About 9% of area on earth is under crops out of which 91% is under various stresses. On an average, about 50% yield losses are due to abiotic stresses mostly due to high temperature (20%), low temperature (7%), salinity (10%), drought (9%) and other abiotic stresses (4%). As there is no scope for increasing area under agriculture, the increased productivity from these stressed land is a must to meet the ever increasing demand. Further, the severity of abiotic stresses is likely to increase due to changing climate leading to adverse effect on crops. Therefore, abiotic stresses like drought, salinity, sodicity, acidity, water logging, heat, nutrient toxicities/ deficiencies etc need to be effectively addressed through adoption of management practices like tillage and planting options, residue management, sowing time, stress tolerant cultivars, irrigation scheduling and integrated nutrient management to conserve natural resources, mitigating their adverse effect and sustainable wheat production.
Abiotic stresses, Irrigation scheduling, Residue retention, Nutrient management, Tillage
Abrol I.P., Yadav, J.S.P. and Massoud F.I., (2012). Salt- Affected Soils and their Management, refer para 4.7". Retrieved 23 December 2012.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Residual sodium_carbonate_index.
Baker C.J., Berry P.M., Spink J.H., Sylvester-Bradley R., Clare R.W., Scott R.K., Griffin J.M. (1998). A method for the assessment of the risk of wheat lodging. Journal of Theoretical Biology. 194: 587-603.
Bartel, B. and D.P. Bartel (2003). Micro RNAs: at the root of plant development? Plant Physiol. 132: 709-717.
Berry P.M., Griffin J.M., Sylvester-Bradley R., Scott R.K., Spink J.H., Baker C.J. and Clare R.W. (2000). Controlling plant form husbandry to minimise lodging in wheat. Field Crop Research. 67: 59-81.
Bolt G.H (ed.) (1981). Soil chemistry: A. basic elements. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 5a.en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Alkali_soils.
Brown B., Westcott M., Christensen N., Pan B., and Stark J. (2005). Nitrogen Management for Hard Wheat Protein Enhancement. Pacific Northwest Extension publication, PNW578. www.plantbreeding.wsu.edu/pnw0578.pdf.
Buzetti Salatiér, Bazanini Graciela Cristina, Freitas José Guilherme de, Andreotti Marcelo, ArfOrivaldo, Meira Marco Eustáquio de Sá e Flávia de Andrade (2006). Response of rice cultivars to nitrogen and growth regulator chlormequat chloride. Pesq. Agropec. Bras., Brasília. 41(12): 1731-1737.
Chakrabarti B., Singh S.D., Nagarajan S.and Aggarwal P.K. (2011). Impact of temperature on phenology and pollen sterility of wheat varieties. Australian journal of crop Sciences. 5(8):1039-1043.
Chhabra R. (1996). Soil Salinity and Water Quality. Oxford& IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi (South Asian edition) and A.A. BalkemaUitgevers BC, Rotterdam (edition elsewhere). ISBN 81-204-1049-1: 284.
Chris GazeyA. and Joel AndrewB. (2010). Getting the soil pH profile right helps with weed control and sustainability: 2010 19th World Congress of Soil Science, Soil Solutions for a Changing World1 – 6 August 2010, Brisbane, Australia. Published on DVD.www.iuss.org/19th%20WCSS/ Symposium/pdf/0700.pdf.
Crook M.J. and Ennos A.R. (1995). The effect of nitrogen and growth regulators on stem and root characteristics associated with lodging in two cultivars of winter wheat. Journal of Experimental Botany. 46: 931-938.
DAFWA Bulletin 4784 “Soil Acidity – A Guide for WA farmers & consultants”, and the WA Soil Quality website www.soilquality.org.au/factsheets (accessed on 3rd August, 2015).
Das A, Shivay Y. and Prasad M. (2008). Production potential and economic evaluation of cotton – wheat cropping system as influenced by prilled urea, Azotobacter and farmyard manure under Indo-Gangetic plains. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture. 32 (1): 37–50.
