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Adsorption process is one of the best ways for removal of dyes from effluent generated from different industries. The use of adsorbent manufactured from sugarcane bagasse as well as bamboo fibre bundles, an agro squander from sugar and building industries have been reviewed as an excellent replacement for stimulated carbon sorbents for the removal of dyes from wastewater. Agricultural based adsorbents prepared from sugarcane bagasse and bamboo may be successfully used to remove the unused hydrolyzed dyes from an effluent of textile dyeing industry. These ready adsorbents may very much capable in decolorization of the textile effluent. In this review, literature of two sorbents has been compiled. The review assesses these agricultural based materials as low-cost adsorbents for the removal of hydrolysed dyes from textile effluent. The review also draws some of the basic mechanism of dye adsorption on to.
The present study was undertaken to find out socio-demographic profile of respondents and to estimate the current feeding practices including breastfeeding, pre-lacteal feeding and complementary feeding. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four blocks namely Haringtonganj, Amaniganj, Bikapur and Sohawal of Faizabad District in 2015. Total 352 lactating mother having children’s aged from 6 months to 2 years were interviewed to collect information on pre designed and pretested proforma. The data was tabulated on Microsoft Excel sheet and analysed using chi-square test. Study findings showed that mostly 43.75% were in the age range of 20-25 years. More than half (58.51%) of the mothers were literate and majority 96.87% mothers were housewives. All mothers had done breastfeeding in which 73.58% mothers continued breastfeeding after 6 months at the time of study. Majority 89.49% responding mothers were given exclusive breastfeeding, 81.82% had given colostrum and 38.64% gave pre-lacteal feed to their baby. Most of the children (80.11%) were taking weaning food but majority 89.36% mothers did not prepare any special food for their children. The association between education of mothers and infant feeding practices was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). The study showed that mostly mothers adopted correct feeding practices at some extent and these practices were much influenced by education of mothers. So it is very necessary to imparting nutrition and health education to the mothers.
In the present study an attempt was made to perform land use land cover classification at Level-III in order to discriminate and map individual crops. IRS Resources at 2 LISS IV sensor imagery (5.0 m spatial resolution) of September 2014 was utilized for the study. A hybrid classification approach of unsupervised classification followed by supervised classification was adopted to identify and map the crop area in Kodumudi block, Erode district of Tamil Nadu. Signature evaluation was carried out to study the class separability and through cross tabulation and the accuracy was assessed by error matrix. The signature separability analysis to classify various land cover classes indicated that the class viz., waterbody, settlement, sandy area and fallow land were better and for vegetation sub-classes viz., individual crops were poor, which means classification of individual crops was a challenge. The overall accuracy with three different algorithms varied from 56 to 65 per cent and this low accuracy was due to the problem in discriminating the tonal variation and spectral pattern of individual crops in the study area. Thus, classification of vegetation categories into individual crops using LISS IV data resulted in moderate classification accuracy in areas with multiple cropping.
The present report furnishes information on the egg laying sites, the pattern of egg laying and the nature of egg shells of an ischnoceran louse Goniocotes jirufti parasitizing black partridges, Francolinus francolinus. The louse prefers to lay eggs on the feathers belonging to back and breast region of the host. The eggs are laid on lateral plumulacious portion of the vane. The egg shell is ovoid in shape and the egg chorion is free from sculpturing and apophyses.
