. Tiwari Department of Agronomy, JNKVV College of Agriculture, Rewa-486001 (M.P.), India

    A field experiment was laid out in split plot design on residual effect of treatments comprising three nitrogen levels viz. N75 (N1), N100 (N2) and N125 (N3) in main-plot treatments and seven weed control treatments viz. (W1-butachlor + 1 Hand Weeding, W2-butachlor + 2 Mechanical Weeding, W3-butachlor + 2,4-D, W4-bispyribac sodium, W5-butachlor + bispyribac sodium, W6-HW-2, W7- control) as sub-plot treatments conducted during 2015-16 and 2016-17 at the Rajaula Agriculture Farm, MGCGVV, Satna (M.P.) to study the residual effect of N-levels and weed control methods on growth, yield and economics of wheat grown after rice. In case of succeeding wheat, the residual 125 kg N/ha performed the best with respect to growth, yield-attributes with the result 31.11 q/ha grain yield and Rs.33509/ha income. While, under sub plot treatments, Hand weedings two times were recorded significant grain yield (28.66 q/ha) and straw yield (38.17 q/ha) at (P <0.05) over control. However it was found non-significant different and also noticed higher over rest treatments. In this succession, Butachlor + 2, 4-D (0.80 kg/ha) was higher but in second position and similar trend was observed in successive way with rest of treatments.

  • Productivity and quality of Anthurium andreanum influenced with growing conditions and fertilizers (2019-04-22)
    Chhungpuii Khawlhring Department of Horticulture, Aromatic and Medicinal Plants, Mizoram University, Tanhril-796004 (Mizoram), India Gaurang D. Patel Polytechnic in Horticulture, ASPEE College of Horticulture and Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Paria-396145 (Gujarat), India F. Lalnunmawia Department of Botany, Mizoram University, Tanhril-796004 (Mizoram), India

    An experiment was carried out to study the productivity and flower quality of Anthurium andreanum cv. Evita cultivated in shade house (75% shade net) and under natural forest trees at Herbal garden, School of Earth Sciences & Natural Resources, Management, Mizoram University, Tanhril, Mizoram. There were six different nutrient sources as F0 - control  (no additional nutrient source); F1 - NPK (19:19:19) @ 25 g/pot/year; F2 - Biofertilizers (azospirillum and phosphotika) each @ 3 g/pot/year; F3 - Cattle manure @ 1.0 kg/pot/year; F4- Pig manure @1.0 kg/pot/year and F5- Poultry manure @ 0.5 kg/pot/year were applied in three equal splits. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block design with factorial concept comprising in three replications. All vegetative and flowering parameters differ significantly at 0.05 level, and were observed better under Shade house (75% shade net) condition. Number of suckers per pot (4.77), number of leaves (23.73), leaf area (257.79cm2), flower stalk length (41.68cm), flower stalk diameter (5.95mm), spadix length (60.77cm), spadix diameter (10.02mm), spathe area (103.25cm2), vase life (19.67days) and number of flower per plant (3.57) were found maximum in F1 - NPK (19:19:19) @ 25 g/pot/year. Hence Anthurium andreanum cv. Evita planted in cocopeat, charcoal and vermicompost in the proportion of 6.5:1:1 placed under shade house (75% shade net) and fertilized with NPK (19:19:19) @ 25 g/pot/year can enhance growth and flowering characters.

  • Isolation and identification of azo dye degrading microbes using 16s r RNA sequencing (2019-04-22)
    Pushpa V Department of P. G. Studies and Research in Environmental Science, Kuvempu University, Jnanasahyadri, Shankaraghatta, Shivamogga (Karnataka), India Yogendra K. Department of P. G. Studies and Research in Environmental Science, Kuvempu University, Jnanasahyadri, Shankaraghatta, Shivamogga (Karnataka), India Mahadevan K. M. Department of P. G Studies and Research in Chemistry, P.G. Centre Kadur, Kuvempu University, Kadur (T), Chickmagalur (D) (Karnataka), India Mahesh M. Azyme Bioscience Pvt Ltd, Bangalore (Karnataka), India