Dong, J.G., Z.W. Yu, and S.W. Yu. (1983). Effect of increased ethylene production during different periods on the resistance of wheat plants to waterlogging. Acta Phytophysiologia Sinica. 9:383-389.
El Debaby A.E., Ibrahim K.E., Saad A.M.M. and El Salhy T.S. (1994). Wheat lodging and growth characters as affected by some agricultural practices. Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 32: 1325-1337.
EspindulaMarcelo Curitiba, Rocha ValterleySoares, Fontes Paulo CezarRezende, Corrêa da Silva Raul Carvalho and Souza Leandro Torres de (2009). Effect of nitrogen and trin exapac-ethyl rates on the SPAD index of wheat leaves. Journal of Plant Nutrition 32 (11): 1956-1964.
Fageria N.K. and Baligar V.C. (2003). Methodology for evaluation of lowland rice genotypes for nitrogen use efficiency. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 26: 1315–1333.
Fageria N.K. and Baligar V.C. (2005). Enhancing nitrogen use efficiency in crop plants. Advances in Agronomy. 88:97-185.
FAO (2010). Food and Agriculture Organisation of the united nations FAO soils poratal www.fao.org/ soils-portal/soil… of-some-soils/…salt-affected-soils/en (accessed on 7 July, 2015).
FAO (2014). Food and Agriculture Organisation of the united nations statistics division www. Faostat3.fao.org/browse/q/*/e (accessed on 2 July, 2015).
Fischer R.A. (1985). Number of kernels in wheat crops and the influence of solar radiation and temperature. Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 105:447-461.
Garg O.K., Singh R.H. and Tiwari B. (1973). Physiological significance of nitrogen nutrition in relation to lodging in wheat. Field Crop. 26: 1527.
Grieve, C.M, Francois L.E. and Poss J.A. (2001). Salt stress during early seedling growth on phenology and yield of spring wheat. Cereal Res. Comm.:167–174
Idnani L.K. and Kumar Ashok (2013). Performance of wheat (Triticum aestivum) under different irrigation schedules and sowing methods. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 83 (1): 37–40.
Jat Lokesh Kumar, Singh S.K., Latare A.M., Singh R.S. and Patel C.B. (2013). Effect of date of sowing and fertilizer on growth and yield of Wheat in an Inceptisolof Varanasi. Indian jounal of Agronomy. 58(4): 611-614 .
Kanyanyua S.M., Ireri L., Wambua S., Nandwa S.M. (2002). Acidic soils in Kenya; Constraints and Remedial options. KARI Technical Note No. 11; KARI Headquarters, Nairobi, Kenya. www.kari.org/fileadmin/publications/tech_notes/tecnote11.pdf.
Kelbert, A.J., Spaner D., Briggs K.G. and King J.R. (2004). Screening for lodging resistance in spring wheat breeding programmes. Plant Breed. 123(4): 349-354.
Khakwani Abdul Aziz, Baloch mohammadSafdar, Nadim Muhammad Amjad, ZubairMuhammad,H. Shah Inayat and WahabKhan Abdul (2010). Lodging: a determining factor in reducing yield and yield structure of wheat. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture 26( 2).
KharrouMoh. Hakim, Er-Raki Salah, Chehbouni Ahmed and Duchemin Benoit (2011). Water use efficiency and yield of winter wheat under different irrigation regimes in a semi – arid region, Agicultural Sciences. 2: 273-282.
Knapp J.S., Harms C.L. and Volence J.J. (1987). Growth regulator effects on wheat culm non structural and structural carbohydrates and lignin. Crop Science. 27: 1201 -1205.
Kochian L.V., Hoekenga O.A., Pineros M.A. (2004). How do crop plants tolerate acid soil Mechanisms of aluminum tolerance and phosphorus efficiency. Ann. Rev. plant biol. 55:459-493.
Lauchli, A. and Epstein E. (1990). Plant responses to saline and sodic conditions. In K.K. Tanji (ed). Agricultural salinity assessment and management. ASCE manuals and reports on engineering practice . 71: 113–137.