All the root inhabiting migratory endoparasitic nematode populations of Radopholus procured from banana crop of Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala were identified as Radopholus similis. Heat killed females were straight to slightly ventrally curved posteriorly. Female’s head was low, rounded, continuous or slightly setoff with the body contour. Females were 500-660 µm long and were comparatively longer than males. Males had button shaped head set off by a constriction; female with three to five lip annuli, four crenate and areolated lateral incisures, stylet 14-18 µm long with rounded knobs, vulva post-equatorial (58%), sometimes with slight protuberant lips, ovary paired and equally developed, oesophageal gland overlapped the intestine dorsally, tail elongate-conoid with narrowly rounded terminus. The stylet length (µm), width of stylet knob (µm), distance of excretory pore from anterior end (µm), distance from head to basal bulb (µm), lateral field structure, shape of stylet knob, head region, position of phasmid, tail shape with its terminus, morphometric values like m%, o% and v% and a, c and c´ ratios of females were stable (CV<12%) features. There is an existence of intra-specific variability in the morphological and morphometric features of R. similis. The main morphological diversity was observed with P% of male and female, b ratio of female and stylet length, distance of DEGO from stylet base, o% and T% of male. All the root inhabiting migratory endoparasitic nematode populations of Radopholus Thorne, 1949 procured from banana of Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala were identified as Radopholus similis (Cobb, 1893) Thorne, 1949. A high degree of intra-specific morphometric variability was observed with regard to the total body length (µm), body width (µm), stylet length (µm), distance of dosrsal oesophageal gland orifice (DEGO) from stylet base (µm), number of lip annuli, lip height (µm), distance from head to basal bulb (µm), distance of anus from anterior end (µm), tail length (µm), anal body width (µm), distance of phasmid from tail terminus (µm), number of lateral lines, width of lateral field (µm), b ratio and P % among females of R. similis. Morphometric features like m%, o% and v% of females of R. similis showed least variability. These can be considered as the stable morphometric characters for discrimination of females of R. similis. Ratios like ‘a’ and ‘c’ of females of R. similis were found moderately variable. The morphometric feature and of male i.e. distance from head to basal bulb (µm) was found least variable; while number of lip annuli and spicule length (µm) were moderately variable.
In vitro efficacy of twenty five Trichoderma isolates (twenty were TCMS series viz., TCMS 2, 4, 5, 12, 14a, 14b, 15, 16, 24, 32, 34, 36, 43, 60, 62, 64, 65, 72, 85 and 93, and five Th series; Th 1, 3, 14, 19 and 32) were ascertained for their antagonistic activity against few major plant pathogenic oomycetes namely, Phytophthora infestans, P. parasitica and Pythium aphenidermatum using dual culture technique. P. infestans was isolated from infected potato leaves and Pythium aphenidermatum from infected brinjal. P. parasitica culture was collected from Central Potato Research Institute (CPRI), Simla. The present study was conducted at Biological Control Laboratory, Department of Plant Pathology, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar. All the 25 Trichodrma isolates were found significantly effective against the test pathogens. TCMS-36 and TCMS-72 were found highly effective against P. aphinidermatum with 59.57 per cent inhibition of radial growth of the fungus. Maximum reduction in mycelial growth of P. infestans was recorded with isolate TCMS-64 (60.40%) followed by TCMS-65 (59.41%), TCMS-34 (58.42%), TCMS-24, TCMS-43 and TCMS-93 with 57.43 per cent inhibition. While, maximum inhibition of P. parasitica was recorded with TCMS-4 (92.75%) followed by TCMS-36 (92.23%), TCMS-2 (91.71%), TCMS-14a (91.17%) and TCMS-32 (90.67%). The selected potential isolates may be applied to sustainable and eco-friendly management of many major crop diseases caused by the oomycetes and other fungi.
Bell pepper fruits fetches higher premium during early winter or late winter as off-season crops. An experiment was conducted during late winter (February to June) of 2013 at Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, West Bengal, India to compare the performance of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in open field and agro shade net under different transplanting dates and pruning level which was laid out in split split plot design with 3 replications. The results revealed that agro shade net cultivation of bell pepper emerged as best in terms of highest plant height (52.42 cm), and higher number of fruit (11.18 plant-1). The interaction effect combining shade net cultivation with 1st February planting date coupled with 3 shoot pruning proved superiority with respect to growth and yield characters of bell pepper and resulted in many fold improvement in the form of higher fruit number (16.21 plant-1), individual fruit weight (107.54 g) and maximum fruit yield (1743.21 g plant-1).