    The aim of the present study was to isolate and identify azo dye degrading microbes using 16s r RNA sequencing. For this, ten effluent and fifty soil samples were collected from textile industry from a discharge panel of textile industries near Peenya and Magadi road Industrial area, Bengaluru, and dying industries near Kerur, Bagalkot, Karnataka, India. The pH, temperature, BOD, COD, Odor, Total dissolved solid (TDS), Total suspended solids (TSS), Chemical oxygen demand (COD), Biological oxygen demand (BOD), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), and Total Hardness values were very high when compared with the values given by the Bureau of Indian Standards. Pure cultures were screened on the basis of colony morphology. Three different types of unique cultures were selected and named as isolates S1, S2 and S3. Outof 6 dyes viz. Corafast blue, Corafast red, Red 3BN, Solophenyl Brown, RemazoleRG , Rubin M2B used, isolate S1 showed degradation on the maximum number of dyes Red 3BN, Corafast blue, Corafast red, in comparison to other isolates (isolates S2 and S3). Thus, isolate S1 was used for the further studies. For this study Red 3BN dye was chosen. The isolated bacterium was gram positive Bacilli. In the biochemical characterization, the isolate was partially confirmed as Bacillus sp.
    Further, the selected isolate was identified by sequencing the 16S rRNA sequencing. The bacterial isolate was identified as Bacillus species exhibiting 99% similarity, the phylogenic relationship of 16S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence of the isolated strain and species related to Bacillus species in the gene bank database. Thus, this organism may be used significantly in effluent treatment such as textile, paper, ink and other industries.

  • Fractal analysis of colony margins as an aid for screening freshwater yeast cultures for bioclarification of turbid polluted water resources (2019-04-22)
    Sheela Pal Mycological Laboratory, Department of Botany, Goa University, Taleigao-403206 (Goa), India Nankumar Kamat Mycological Laboratory, Department of Botany, Goa University, Taleigao-403206 (Goa), India

    In Iron ore mining areas of Goa, water resources are polluted due to high turbidity and mineral colloids. For bioclarification of the turbidity, we need to identify some promising property of strains by which the strains of freshwater yeasts can be screened. This work presents a screening of freshwater yeast cultures, based on the complexity of colony margins. We performed screening of the wild aquatic yeasts isolated from different fresh water bodies of Goa on 2nd, 4th and 6th day of incubation respectively. Colony margins of sixteen different strains were studied for their fractality indexes and on comparison significant differences were observed among them.  We report comparative analysis of five representative strains in this paper. Particularly strain Bchlm-1-2 showed high fractality index approximately 1410 on 6th day of incubation. This work provides quantitative scoring system of the morphological behavior of large number of strains. Our approach has the potential to improve the accuracy and speed to quantify and compare large number of isolates on the basis of their colony margins. 

  • Bioefficacy of fungicides, plant extracts and essential oils against Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) Leonard and Suggs causing Northern leaf blight of maize (2019-04-22)
    Bhagyashree Bhatt Department of Plant Pathology, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, U. S. Nagar-263145 (Uttarakhand), India Pradeep Kumar Department of Plant Pathology, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, U. S. Nagar-263145 (Uttarakhand), India

    Eight fungicides, ten botanicals and ten essential oils were taken for their in vitro evaluation against Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) Leonard and Suggs incited of Northern Leaf Blight of Maize. Among all the tested fungicides (Azoxystrobin 23%, Thiophenate methyl 75%, Propiconazole 25%, Tebuconazole 25.9%, Captan 50%, Zineb 75%, Cymoxanil 8%+Mancozeb 64% and Zineb 68%+Hexaconazole 4%), propiconazole 25% showed maximum inhibition of mycelial growth (92.22%) under in vitro conditions at 5ppm concentration. Among all the tested botanicals Heena (Lawsonia inermis) was found to be most effective in inhibiting mycelial growth (71.11%) at 10% concentration. Lemon tulsi oil was found best in inhibiting mycelial growth (71.30%) of Exserohilum turcicum, among all the tested essential oils at 50ppm concentration. Fungicides, plant extracts and essential oils showing good results under in vitro conditions were tested under glasshouse conditions. Foliar spray of Propiconazole 25%[email protected]% showed reduced disease incidence (23.33%) compared to control (46.33%). Application of 5% of Heena extracts reduced the disease incidence (26.67%). Plants when sprayed with Lemon tulsi oil showed reduced disease incidence (24.17%). The study reveals that not only the fungicides but also the natural plant extracts can greatly contribute to reduce the incidence of disease because of the antifungal compounds present in plants. 

  • Production and characterization of antimicrobials from isolate Pantoea agglomerans of Medicago sativa plant rhizosphere soil (2019-04-22)
    Nisha M Nair Department of Microbiology, Karpagam Academy of Higher Education, Coimbatore – 641021 (Tamil Nadu), India R. Kanthasamy PG and Research Centre of Botany, Rani Anna Govt. College for Women, Tirunelveli – 627008 (Tamil Nadu), India R. Mahesh PG and Research Centre of Botany, South Travancore Hindu College, Nagercoil – 629002, Kanyakumari District (Tamil Nadu), India S. Iruthaya Kalai Selvam PG and Research Centre of Zoology, Jayaraj Annapackiam College for Women (Autonomous), Periyakulam, Theni District – 625601 (Tamil Nadu), India S. Ramalakshmi Department of Microbiology, Sri Moogambigai Arts and Science College for Women, Palacode-Hosur Main Road, Thimmarayanahalli PO, Mallupatti, Dharmapuri Dt. -636805 (Tamil Nadu), India