Ligeyo D.O., Gudu S.O. (2003-2005). Further laboratory screening of More Kenya Maize Inbred lines for Tolerance to Aluminum In: Third year Progress Report, (March 2004 to 28February 2005). Mcknight Foundation USA Project, EMBBRAPA, Purdue and Cornell University (USA) and Moi University (Kenya) Phase1.
Maiti D., Das D.K. and Pathak H. (2006). Fertilizer requirement in irrigated wheat in Eastern India using requirement in irrigated wheat in Eastern India using requirement in irrigated wheat in Eastern India using the QUEFTS simulation model. The Scientific World. 6: 231-245.
Marcellos H. and Single W.V. (1984). Frost injury in wheat ears after ear emergence. Aust. J. Plant. Physiol., 11: 7-15.
Melhuish, F.M., Humphreys E., Muirhead W.A., and White R.J.G. (1991). Flood irrigation of wheat on a transitional red-brown earth. I. Effect of duration of ponding on soil water, plant growth, yield and N uptake. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research. 7: 1023-1035.
Meyer, U.S., and Barrs H.D. (1988). Response of wheat to single short-term waterlogging during and after stem elongation. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research. 39:11-20.
Minhas, P.S., and Samra J.S. (2003). Quality Assessment of Water Resources in the Indo-Gangetic Basin Part in India. Karnal, India: Central Soil Salinity Research Institute: 68.
Mishra Santosh Kumar, Tripathi D.K., Srivastava N.K., Beg M.Z. and Singh C. (2011). Effect of different level of nitrogen on Wheat after rice under Zero tillage, Indian J. Sci. Res.I. 2(3): 97-100.
Mohwbbi S. and Mahler R.L. (1988). The effect of soil pH manipulation on chemical properties of an agriculyural soil from Northern Idaho. Commun. Soil sci. plant annal. 19(15): 1795-1812
Mora, M.L., Cartes, P., Nunez, P., Salazar, M. and Demanet, P. (2007). Movement of NO3- -N and NH4+ -N in an andisol and its influence on ryegrass production in a short term study. R. C. Suelo Nutr. Veg. 7:46-64.
Oerke E.C., Debne H.W., Schonbeck F. and Weber A. (1994). Crop production and crop protection. Amsterdam: Elsevier: xxii+ 800 pp.
Ortiz-Monasterio J. I. and Raun W. (2007). “Reduced nitrogen and improved farm income for irrigated spring wheat in the Yaqui Valley, Mexico, using sensor based nitrogen management,” Journal of Agricultural Science. 145: 1–8,
Parry M.L., Swaminathan M.S. (1992). Climate on food production.Mintzer (ed) confronting climate changerisk, implication and responses. Cambridge University press: 113–125
Pinthus M.J. (1973). Lodging in wheat, barley and oats: The phenomena, its causes andpreventive measures. Advances in Agronomy. 25: 209-263.
Poschenrieder, C., Gunse, B., Corrales, I. and Barcelo, J. (2008). A glance into aluminium toxicity and resistance in plants. Sci. Total Environ. 400:356-368.
Provin Tony and Pitt J.L. (2001). Managing Soil Salinity, Texas A& M Agri life extension service Publications,  E-60: 3-12.
Rana A., Joshi M., Prasanna R., Shivay Y.S. and Nain L. (2012). Biofortification of wheat through inoculation of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and cyanobacteria. European Journal of Soil Biology. 50: 118–26
Ransom, J. (2005). NDSU Extension Agronomist - Cereal Crops. Joel.email@example.com
Rawson, H.M. and Macpherson H.G. (2000). Irrigated wheat: Managing your crop. FAO, Rome.
Sharma, D.P. and Swarup A. (1988). Effect of short term waterlogging on growth, yield and mineral composition of wheat in sodic soils under field condition. Plant and Soil. 107:137-143
Sharma, K.L., Mandal, B. and Venkateswar B. (2012). Soil quality and productivity improvement under rainfed conditions- Indian perspectives. Resource management for sustainable agriculture http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/45870 pp: 203-238.