Probiotics are live microbes in the form of dried or fermented cells that are highly beneficial for human health. The food industry has been revolutionised due to introduction of potential probiotic organisms in a varied formulations derived from mostly dairy products. Isolation of probiotic microbes from unexplored non-dairy sources is gaining attention these days. In the present study, six potential probiotic isolates from non-dairy sources were obtained that are also biocompatible with each other. Out of these, five isolates were gram positive rod shaped and one was gram negative rod shaped. These isolates were able to grow in presence of lysozyme, low pH and bile salts with good adherence ability. The market for probiotic microorganisms from unconventional products is accelerating to deal with lactose intolerant people. These probiotic attribute studies revealed their potential to be exploited at industrial scale.
Ficus roxburghii, “Elephant ear fig “or wild fig is one of very popular fruits found growing wild in the hills of North Eastern and North Western Himalayan region. The fruit of wild fig has also been used as medicine by the tribal people of Sikkim and other states of India. Keeping this in view, the present study was conducted at Laboratory of Department of Horticulture, Sikkim University, Sikkim to access the different nutraceuticals properties as nutritional constituent like protein, fat, fibre, carbohydrate and energy value, mineral content viz.Ca, K, Mg, Na, Zn, Co, Mo, Fe, Mn and phytochemical content such as total phenols, flavonoid, ascorbic acid, anthocyanin and total carotenoids of F. roxburghii. The results of present study revealed that fruit of F. roxburghii contains significant amount of nutritional, mineral and phytochemical properties viz. protein (3.00±0.06%), fat (0.13±0.04%), fibre (3.06±0.02%), carbohydrate (90.81±0.44 %), energy value (376.45±1.44), Ca (23.69 ± 1.7), Mg (73.09 ± 2.1), K (819.64 ± 12.54), Mo (0.58 ± 0.06), Na (6.73 ± 1.2), Zn (0.34 ± 0.10). Fe (26.55 ± 2.8), Cu (4.22 ± 0.20), Mn (7.11 ± 0.11), total phenols (4.13±0.52 mg GAE/ G), total flavonoid (3.10±0.09 mg GAE/ G), ascorbic acid (3.36±0.27 mg GAE/ G), anthocyanin (1.13±0.15 mg GAE/ G) and total carotenoids (0.68±0.10 mg GAE/ G). It may be concluded that the fruit of F. roxburghiiis rich in nutraceuticals and must be incorporated in our balanced diet.
An experiment was conducted to assess the impact of flucetosulfuron, a new generation sulfonylurea herbicide, on weed seed bank dynamics of wet land paddy field. Field experiments were carried out during two consecutive seasons (Kharif 2016 and Rabi 2016-’17), to assess the bio-efficacy of flucetosulfuron in wet seeded rice which was accompanied by weed seed bank assay. Weed seed bank assay of the soil was carried out before and after the field experiments in both the seasons by the seedling emergence method. The experiment on weed seed bank was laid out in Completely Randomised Block Design (CRD) with 12 treatments replicated thrice. Flucetosulfuron @ 20, 25, and 30 g ha-1applied at 2-3, 10-12, and 18-20 days after sowing (DAS) along with two control treatments viz., hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAS and unweeded control comprised the treatments. The emerging weeds were uprooted at 14 days interval up to a period of two months; categorized as grasses, broad leaved weeds, and sedges and counted. Results revealed that non-herbicidal plots recorded significantly higher count of total emerged weeds compared to herbicide applied plots. In all the herbicide applied plots, effective reduction in weed seed bank could be obtained irrespective of the dose of the herbicide. Regarding the time of application, flucetosulfuron applied at 10-12 and 18-20 DAS recorded significantly lower weed seed bank during both the seasons, compared to its application at 2-3 DAS.