    Due to rise in drug resistance among pathogens, there is always an urge to look for new drug alternatives. So in this study we aimed to identify the unexplored rhizosphere microflora of alfalfa plant for new antimicrobials. With initial screening for isolates from rhizosphere region for antibacterial activity against selected bacterial pathogens, the isolate AL10 had better activity selected for this study. The isolate mass was cultured and secondary metabolites were extracted using ethyl acetate and subjected to FTIR and GC-MS analysis. Based on functional diversity analysis, the isolate subjected to anti-bacterial activity revealed significant activity against Streptococcus pneumonia, Klebsiella, S. aureus with zone of inhibition in the range of18-20 mm. Based on GC-MS analysis report ten compounds were identified and 1-Octadecane and 1-nonadecanol were found to be responsible for bio-activity. FT-IR results showed that N-H stretching functional group was dominantly present in the extract. Molecular identification of the isolate by 16S rRNA sequencing showed the isolate as Pantoea agglomerans. The results showed that the isolate P.agglomerans, gram negative bacteria had wide antibacterial activity due to 1-Octadecane and 1-nonadecanol. Though Alfalfa plant has been described for various biological activities, this is a first report on rhizosphere region of plant reporting for antibacterial potential microbes.

  • Evaluation of morphometric characteristics and watershed prioritization of Bhadar basin of Saurashtra region, Gujarat (2019-04-22)
    J. H. Kelaiya Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh (Gujarat), India H. D. Rank Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh (Gujarat), India D. K. Dwivedi Department of Natural Resource Management, College of Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari (Gujarat), India

    Morphometric analysis is one of the important aspects of quantitative geomorphology which is primarily used to study the geometrical aspects of the landforms. The study was undertaken with the objectives of evaluating morphometric characteristic and prioritizing the watersheds of Bhadar basin based on its morphometric characteristics.  Linear, relief and aerial aspects were calculated for watershed characterization. The watersheds were ranked on the basis of high values of linear parameters and low values of shape parameters. A total of 16 watersheds 5G1B1, 5G1B2, 5G1B3, 5G1B4, 5G1B5, 5G1B6, 5G1B7, 5G1B8, 5G1B9, 5G1B10, 5G1B11, 5G1B12, 5G1B13, 5G1B14, 5G1B15 and 5G1B16 were identified in the Bhadar basin and morphometric characteristic of each watershed was determined. Highest priority indicated the greater degree of erosion in the particular watershed and it therefore priority should be given in applying soil conservation measures. It was concluded that the watershed 5G1B15 should be given highest priority because of higher erosion problems over other watersheds of Bhadar basin while 5G1B4 should be given the least priority.

  • Assessment of urban growth using Shannon’s Entropy Index: A case study of Chennai, Detroit of India (2019-04-22)
    Shenbagaraj N Centre for Aerospace Research, Madras Institute of Technology, Chennai (Tamil Nadu), India Naresh Kumar M. Centre for Aerospace Research, Madras Institute of Technology, Chennai (Tamil Nadu), India Leo Stalin J. Centre for Aerospace Research, Madras Institute of Technology, Chennai (Tamil Nadu), India

    The Remote Sensing (R/ S) and Geographical Information System (GIS) play a vital role to evaluate and study the urban expansion pattern. In this study, the Chennai city was selected to perform the urban sprawl study. Five different periods of satellite imageries for the time elapsed between 1994 and 2016 were used. The main aim of this paper was to identify the urban sprawl of Chennai as a patterning process. The extended areas of urban in the period of 1994, 2001, 2006, 2011 and 2016 were extracted by the sub-pixel classification method from the satellite imageries. Furthermore, Shannon’s entropy index was used for assessing urban expansion. The findings of this study proved that Chennai city has sprawled by urban expansion during the period between 1994 and 2016. Likewise, the dispersion rate of urban sprawl for the periods of 1994, 2001, 2006, 2011 and 2016 were 0.671, 0.679, 0.688, 0.693 and 0.695 respectively. Consequently, this uncontrolled dispersed urban development had resulted in the study area losses their green space.

