Laxmi Prasad P. V. Rangacharulu


Probiotics are known to improve the growth rate of aquatic organisms. Little experimentation has focused on supplementation of live colony forming units ofL.sporogenes in Cirrhinus mrigala to access the growth performance. A feeding trial was conducted for 50 days to study the effects of Lactobacillus sporogenes on growth and body composition of Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton-Buchnan, 1822) fingerlings. Fishes were fed with five experimental feeds containing 3.31x105 colony forming units (CFU)/100g-1 of L. sporogenes in diet D2 , 1.65×106 CFU/ 100g-1 in diet D3, 3.31×106 CFU/100g-1 in diet D4 and 4.96×106 CFU/100g-1 in diet D5. Control diet D1 was kept devoid of L. sporogenes. The diets prepared were containing 0.0% (D1), 0.1% (D2), 0.5% (D3), 1.0% (D4) and 1.5%(D5) of live cells of L. sporogenes CFU/100gm-1 of feed. Increasing trend of weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) improved food conversion ratio (FCR) was observed in treatments fed with probiotic added feeds than control feed. Best growth performance was found in the treatment fed with D4 of L. sporogenes containing 3.31×106 CFU 100g-1 of feed. At increased level 4.96×106 CFU 100g-1 of L. sporogenes inclusion the growth performance was dropped. Tissue protein content was also observed to be higher in animals fed with D4 feed. The lipid content was significantly (P<0.05) higher in fingerlings fed with control feed (D1). In short, L. sporogenes addition to a level of 3.31×106 CFU 100g-1 in feed improved growth performance of C. mrigala fingerlings. Therefore, it is evident that 3.31×106 CFU 100g-1 of feed of L. sporogenes can be considered as suitable concentration for attaining good growth in C.mrigala fingerlings.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...




Bacteria, C. mrigala, Growth performance, L. sporogenes, Probiotics

Al-Harbi, H.A. and Uddin, N. (2005). Bacterial diversity of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultured in brackish water in Saudi Arabia. Aquaculture, 250:566-572.
AOAC (1995). In: W. Horwitz (ed.).Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemist (AOAC). 16th ed. AOAC Int. Arlington VA.
APHA (1995). Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. 19th ed. American Water Works Assoc. and Water Pollut. Control Fed., Am. Public Health Assoc., New York.
Boonthai, T., Vuthhiphandchai, V. and Nimrat, S. (2011). Probiotic bacteria effects on growth and bacterial composition of black tiger shrimp (Penaus monodon). Aquacult. Nutr., 17(6): 634-644.
Buras, N., L. Duek, S. Niv, B. Hepher, and Sandbank. E. (1987). Microbiological aspects of fish grown in treated wastewater. Water Resources, 21:1-10.
Charlon, N. and Bergot, P. (1984). Rearing system for feeding fish larvae on dry diets, trial with carps (Cyprinus carpio L.) larvae. Aquaculture, 41:1-9.
De Silva, S.S. (1985) Performance of Oreochromis niloticus(L) fry maintained on mixed feeding schedules of different protein content. Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, 16, 331 -340.
Dimitroglou, A., Merrifield, D.L., Carnevali, O., Picchietti, S., Avella, M., Daniels, C., Guroy, Davies, S.J. (2011). Microbial manipulations to improve fish health and production-A. Mediterranean perspective. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 30:1-16.
Douillet, P., and Langdon C.J. (1993). Effects of marine bacteria on the culture of axenic oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg) larvae. Biological Bulletin, 184: 36–51.
Douillet, A.P. and Langdon, C.J. (1994). Use of a probiotic for the culture of larvae of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas, Thunberg). Aquaculture, 119: 25-40.
Duncan, D.B. (1955). Multiple range and multiple F- tests. Biometrics, (11)1-42.
FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization), (2006). The state of world fisheries and aquaculture. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No.500.FAO, Rome, Italy 134 pp.