The present study was conducted to assess allelopathic effect of Dendrocalamus stocksii (Munro.) on the growth and yield of ground nut (Arachis hypogaea). Bamboo leaf leachate was prepared by soaking the dry leaves in tap water for 24 hours in a ratio of 1:10 w/v. Using prepared leachate as stock solution the leachate of various concentrations viz., control (0%), 25, 50 and 75 and 100 per cent were prepared by adding tap water accordingly. The results revealed the concentration-dependent significant (p=0.05) inhibitory effect of bamboo leaf leachates on the germination, radicle and plumule length of groundnut in laboratory condition. The leaf leachate of 100% concentration reduced down the germination percentage (56%), radicle length (3.00 cm) and plumule length (5.36 cm) as compared to control treatment where the germination percentage (86.66%), radicle length (5.02 cm) and plumule length (12.08 cm) were maximum. Similarly, the allelopathic effect of leaf leachate on transplanted seedlings of groundnut in prepared beds inside the poly house were significantly (p=0.05) inhibitory for the test seed weight and straw yield/ha. Minimum test seed weight (430.33 g) was recorded in the treatment of 25 % concentration as compared to control (601.33 g) and straw yield per hectare in the treatment of 100 % concentration (2421.1 kg/ha) as compared to control (4729.4 kg/ha). However, the non- significant effect of leaf leachate was observed on other yield parameters i.e., number of tillers per plant, number of pods / plant, test seed weight, seed yield per plant, number of seeds per pod and grain yield per ha. Finally, it is concluded that the harmful effect of leaf leachates of Dendrocalamus stocksii is more prominent in early stage of germination, emergence of radicle and plumule etc., rather than after transplanting; it is recommended to avoid the effect of these allelochemicals in early growth stage in field condition.
Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, is the major threat to tomato cultivation in all tomato growing areas of Karnataka. R. solanacearum was isolated from the infected host plants collected from different locations of southern Karnataka. The identity of the isolates was established using morphological, biochemical, and molecular analysis using species specific PCR primers. The race and biovar specificity of pathogen was determined through pathogenicity test on different host plants and the ability of isolates to use carbohydrates, respectively. Phylotype classification was done by phylotype specific multiplex PCR using phylotype specific primers. All the bacterial isolates showed the characteristic creamy white fluidal growth with pink centre on the Tetrazolium chloride medium. Further, the isolates amplified at 280 bp, which confirmed the identity of pathogen as Ralstonia solanacearum. Our results showed that all isolates belonged to Race 1 of the pathogen. Among different isolates obtained, four isolates each were identified to be Biovar III and Biovar IIIA, repectively, while two isolates were identified as Biovar IIIB. All the ten isolates were affiliated to Phylotype I of Ralstonia solanaceraum species complex. These findings may help in devising the management practices for bacterial wilt of tomato in southern Karnataka.
The seeds of Albizia lebbeck have been observed to exhibit physical dormancy due to presence of hard seed-coat. To overcome this problem, the seeds were subjected to seven pre-sowing treatments viz., T1-immersion of seeds in cold water for 12 h; T2-immersion of seeds in cold water for 24 h; T3-immersion of seeds in hot water (100 °C) and subsequent cooling at room temperature for 12 h; T4-immersion of seeds in hot water (100 °C) and subsequent cooling at room temperature for 24 h; T5-immersion of seeds in cold water for 12 h followed by immersion in hot water (100 °C) and allowed to cool for 1 h; T6-immersion of seeds in cold water for 24 h followed by immersion in hot water (100 °C) and allowed to cool for 1 h. Untreated seeds served as control (T0). Treatment T3 gave highest germination (96%) which was comparable with T5 (95 %), T4 (94 %) and T6 (93%). Nine growing media viz., T1: soil, T2: soil+sand (2:1), T3: soil+perlite (2:1), T4: soil+Farm Yard Manure (FYM) (2:1), T5: soil+vermicompost (2:1), T6: soil+sand+FYM (1:1:1), T7: soil+sand+vermicompost (1:1:1), T8: soil+perlite+FYM (1:1:1) and T9: soil+perlite+ vermicompost (1:1:1) were, also, studied for their effect on seedling growth of A. lebbeck. Among these media, maximum values of shoot length (23.82 cm), root length (21.14 cm), collar diameter (3.59 mm) and seedling quality index (0.350) were observed in T7.