  • Polygalacturonase production by Aspergillus nomius MR103 in solid state fermentation using Agro-industrial wastes (2019-05-08)
    Ravi Ketipally Department of Botany and Microbiology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur-522 510 (Andhra Pradesh), India G. Kranthi Kumar Department of Botany and Microbiology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur-522 510 (Andhra Pradesh), India M. Raghu Ram Department of Botany and Microbiology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur-522 510 (Andhra Pradesh), India

    The present study was aimed at polygalacturonase production from Aspergillus nomius MR103 under solid state fermentation. A total of 57 fungal strains were obtained from mangrove soils collected from Gilakaladindi and Malakayalanka of Krishna District Andhra Pradesh. For the isolation of fungi these Soil samples were serially diluted and plated on pectin agar media plates.  Among them, the isolate which showed maximum polygalacturonase activity was selected for this study. This strain was identified as A. nomius MR 103 by 18S rRNA sequences analysis. Pectin rich agro-industrial wastes like apple peel, citrus peel, orange peel, wheat bran, rice bran and sugarcane bagasse were used as substrates for polygalacturonase production by A. nomius MR 103. This strain was inoculated into the nutrient broth containing agro industrial wastes under solid state fermentation and amount of Polygalacturonase production was estimated. Maximum enzyme production of 4.83 IU/mg was recorded at pH 7.0 and temperature 35?C after 7 days of incubation, when orange peels were used as substrate.  Addition of carbon and nitrogen sources to orange peel media improved the Polygalcturonase production. Sucrose as carbon and peptone as nitrogen sources were proved  to be the best for  maximum production of Polygalcturonase by A. nomius MR 103 on orange peel substrate. Utilization of agro-industrial by-products provided the establishment of a cost-efficient and sustainable process for enzyme production. 

  • Pulmonary expression of Pla2g5 during lung damage in mice induced by fipronil and lipopolysaccharide interaction (2019-04-22)
    Arif Ahmed Pandit Department of Animal Biotechnology, School of Animal Biotechnology, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animals Sciences University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), India https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7468-0414 R S Sethi Department of Animal Biotechnology, School of Animal Biotechnology, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animals Sciences University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), India http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0416-8946

    With Indian pesticide industry touching new heights each year in terms of production and sale, its ill effects on health cannot just be ignored. Humans, as well as animals, are under the constant threat of being exposed to environmental pollutants like endotoxins and pesticides which are present ubiquitously in our surroundings. Phenylpyrazoles like fipronil were introduced into the Indian market with an aim to oversee the menace of insecticide resistance and public health hazards experienced with more commonly used pesticide but its adverse effects on the pulmonary system are now being reported globally. We reported first data that the Planar cell Polarity (PCP) pathway was the top dysregulated pathway during fipronil induced lung damage. In order to further elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms, we analysed the data generated by gene expression
    profiling in lung tissues using biocomputational approaches. We found Eicosanoid signalling as one of the top enriched pathways dysregulated during fipronil and or endotoxin-induced lung inflammation. Global view of genes showed Pla2g5 as top differentially expressed gene with 1.6, 3.9, 1.2, 3.1 and 4.3-folds expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS), high dose of fipronil (9.5mg/kg) alone or in combination with LPS and low dose of fipronil (4.75 mg/kg) alone or in combination with LPS, respectively which was validated using qPCR and immunohistochemistry. The data suggest a role Pla2g5 to activate eicosanoid signalling in fipronil and or LPS induced lung inflammation in mice.

  • Evaluation of mass bathing effects on water quality status of eight prominent ponds of Haryana (India): A multi-location study (2019-05-23)
    Pooja Devi Government P.G. College, Ambala Cantt. (Haryana), India Anita Bhtnagar Department of Zoology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana-136119, India Mohan P. George Delhi Pollution Control Committee, ISBT Building, Delhi, India

    Amongst the various anthropogenic activities, mass bathing and other religious rituals also affect the water quality of aquatic ecosystem. The present research has been conducted to evaluate the impact of mass bathing and other religious activities on the eight famous religious water bodies of Haryana (Kapalmochan tirth, Kulotarn tirth, Ban-Ganga tirth, Brahmsarovar, Jyotisar, Saraswati tirth, Phalgu tirth and Pandu-Pindara tirth). The water samples were collected from three sampling stations (A, B and C) at each of the eight selected sites (S1 to S8) before and after the religious rituals and also seasonally. The samples were analyzed for Dissolved oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) ammonia and heavy metals . The study highlighted the seasonal variations of physicochemical characteristics and also the effects of mass bathing and religious activities on water quality of the religious sites. Although the water was reported as safe in terms of DO content, total ammonia, BOD and the values of COD before the religious rituals but the values exceeded the maximum permissible limit {DO (0.8±0.1, 0.76±0.11), BOD (25.07±0.13, 18.13±0.13),COD (131.9±2.08), Ammonia (2.31±.23, 6.57±0.02) Iron (5890 µg L-1) and Zinc (200 µg L-1)} after mass bathing and religious rituals indicating that the water was not suitable for drinking as well as bathing purposes after the rituals/mass bathing. So, bathing during/after such rituals may become a health hazards to the bathers or users of the water and also may affect the aquatic biota, further depleting it. There is thus a need of regular monitoring and regular application of suitable remedial measures to prevent the depletion of the quality of lentic waters.