Shivay Y. S. (2007). Effect of levels and neem (Azadirachta indica Juss) coated urea sources of nitrogen on productivity and nitrogen recovery of rice under Indo-Gangetic plains. International Journal of Tropical Agriculture. 25(4): 111–123.
Sidhpuria, M.S., Singh, Jagdev and Yadav, S.S. (2006). Comparative performance of various irrigation methods in cotton crop. Haryana Journal of Agronomy. 22: 179- 180.
Singh Tej and Malik D.S. (1983). Effect of water stress at three growth stages on the yield and water –use efficiency of dwarf wheat. Irrigation Science. 4: 239-245.
Singh Vinay, Singh S.P., Singh Sandeep and Shivay Y.S. (2013). Growth, yield and nutrient uptake by wheat (Triticum aestivum) as affected by biofertilizers, FYM and nitrogen. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 83 (3): 331–334.
Singh, S., Balyan, D.S., Yadav, A.C., Rana, M.K. and Singh, N. (2002). Influence of FYM and gypsum in reducing the adverse effect of sodic water on attributes related to yield and quality of potato. Haryana Journal of Horticultural Sciences. 32: 123-126.
Smaling E. M. A. and Braun A. R. (1996). Soil fertility research in Sub-Saharan Africa: New dimensions, new challenges. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis. 27 (3/4): 365-386.
Subedi K.D. and Budhathoki C.B. (1995). Wheat sterility problem in Nepal: research at Lumle Agricultural Research Center. In: Bell, R.W., Rerkasem, B. (Eds.), Causes of sterility in Wheat, Environmental Science Report 94/6. Murdoch University, Western Australia: 44-55.
Subedi K.D., Budhathoki C.B., Subedi M., Sthapit B.R. (1996). Overview of wheat sterility problem and research findings to-date in the Western hills of Nepal. In: Rawson, H.M., Subedi, K.D. (Eds.), Sterility in Wheat in Subtropical Asia: Extent, Causes and Solutions. Proceedings of a Workshop held from 18-21 September, 1995 at Lumle Agricultural Research Center, Nepal. ACIAR Proceedings. 72: 119-126.
Tedia, A., Sherington J., and Mohamed SaleemM.A. (1994). Integration of forage and food crops grown sequentially on Vertisols under rainfed conditions in the mid-altitude Ethiopian highlands. Experimental Agriculture .30: 291-298.
Tesfay Araya WeldeslassieUGent , Wim CornelisUGent, Jan NyssenUGent, Bram Govaerts, FekaduGetnet, Hans Bauer, Kassa Amare, Dirk Raes, mitiku Haile and Jazef Deckers (2012). Medium-term effects of conservation agriculture based cropping systems for sustainable soil and water management and crop productivity in the Ethiopian high lands. Field Crops Research. 132: 53–62.
Thilert W. (2006). A unique product: The story of the imidadopid stress shield. P flanzenschutz- Nachrichten science Forum, Baye.r 59: 73-86.
Tripathi S.C., Sayre K.D., Kaul J.N. and Narang R.S. (2002). Effect of planting methods and N rates on lodging, morphological characters of culm and yield in spring wheat varieties. Cereal Research Communication.s 30 (3-4):431-438.
Tripathi, S.C., Sayre K.D. and Kaul J.N.. (2005). Planting systems on lodging behavior, yield components, and yield of irrigated spring bread wheat. Crop Sci. 45(4): 1448-1455.
Tsadilas C.D., Samaras V., Varvarousis J., Maslaris N (1995). Liming of acid soils.I. Influence on wheat yield and availability of soil nutrients. ID No. 128 Session 10 - soil fertility: 10-91.
Vance C.P. (1997). Biological fixation of N2 for ecology and sustainable agriculture. Springer-Verlag: 179-186.
USDA (2014). Retrieved from www.fas.usda.gov/psdonline.
VanSchilfgaarde J. (1976). Water management and salinity. In: Prognosis of salinity and alkalinity. Soils Bulletin No. 31. FAO, Rome.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) © Author (s)