Gabriel, A.G., Marie, D.R. and Suarez L.E.C. (2002). Survival of agglomerated S.cerevisiae in pelleted shrimp feeds. Aquaculture, 208: 125-135.
Ganguly, S., Paul, I. and Mukhopadhayay, S.K. (2010). Application and Effectiveness of immunostimulants, probiotics, and prebiotics in aquaculture: A Review. The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture – Bamidgeh, 60 (3): 130-138.
Gatesoupe, F.J. (1991). Effect of three strains of lactic acid bacteria on the production of rotifers, Brachionus plicatilis and their dietary value for larvae turbot, Scopthalmus maximus. Aquaculture, 91: 342-353.
Gatesoupe, F.J. (1999). The use of probiotics in aquaculture. Aquaculture, 180: 147-165.
Ghosh, K., Sen, S.K. and Ray, A.K. (2004). Supplementation of Lactobacillus acidophilus in compound diet for Labeo rohita fingerlings. Indian Journal of Fisheries, 51(4): 521-526.
Gomezgil, R. (1995). The use of bacteria as probionts in shrimp larviculture. In: Larvi-95. Fish and Shellfish Larviculture, Belgium, pp.479-480.
Halver, J.E. (1976). The nutritional requirement of cultivated warm water and cold water fish species. Paper No.31. FAO. Technical Conference on Aquaculture, Kyoto, 26 May to June 9.
Hong, H.A., Duc, L.H. and Cutting, S.M. (2005). Cutting SM. The use of bacterial spore former as probiotics. FEMS Microbiol. Rev., 29: 813-835.
Hugenholtz, J. (1993). Citrate metabolism in lactic acid bacteria. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 12: 165-178.
Irianto, A. and Austin, B. (2002). Probiotics in aquaculture. J. Fish Disease, 25: 633-642
Klaenhammer T.D. and Kullen, M.J. (1999). Selection and design of probiotics. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 50: 45-57.
Lara-Flores M., Olvera-Novoa, M.A., Guzman-Mendez, B.E. and Madrid, W.L. (2003). Use of Streptococcus faecium and Lactobacillus acidophilus, and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as growth promoters in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Aquaculture, 216: 193 -201.
Molimard, P. and Spinnler, H.E. (1996). Compounds involved in the flavor of mold-ripened cheeses: origins and properties. Journal of Dairy Science, 79: 169– 184.
Munilla-Moran, R., Stark, J.R. and Barbour, A. (1990). The role of exogenous enzymes in digestion in cultured turbot larvae (Scophthalmus maximus L.). Aquaculture, 88: 337– 350.
Nayak, S.K. (2010) Role of gastrointestinal microbiota in fish. Aquaculture Research, 41: 1553–1573
Nihan, A., Suzer, C., Gokvardar, A., Basaran, F., Coban, D., Yildirim, S., Kamaci O.H., Firat, K. and Saka, S. (2013). Effect of probiotic (Bacillus sp.) supplementation during larval development of Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata,L.) Turk. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 13: 407-414.
Parthasarathy, R. and Ravi, D. (2011). Probiotic bacteria as growth promoter and biocontrol agent against Aeromonas hydrophila in Catla catla (Hamilton, 1822). Indian J. Fish., 58(3): 87-93.
Pike, I.H. and Barlow, S.M. (2002). Impact of fish farming on fish stock. Proceeding of the Bordeaux Aquaculture and Environment Symposium, Bordeaux, France. http://www.iffo.org.uk/tech/bordeaux.htm.
Pooramini, M., Kamali, A., Hajimoradloo, A., Alizadeh, M. and Ghorbani, R. (2009). Effect of using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as probiotic on growth parameters, survival and carcass quality in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss fry. Int. Aquat. Res., 1: 39-44.
Prasad, L.P., Nayak, B.B., Srivastava, P.P., Reddy, A.K. and Kohli, M.P.S. (2013).Use of Brewere’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as growth promoter in Giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii deMan) post larvae. Turk. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 13: 447-452.