  • Seed storage behaviour of Buxus wallichiana Baillon: An important woodcraft species of Indian Himalayan region (2019-05-08)
    Manisha Thapliyal Forest Tree Seed Laboratory, Silviculture & Forest Management Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun -248 006 (Uttarakhand), India Pravin Rawat Forest Tree Seed Laboratory, Silviculture & Forest Management Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun -248 006 (Uttarakhand), India

    Seeds of Buxus wallichiana Baillon are dormant and not much information is available on their shelf life under storage conditions. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the seed storage behaviour of B. wallichiana, an important woodcraft species of the Indian Himalayan Region. Healthy matured fruits of B. wallichiana were collected from Matkangra block, Chakrata Forest Division of Uttarakhand. The seeds were extracted, cleaned, processed manually and their initial viability was tested through germination test. After initial viability determination, seeds were processed and placed in air-tight plastic boxes for storage at four temperatures viz., ambient room temperature (Control), 5°C, 15°C and -20°C. Thereafter, at every two months interval, germination test was conducted to assess the viability of the stored seeds. The results revealed that the initial viability of freshly collected seeds was 26.66 per cent and it took 7.83 days to complete germination. After two months of storage the germination percentage increased in the seeds stored at all the temperatures going up to maximum (73.33%) in the ones stored at -20°C followed by 15°C (66.67%) as compared to 50% in the seeds stored at room temperature. Similarly, the mean germination time also increased proportionally, longest being 44 days for seeds stored at -20°C. Seeds stored at ambient room temperature lost viability completely at 6 months storage duration while almost half the viability was lost in seeds stored at 15°C (36.67%) and -20°C (26.67%). From present study, it can be concluded that the longevity of the B. wallichiana seeds is around 12 months when the seeds are stored at lower temperatures, maintaining the viability about 23% at 5°C and 15°C and 16.67 % at  -20°C.

  • Development and quality of apple -whey based herbal functional ready-to-serve beverage (2019-05-08)
    Rakesh Sharma Department of Food Science and Technology, YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Solan – 173230 (Himachal Pradesh), India Richa Choudhary Department of Food Science and Technology, YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Solan – 173230 (Himachal Pradesh), India N. S. Thakur Department of Food Science and Technology, YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Solan – 173230 (Himachal Pradesh), India Abhimanyu Thakur Department of Food Science and Technology, YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Solan – 173230 (Himachal Pradesh), India

    Apple is one of the widely consumed fruits which constitute an important part of the human diet as a source of sugars and dietary fibres. But, it is poor in proteins and some minerals like calcium. On the other hand, whey- a by-product of dairy industry is an excellent source of proteins and calcium. Therefore, in the present study, apple-whey based functional ready-to-serve (RTS) beverage was developed by blending apple juice with whey and jaljeera extract and was evaluated for quality under ambient and refrigerated conditions during storage. The incorporation of whey had increased the calcium content from 3.96 to 15.64 mg/100 mL and total proteins from 0.07 to 0.29 % in the developed beverage. Further addition of jaljeera extract not only enhanced the sensory quality of the beverage, but also improved the ascorbic acid content (10.57 mg/100g) total phenols (37.86 mg/100g) and antioxidant activity (40.34 %). The developed product was stored safely for a period of sixty days under refrigerated storage conditions with minimum changes in chemical and sensory attributes.

  • Development of spiced squash (appetizer) from wild prickly pear (Opuntia dillenii Haw.) and its quality evaluation during storage (2019-05-08)
    Monika Chauhan Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173230 (Himachal Pradesh), India N S Thakur Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173230 (Himachal Pradesh), India Abhimanyu Thakur Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173230 (Himachal Pradesh), India

    Wild prickly pear (Opuntia dillenii Haw.) is one of the wild fruit with great importance because of its high antioxidants, colour pigments and other quality parameters besides its medicinal properties. In India, there are only a limited number of reports pertaining to utilization of this fruit which further lack the development of value added novel products. So, the present studies were carried out for the development of spiced squash or appetizer from wild prickly pear fruit and its quality evaluation during storage. Different combinations of fruit juice (25, 30, 35 and 40 %) and sugar syrup (40 and 45 °B) were tried to standardize a proper combination for appetizer. The appetizer prepared by using the best recipe with 35 % juice, 45 °B TSS (Total soluble solids) and 1.20 % acidity was packed in two packaging materials viz. glass and PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) bottles which were further stored for six months under ambient and refrigerated temperature conditions. Appetizer packed in glass as well as in PET packaging material can be stored successfully for a period of six months under both the temperature conditions. However, various quality parameters of appetizer were retained higher in glass bottles stored under refrigerated storage conditions.