In India, Madhya Pradesh is the third largest lac producing state after Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand, as they contribute 12, 16 and 60%, respectively in total country’s lac production. Lac is produced in ten out of eleven agro-climatic zones of Madhya Pradesh. In total lac production of the state, Baisakhi (Butea monosperma, inoculated in October-November) crop contributes 76% followed by 19% by Katki (Butea monosperma, inoculated in June-July), 3% by Aghani (Schleichera oleosa, inoculated in June-July) and 2% by Jethwi (Schleichera oleosa, inoculated in January-February). Ranchi was leading lac producing district followed by Simdega, Gumla, Khunti of Jharkhand and Seoni district of Madhya Pradesh. Increasing summer temperature up to 45 ⁰C, the country’s lac production was declined from 20,050 tons in 2003-04 to 16978 tons in 2014-15. In case of biotic factors, Tachardiaephagus tachardiae and Tetrastichus purpureus are the most abundant lac associated parasites and Eublemma amabilis and Pseudohypatopa pulverea are the most destructive key predators of lac insects. By combating these hindrances, lac cultivation generated an employment for 16-160 man days. Lac cultivation produces maximum gross return (Rs. 9,77,600) from 100 Kusum host plants, and the highest Benefit-Cost (6.80) ratio was recorded for Ber-kusumi (Ziziphus mauritiana- Schleichera oleosa) crop in Ranchi, Jharkhand. In this context, the study finds out obstacles in lac production of India and suggests some control measures to improve lac producing peoples’ livelihood.
Quality of drinking water is one of the greatest anxiety of water consumers with contamination of different pathogenic microorganisms especially fungi and bacteria. Water-borne pathogen contamination in water resources and related diseases are a major water quality concern throughout the world. A motivation for this study was the numerous reports about these contaminations of drinking water and the associated diseases. Water samples were collected from various locations of Ahmedabad in February 2017. The samples were analyzed by 16S rDNA PCR and ITS rDNA PCR since the DNA sequence polymorphisms in the 16S ribosomal DNA and ITS rDNA can be used for the identification of bacterial and fungal species respectively. The PCR amplicons were obtained for each water samples, were sequenced and the species identity was determined using NCBI-BLAST. Bacterial species of Aeromonas, Citrobacter and E. coli along with two fungal species were obtained from municipal water supplies and parab waters. Species of Aspergillus and Penicillium represented the most common fungi in municipal water supplies. This is the first report of molecular study from drinking water facilities of Ahmedabad. This study has clearly revealed that currently, the microbiological quality of the water is inferior for drinking purpose due to bacterial and fungal contamination. This study also showed the potential PCR based identification as a rapid technique for identifying microorganisms in drinking water samples.
Field experiment was conducted at Coconut Research Balaramapuram, during Kharif 2017 to study the effect of nutrient levels and schedule of application on the quality parameters of upland rice intercropped in coconut. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design (RBD) with four different nutrient levels and four different schedules of nutrient application. Quality parameters like crude protein and starch content were significantly influenced by nutrient levels. The crude protein content was found to increase with increase in N level, however starch content was found to increase up to 70 kg N and 35 kg K ha-1 and after that a decline in trend was observed. The highest crude protein content (8.38 per cent) was recorded with highest nutrient level, NPK @ 120:30:60 kg ha-1. However, lower nutrient level, NPK @ 70:30:35 kg ha-1 recorded higher starch content (85.03 per cent). Among the schedule of nutrient application, N applied in three equal splits (15 days after sowing (DAS), active tillering and panicle initiation stage), P as basal and K in two equal splits (15 DAS and panicle initiation stage) along with foliar application of 0.2 per cent zinc sulphate and 0.04 per cent sodium borate at 45 DAS recorded the highest crude protein (7.50 per cent) and starch content (84.17 per cent). The study clearly indicated that the increased level of N and K increased the protein content due to the active role of N and K in protein synthesis. However, high rate of N application decreased the starch content. In addition to the application of NPK, foliar nutrition of zinc sulphate and sodium borate at 45 DAS considerably improved the quality of grain by increasing the starch and protein content.