Ramakrishnan, C.M., Haniffa, M.A., Manohar, M., Dhanaraj, M., Arokiaraj, A.J., Seetharaman, S. and Arun Singh, S.V. (2008). Effects of probiotics and spirulina on survival and growth of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The Israeli Journal of Aquacultutre – Bamidgeh, 60(2): 128-133.
Rengpipat, S., Runkpratanporn, S., Piyatiratitivorakul, S. and Menasaveta, P. (2000). Immunity enhancement on black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) by a probiont bacterium (Bacillus S11). Aquaculture, 191: 271-288.
Seenivasan, C., Bhavan, P.S., Radhakrishnan, S. and Shanthi, R. (2012). Enrichment of Artemia nauplii with Lactobacillus sporogenes for enhancing the survival, growth and levels of biochemical constituents in the post-larvae of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science. 12: 23-31.
Shinde, A.N., Mulye, V.B., Chogale, N.D., Bhatkar, V.R., Bondre, R.D. and Mohite, A.S. (2008). Effect of different probiotics Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De-Man) post larvae. Aquacult, 9: 7-12.
Sivakami, R., Premkishore, G. and Chandran M.R. (1996). Occurrence and distribution of potentially pathogenic Enteriobacteriaceae in carp and pond water in Tamil Nadu, India. Aquaculture Research. 27: 375-378.
Son, V.M.,. Chang, C.C., Wu, M.C., Guu, Y.K., Chiu, C.H. and Cheng, W.T. (2009). Dietary administration of the probiotic, Lactobacillus plantarum, enhanced the growth, innate immune responses, and disease resistance of the grouper Epinephelus coioides. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 26(5): 691-698.
Subhash, S.K. and Lipton, A.P. (2007). Effects of a Probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus acidophilus, on the growth and Survival of Pearl Oyster (Pinctada margaritifera) Spat. The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture – Bamidgeh. 59 (4): 201-205.
Suralikar, V. and Sahu, N.P. (2001). Effect of feeding probiotic (Lactobacillus cremoris) on growth and survival of Macrobrachium rosenbergii postlarvae. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 20: 117-124.
Suzer, C., Coban, D., Kamaci, O.H., Saka, S., Firat, K., Otgucuoglu,O. and Kucuksari, H. (2008). Lactobacillus spp. bacteria as probiotics in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, L.) larvae: Effects on growth performance and digestive enzyme activities. Aquaculture. 280: 140-145.
Tucker, C.S. (1985). Water quality. Pages 141-219 in C.S. Tucker, ed. Channel Catfish Culture. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Uma, A., Abraham, T.J., Jayaseelan, M.J.P. and Sundararaj, V. (1999). Effects of probiotic feed supplementation on performance & disease resistance on Indian White Shrimp, Penaeus indicus. J. of Aquaculture in Tropics, 14:159-164.
Venkat, H.K., Narottam, P.S. and Jain, K.K. (2004). Effect of feeding Lactobacillus-based probiotics on the gut micro-flora, growth and survival of postlarvae of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man). Aquacul. Res., 35: 501-507.
Wang, Y.M. and Wang, Y.G. (2008). Advance in the mechanisms and application of micro-ecologies in aquaculture. Prog. Vet. Med., 29: 72–75 (in Chinese).
WHO, World Health Organization (2006). Report of a joint FAO/OIE/WHO expert consultation on antimicrobial use in aquaculture and antimicrobial resistance: Seoul, Republic of Korea, 13–16 June.
Ziaei-Nejad, S., Rezaei, M.H., Takami, G.A., Lovett, D.L., Mirvaghefi, A.R. and Shakouri, M. (2006). The effect of Bacillus spp. bacteria used as probiotics on digestive enzyme activity, survival and growth in the Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus. Aquaculture, 252: 516–524.
Citation Format
How to Cite
Prasad, L., & Rangacharulu, P. V. (2015). Effect of feed supplemented exogenous bacteria, Lactobacillus sporogenes on the growth and body composition of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 7(2), 585-591. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v7i2.649
More Citation Formats:
Research Articles