  • Effects of vermicompost and urea on the seed germination and growth parameters of Vigna mungo L. and Vigna radiata L. Wilzek (2019-05-08)
    Sanchita Bhattacharya Department of Botany, M.B.B. College, Agartala-799004 (Tripura West), India Sourav Debnath Department of Botany, M.B.B. College, Agartala-799004 (Tripura West), India Sanjit Debnath Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar-799022 (Tripura), India Ajay Krishna Saha Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar-799022 (Tripura), India

    Growth attributes of Vigna mungo and Vigna radiata crop influenced by level and type of fertilizers. The present study was carried out to evaluate and compare the effects of organic (vermicompost) and inorganic (urea) fertilizers on the germination percentage and seedling growth of V. radiata (Green gram) and V. mungo (Black gram). Fresh weight and dry weight of tested plant samples at 10th days of growth stage were also determined. Vermicompost was used as organic fertilizer and urea as inorganic fertilizer. Experimental results showed that vermicompost and urea both has positive effect on seedling growth parameters of V. mungo and V. radiata [average root length (6.1cm and 6.7cm)] , shoot length (6.5cm and 8.3cm), leaf area (312.2 sq.cm and 334.1 sq.cm] as compared to control set [average root length (4.4cm and 4.3cm)] , shoot length (6cm and 5.9cm), leaf area (282.7 sq.cm and 305.5 sq.cm). But urea exerts negative effect on seed germination percentage in V. mungo and V. radiata (58% and 50%) as compared to control (77%). Vermicompost exhibited better result in above parameters in comparison to urea. V. mungo showed increased value in comparison considering V. radiata in case of organic, inorganic fertilizer treated as well as control sets. As composition of locally available fertilizers is unknown, the application of these fertilizers for improving germination percentage and growth parameters of tested crop need to be evaluated. Present work may provide the suggestive approach for usage of these tested fertilizers in field level trial.

  • Study on fungicidal effect of plant extracts on plant pathogenic fungi and the economy of extract preparation and efficacy in comparison to synthetic/chemical fungicides (2019-05-22)
    Jyoti Singh Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh), India S. K. Bhatnagar College of Biotechnology, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut (Uttar Pradesh), India Akash Tomar College of Biotechnology, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut (Uttar Pradesh), India

    Providing food security to devastatingly increasing population with limited natural
    resources along with destruction caused by pre- and post-harvest pathogens are the
    foremost concerns for the developing countries. Numerous pesticides, herbicides and chemical fertilizers are being applied by the farmers to deal with the existing situation but leave very disastrous and undesirable after effects on ecosystem as non-degradable molecules.. Botanicals can be utilized as an ecofriendly and effective alternative against chemical as they are of natural origin. In this context, two chemical/synthetic fungicides namely Manzate and Nystanin in three different concentrations namely 500ppm, 1000 ppm and 1500 ppm were evaluated against Sclerotium rolfsii, Alternaria alternata, Fusarium monilifrome, Rhizoctonia solani and Aspergillus niger in vitro to compare them with ethanolic botanical extracts of spices (clove, cinnamon, thyme) and weeds (parthenium and calotropis) at 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%. Results revealed the high efficacy of botanicals i.e. clove extracts showed maximum inhibition (100%), followed by reduced inhibition in cinnamon, thyme, Parthenium and Calotropis treated plates against all five pathogens even at 5% concentration in comparison to chemical of 500 ppm concentration i.e. 100% in case of S.rolfsii only. Hence the herbal products can be further analyzed and applied as a potent, ecofriendly and economical substitute to chemicals.

  • Zinc alleviates cadmium induced heavy metal stress by stimulating antioxidative defense in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] crop (2019-05-22)
    Dhiraj Kapur Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh (160014), India Kamal Jit Singh Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh (160014), India

    The interaction between cadmium- a toxic metal and zinc- an essential micronutrient was investigated in influencing the activity of various antioxidant enzymes and related metabolites in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Higher levels of cadmium (Cd) stimulate the activity of potential enzymes like ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) accompanied by the buildup of non-enzymatic metabolites, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline due to rise in oxidative stress of plants.  Also, the reduced activity of catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and ascorbic acid (AsA) content was based upon Cd treatment levels. Application of zinc (Zn) combination enhances the activity of enzymes like APX, GR, CAT and SOD in Cd treatments, also confirmed with the depleted levels of H2O2. Zn alone treatment had no significant effect on the activity of such enzymes indicating the toxicity owing to Cd treatments only. The accumulation behavior of other non-enzymatic metabolites like MDA, proline and ascorbic acid also get reversed with metal combination treatment. Moreover, the efficacy of Zn was more when applied in higher concentrations with low Cd. Thus, Zn plays a key role in plants to counter heavy metal stress by elevating antioxidative defense with higher activity of enzymes and reduced levels of non-enzymatic metabolites, and efficacy of Zn in combination is dose dependent.

