The River Kali is an important surface water body in the western Uttar Pradesh (U.P). It is an intermittent river which flows throughout the monsoonal months. The present study aims to assess the heavy metal contamination in the river Kali using pollution index (PI), based on five heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Cr) during pre and post monsoon seasons in the year 2014. The PI evaluated during pre and post monsoon seasons with respect to drinking water quality standards was found as 5.04 and 7.08 respectively, while related to inland water quality standards were found as 4.37 and 3.62, respectively. The results indicate that the river Kali was severely contaminated (PI>3) in both seasons. Therefore, water of Kali River is not fit for drinking as well as for agriculture purposes.
Heavy metals, Pollution index, River Kali, Water quality
APHA (2005). Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Waste Water. American Public Health Association, NewYork, U. S.A.
Bao, L.J. Maruya, K.A. Snyder, S.A. and Zeng, E.Y. (2012). China's Water Pollution by Persistent Organic Pollutants. Environ. Pollut., 163, 100–108.
Benedetti, M. Ciaprini, F. Piva, F. Onorati, F. Fattorini, D. and Notti, A. (2012). A Multidisciplinary Weight of Evidence Approach for Classifying Polluted Sediments: Integrating Sediment Chemistry, Bioavailability, Biomarkers Responses and Bioassays. Environ. Int., 38: 17–28.
Bhargava, S. Saxena, U. and Bhragava, A.K. (2009). Some Microbiological Studies of Polluted Kali river water at Meerut. Biochem. Cell, Arch., 9: 155-156.
BIS (1991). Indian Standard Specification for Drinking Water, Bureau of Indian Standards. BIS: 10500.
CPCB (2012). Reconnaissance Survey of Pollution Load of River Kali, Central Pollution Control Board, Ministry of Environment and Forests, New Delhi.
EPA (1996). General Standards for Discharge of Environmental Pollutants. Environment (Protection) Amendment Rules, Notified by G.S.R. 176.
Ghosh, N.C. and Mcbean, E.A. (1998). Water Quality Modeling of the Kali River, India. Water, Air, Soil Pol., 102: 91–103.
Jain, C.K. Bhatia, K.K.S. and Seth, S.M. (1997). Assessment of Point and Non-Point Sources of Pollution Using a Chemical Mass Balance Approach. Hydrol. Sci. J., 43: 379-390.
Kapsikar, G.B. Khajure, P.V. and Rathod, J.L. (2011). Physico-Chemical Features of Kali River, Karwar, West Coast of India. Recent Res. Sci. Tech., 3: 12-14.
Panakkal, A. and Kumar, B. (2014). Evaluation of the Trace Metal Contamination in Sediments of the Urban Water Channels in Thrissur City, South India. Nat. Environ. Poll. Tech. 13: 701-706.
Sharma, M.K. Jain, C.K. and Singh, O. (2014) Characterization of point sources and water quality assessment of River Hindon using water quality index. J. Indi. Water Res. Soc., 34:53-64.
Sirohi, S. Sirohi, S.P.S. and Tyagi, P.K. (2014). Impact of industrial effluents on water quality of Kali River in different locations of Meerut, India. J. Engg. Tech. Res., 6: 43-47.
Vink, R. Behrendt H. and Salomons W. (1999). Development of the Heavy Metal Pollution Trends in Several European Rivers: An Analysis of Point and Diffuse Sources. Water Sci. Technol., 39: 215–23.
Yang, C.L. Guo, R.P. Yue, Q.L. Zhou, K. and Wu, Z.F. (2013). Environmental Quality Assess-Ment and Spatial Pattern of Potentially Toxic Elements in Soils of Guangdong Province, China. Environ. Earth Sci., 70: 1903–1910.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) © Author (s)