In the present study, both the underground and surface water samples around Guru Nanak Dev Thermal Power Plant Bathinda, Punjab, having total installed capacity of 440MW, were analyzed for the physico-chemical parameters viz. pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), Total Hardness (TH), Calcium (Ca2+), Magnesium (Mg2+), Total Alkalinity (TA), Carbonate (CO32-), Bicarbonate (HCO3-), Chloride (Cl-), Phosphate (PO43-), Nitrate (NO3-), Fluoride (F-) and heavy metals such as Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Lead(Pb), Nickel (Ni) and Zinc (Zn). The correlation coefficients (r) among various water quality parameters of studied underground water samples were calculated. The physical and chemical parameters of groundwater are compared with the drinking water quality standards recommended by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) (2012) and World Health Organization (WHO) (2017). On the basis of results obtained in the present study, concentration of Chloride (Cl-), Magnesium (Mg2+), Fluoride (F-) and Total dissolved solids (TDS) observed in ground water of Bathinda varied from 30 to 284 mg/l, 120 to 280 mg/l, 2.66-3.99 mg/l and 620-1439 mg/l, respectively which are exceeding the acceptable limits prescribed by WHO (2017) as well as BIS (2012). Also, the concentration of heavy metals viz. cadmium (0.366 to 0.437 mg/l), and lead (0.193 to 0.353 mg/l) have higher levels than prescribed by WHO and BIS for drinking purpose. Thus, groundwater is not suitable for drinking purposes with prior treatment.
Errandi silk has a potential of emerging as “A silk of the new millennium”. The experimental finding provides information on physical properties as well as subjective evaluations of Errandi silk -Acrylic union fabrics with twill and herringbone weave. The count and diameter of errandi silk fibre were higher than acrylic fibre and in case of woven fabrics, herringbone weave were found to have maximum value in cloth covers, weight and thickness. A comparative subjective evaluation was done based on fabric quality by the panel of 100 respondents. 100 per cent respondent opined that all the woven samples have good appearance, soft in hand and smooth in texture. It was observed that cent percent of respondents found errandi-acrylic blended union fabrics with twill and herringbone weaves were high in lustre. The costs of blended yarns and the cost of union fabrics of different proportion were got reduced in comparison to that of 100 per cent errandi-silk yarn (Rs.3000.00/kg) and controlled errandi silk fabrics (Rs.985.00/mt.). Based on the aesthetic properties such as handle, appearance, texture and lustre and considering the cost of twill and herringbone errandi-acrylic fabrics were suitable for production of fashionable wear. Thus¸ the newly designed Errandi silk with Acrylic union fabrics are unique, a new venture for the textile industry and Ericulturists.
The present study were carried out to assess the hygiene practices and food safety among street food vendors in the city of Chandigarh. It includes 100 samples of vendors. Fifty vendors were mobile and other 50 was fixed vendors. A self planned questionnaire was used for data collection for the vendors. The questionnaire included questions about demographic information, hygiene practices and food safety. Thirty eight percent of vendors used stalls, but did not uphold their stalls well. Eighty-three per cent of the vendors had thrown garbage in the open vessel and 14.0% used dustbin for dispose garbage. Personal hygiene was also observed which indicated that the vendors never wear the head covers, handled food with bare hand and they did not wear overcoats/aprons as well. Street food vendors were not aware of hygienic and sanitary practice.
A field experiment was managed during kharif season of 2014 in G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar (Uttarakhand) to assess the outcome of applying dissimilar rates of triasulfuron on the transplanted rice (Oryza sativa L.) associated weeds. Treatments composed of triasulfuron at three different rates, metsulfuron methyl, ethoxysulfuron, 2, 4-D with 2 checks (weed free and untreated). Experiment was carried out in Randomised block Design with 8 treatments and 3 replications. Grassy weeds, broad leaf weeds and sedges were observed during the crop growth period. Triasulfuron at 12 g ha-1 proved most efficient in controlling weeds at 60 and 90 days after transplanting (DAT) with 44.4 % and 59.6 % WCE respectively. Minimum weed dry matter (65.1 g m2) was observed with triasulfuron at 12 g ha-1. Out of all the herbicidal treatments, triasulfuron at 12 g ha-1 gave the paramount grain yield of rice (5786 kg ha-1) which was significantly surpassing all other herbicidal treatments, while it was minimum in metsulfuron methyl at 4 g ha-1 (4417 kg ha-1).