  • Non rhizobial endophytic bacteria from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) tissues and their antagonistic traits (2019-05-22)
    Deepika Chhabra Department of Microbiology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-114004 (Punjab), India Poonam Sharma Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-114004 (Punjab), India

    Bacteria that colonize plant tissues other than rhizobia and are beneficial for plant growth referred to non rhizobial plant growth-promoting endophytic bacteria (PGPEB). This study was designed to assay the biocontrol activity of plant growth promoting endophytic bacterial isolates those found positive for P. solubilization, ACC deaminase, Indole acetic acid and Gibberelic acid production. These bacterial isolates were obtained from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) tissues (roots and nodules).  In a previous study a total of 263 non rhizobial endophytic bacterial isolates were isolated. Out of 263 isolates, 64.5% and 34.5% were Gram positive and negative, respectively. Further for biochemical characterization, catalase, oxidase, citrate utilization, nitrate reduction, methyl red and Voges Proskauer’s tests, were performed. On the basis of P solubilization, ACC deaminase, Indole acetic acid and Gibberelic acid production 75 potential isolates were selected and screened for their biocontrol activity viz. (production of cell wall degrading enzymes, production of HCN and fluorescent pigment). Out of 75 isolates, only 29 isolates produced cellulase, 64 isolates were able to produce protease and 28 were positive for both cellulose and protease. Of 75 endophytic isolates 12 isolates (7 from root tissue and 5 from nodules tissue, respectively) were positive for HCN production and 16 isolates were found to be fluorescent pigment producer under µv ligh. As chemical fertilizers and pesticides have detrimental effects on the environment. So these bacterial endophytic isolates will be used not only as a biofertilizer because of their plant growth promotional activities but also used as an alternative of synthetic chemicals for control of several plant diseases.

  • Kitchen waste management by vermicomposting using locally available epigeic earthworm species (2019-05-23)
    Deepshikha Sharma Department of Environmental Science, Govt. Degree College, Kathua-184101(J&K), India

    A large quantity of kitchen waste is generated in India which is either burnt, left in open or landfilled posing a serious problem of its safe disposal. To mitigate this problem all the kitchen waste can be converted into highly valuable nutrient rich vermicompost using the locally available epigeic earthworms. The biodegradable kitchen waste like vegetables, fruits, food waste etc can be cultured with earthworms to form the vermicompost by using vermitechnology. Since these vermicomposts are rich in nutrients which can replace the chemical fertilizers.  In the present study the vermicomposting of kitchen waste has been attempted using locally available epigeic earthworm species of Jammu namely Amynthus diffringens, Metaphire houlleti and Octolasion tyrtaeum. The physico-chemical analysis of generated vermicomposts was carried out and compared with each other and with that of original soil sample that has been added in vermibeds prior to earthworm inoculation and addition of kitchen waste. The average values of macronutrients in the vermicompost produced by O. tyrtaeum were observed to be the highest among all types of vermicomposts i.e. Organic Carbon (OC)- 11.66 ± 0.34% , Nitrogen (N)- 1.17 ± 0.20%, Phosphorus (P)- 2.97 ± 0.32%, Potassium (K)- 1.18 ± 0.15%, Calcium (Ca)- 0.26 ± 0.04%, Magnesium (Mg)- 0.17 ± 0.04%.

  • Developing a standardized tool for assessing the ICT competence of the agricultural extension personnel (2019-05-22)
    Deepti Kothari Department of Agricultural Communication, College of Agriculture, G.B Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, US Nagar-263145 (Uttarakhand), India. V.L.V. Kameswari Department of Agricultural Communication, College of Agriculture, G.B Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, US Nagar-263145 (Uttarakhand), India

    Knowledge and information is the key ingredient for driving the engine socio-economic progress of an economy in the present century. Therefore, development in 21st century is driven by the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) for collection, storage, processing, retrieval and dissemination of the agriculture information to farmers. ICTs offer means of facilitating two-way interaction in an easy, fast and reliable way between research-extension-farmer systems. In order to reap the potential benefits of ICTs in agriculture, development functionaries must be well competent in using all means of information and communications technologies for extension. Extension personnel’s competence in using ICTs for agriculture and allied activities benefit’s the individual, organizations and nation. Accordingly, the thrust of training for extensionists’ should be aligned towards designing competency-based ICT trainings. The preliminary step for planning a competency-based ICT training programme is assessment of the training gap i.e. difference between existing and required ICT competencies of extension personnel. Studies done earlier in this context are very diverse and focus on specific ICTs, rather than whole. This paper presents a set of standardized 45 statements for measuring the ICT competence of the extension personnel. A total of 118 statements were sent to 154 experts for relevancy testing through online Google form. The data obtained was analyzed using SPSS software and MS Excel. With the use of outlier analysis, factor analysis and reliability analysis, ICT competence tool for extension personnel were finalized. The competency tool will contribute towards effective human resource development interventions for the extension personnel.

  • Forecasting the monthly inflow rate of the Palar-Porundalar dam in Tamil Nadu using SARIMA model (2019-05-23)
    Mano Chitra K. Department of Physical science and Information Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641003 (Tamil Nadu), India Pangayar Selvi R. Department of Social Science, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Killikulam, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641003 (Tamil Nadu), India Mahendran K. Department of Agriculture and Rural Management, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641003 (Tamil Nadu), India

    Dam inflow forecasting information is essential for planning and management of the dam system. Time series analysis is the most commonly employed technique to forecast the future values based on historical information. In this study, Palar-Porandalar dam in Tamil Nadu inflow series were forecasted in R software package using ARIMA model with seasonal factors. The monthly inflow series of the dam from 2003 January to 2017 December were used as an input source for modeling and forecasting process. Mann-Kendall’s trend test and various Stationarity test were performed to verify the Stationary nature of the data set. From the Correlogram plot, different models were identified; their parameters were optimized and residuals were diagnostically tested using Autocorrelation plot and Ljung Box test. Finally, the best model was selected based on minimum Akaike Information Criteria (AIC), BIC, RMSE and Theil’s U statistic values. From various models, SARIMA (0, 0, 1) (1, 0, 2)12 model was selected as the best one for forecasting the inflow series.

  • Sustainable traditional dyeing of wool by Bhotia tribe in Himalayan region: A case study (2019-05-23)
    Harsha Rawat Department of Clothing and Textiles, College of Home Science, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, U.S. Nagar-263145 (Uttarakhand), India Anita Rani Department of Clothing and Textiles, College of Home Science, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, U.S. Nagar-263145 (Uttarakhand), India Alka Goel Department of Clothing and Textiles, College of Home Science, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, U.S. Nagar-263145 (Uttarakhand), India

    Bhotia tribe is one of the community residing in the high Himalayan region of Uttarakhand state that shares the border with Tibet. The tribe is divided into five sub-groups viz., the JadhsMarchas, TolchasShaukas and Rung. The present study was conducted in the five villages namely Lata and Chinka from Chamoli, Darkot and Baluwakot from Pithoragarh and Dunda from Uttarkashi of Uttarakhand for exploring the information from different sub-groups of Bhotia tribe about plants used by them for extracting dyes and used for traditional textile coloration in past and during present time. The rich flora of Himalayan region in Uttarakhand has been abode to varieties of plant species. The wild plant species were used by the Bhotia tribals for dyeing their woolen products. These plant dyes were obtained from jangli palak (Rumex nepalensis), bagmaru (Eupatorium), kilmora (Berberis asiatica), akhrot (Juglans regia), dholu (Rheum aystrale), tea leaves, tantri (Rheum moorcroftianum), kaphal (Myrica esculenta), darim (Punica grantum), burans (Rhodendron araborium) and harda (Terminlia chebula). Today only Shauka and Jadh tribals are using natural dyes for dyeing woolen yarn. Reasons for the reduction in usage of natural dyes among Bhotia tribals were the extinction of plant species, change in land use, natural disasters, government restriction on plucking certain plant species, the availability of synthetic dyes and colored yarns at low cost in the market. The identification of factors that led to the non-practice of sustainable dying practice among tribals for woolen craft will help in planning and conducting interventions through public, private and government organizations.

  • Interaction effect of irrigation scheduling, mulching and integrated nutrient management on summer groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) yields under subtropical conditions of eastern Uttar Pradesh (2019-05-23)
    Avinash Chandra Maurya Department of Agronomy, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (Uttar Pradesh), India Sunil Kumar Verma Department of Agronomy, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (Uttar Pradesh), India Sushil Kumar ICAR-Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Regional Research Station, Kukma-370105, Bhuj (Gujarat), India https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6157-5252 Kairovin Lakra Chandra Sekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur-208002 (Uttar Pradesh), India

    The study aimed to evaluate the interaction effect of irrigation scheduling, mulching and integrated nutrient management on yields of summer groundnut under sub-tropical conditions. An experiment of summer groundnut involving three irrigation scheduling, two mulching and four integrated nutrient management treatments was undertaken for consecutive two years at Agricultural Research Farm, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India in a split-plot design with three replications Treatments significantly influenced pod, kernel, haulm, and biological yield of groundnut. Irrigation scheduling at 60 CPE (cumulative pan evaporation) with paddy straw mulch and 75% recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN) + 25% N  through farmyard manure (FYM)] + 60 kg S through gypsum recorded highest pod (3611 kg ha-1), kernel (2254 kg ha-1), haulm (5185 kg ha-1), and biological yield (8743 kg ha-1). Further this treatment combination was found better for increasing summer groundnut yields under subtropical conditions