Akash Tripathi Satsangi Pardeep Yadav Arun Prasad Chopra Saurabh Kumar Jha


Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) causes TB disease and millions of deaths are reported every year. Drug resistance TB and its complex treatment is a big problem worldwide. The present  study aimed to design new and safer antitubercular compounds to tackle this serious threat. The unique drug target is the MtrAB Two-component regulatory system (2CRS) of mycobacteria. MtrAB system consists of MtrB sensor kinase (SK) and MtrA response regulator (RR). This system is essential in MTB and is involved in mycobacteria's proliferation. This important physiological process is operated by the phosphorylation of MtrB and then to MtrA. The phosphorylation mechanism triggers modulation in the expression of MtrA targets genes and helps perform appropriate function. This phenomenon depends on the active and inactive confirmation of MtrA, which involves a ligand (Metal ion complex e.g. Mg2+). In this study, anti-cancerous compounds were selected for the inhibition of MtrA. However, molecular docking exhibited binding affinity ranging from −10.8 to −4.7 kcal/mol, targeting the binding pocket of the selected Tuberculosis–MtrA protein (PDB ID: 5L8X). This energy difference between the native ligand and docked compounds showed that the six molecules: (Risperidone, 2-(benzofuran-2-yl)-6,7-dimethyl-4H-chromen-4-one, (2E)-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-(quinolin-4-yl)prop-2-en-1-one, Estradiol Cypionate, (2Z)-6-hydroxy-2-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzylidene)-1-benzofuran-3(2H)-one, (2E)-3-(2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-6-yl)-1-(3-hydroxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one) mentioned are more potent than the native ligand.These six molecules were first time reported as the inhibitor for MtrA of MtrAB Two-component regulatory system and can be utelize for further study.




MtrA, Two component regulatory system, Anticancer compound, Molecular docking, Tuberculosis, Drug resistance

Andersen, P. & Scriba, T. J. (2019). Moving tuberculosis vaccines from theory to practice. Nature Reviews Immunology, 19(9):550-562. DOI: 10.1038.10.
Banerjee, P., Erehman, J., Gohlke, B.-O., Wilhelm, T., Preissner, R., & Dunkel, M. (2015). Super Natural II—a database of natural products. Nucleic Acids Research, 43(D1), D935–D939. https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gku886
Bell, L. C. and M. Noursadeghi (2018). Pathogenesis of HIV-1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis co-infection. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 16(2): 80-90.
E.F. Pettersen, T.D. Goddard, C.C. Huang, et al. UCSF Chimera? A visualization system for exploratory research and analysis. J. Computer. Chem.2004, 25 (13), 1605–1612.DOI: 10.1002/jcc.20084
Fol, M., A. Chauhan, et al. (2006). "Modulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis proliferation by MtrA, an essential two-component response regulator. Molecular Microbiology 60(3): 643-657.
Friedland, N., T. R. Mack, et al. (2007). Domain orientation in the inactive response regulator Mycobacterium tuberculosis MtrA provides a barrier to activation. Biochemistry, 46(23): 6733-6743.
Haydel, S. E. and J. E. Clark-Curtiss (2004). "Global expression analysis of two-component system regulator genes during Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth in human macrophages. FEMS Microbiology Letters 236(2), 341-347.
Haydel S. E., Malhotra V., Cornelison G. L.& Clark-Curtiss J. E. (2012) TheprrAB two-component system is essential for Mycobacterium tuberculosis viability and is induced under nitrogen-limiting conditions. J. Bacteriol. 194, 354–361.DOI: 10.1128/JB.06258-11
Jasmer, R. M., J. J. Saukkonen, et al. (2002). Short-course rifampin and pyrazinamide compared with isoniazid for latent tuberculosis infection: a multicenter clinical trial. Annals of Internal Medicine, 137(8): 640-647.
Kim, D., & Forst, S. (2001). Genomic analysis of the histidine kinase family in bacteria and archaea. Microbiology, 147(5), 1197–1212. https://doi.org/10.1099/00221287-147-5-1197
Kumar, S., Paul, P., Yadav, P., Kaul, R., Maitra, S. S., Jha, S. K. & Chaari, A. (2022). A multi-targeted approach to identify potential flavonoids against three targets in the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle. Computers in Biology and Medicine, 142, 105231. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2022.105231
Mousavian, Z., Folkesson, E., Fröberg, G., Foroogh, F., Correia-Neves, M., Bruchfeld, J., Källenius, G. & Sundling, C. (2022). A protein signature associated with active tuberculosis identified by plasma profiling and network-based analysis. IScience, 25(12), 105652. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2022.105652
Naturalsuper. cited on Feb8, 2023 http://bioinformatics.charite.de/supernatural
Pandey, P., A. M. Lynn, et al. (2017). Identification of inhibitors against α-Isopropylmalate Synthase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using docking-MM/PBSA hybrid approach. Bioinformation 13(5): 144
Parkinson, J. S. and E. C. Kofoid (1992). Communication modules in bacterial signaling proteins. Annual Review of Genetics 26(1): 71-112.
Sotgiu, G., Centis, R., D'Ambrosio, L. & Migliori, G. B. (2015). Tuberculosis treatment and drug regimens. Cold Spring HarbPerspect Med 5: a017822. DOI: 10.1101/cshperspect.a017822.
Stock, A. M., V. L. Robinson, et al. (2000). Two-component signal transduction.Annual Review of Biochemistry 69(1): 183-215.
SubhadeepSen, NilkantaChowdhury, Tae-Wan Kim, Mohuya Paul, DilipDebnath, SeobJeon, AngshumanBagchi, JungkyunIm, and Goutam Biswas. Anticancer, Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and DNA-Binding Study of Metal-Phenalenyl Complexes. BioinorgChem Appl. 2022; 2022: 8453159.DOI: 10.1128/JB.06258-11
Umubyeyi, A., Rigouts, L., Shamputa, I. C., Dediste, A., Struelens, M. & Portaels, F. (2008). Low levels of second-line drug resistance among multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Rwanda. Int J Infect Dis 12: 152-156.DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2007.05.003
Via L. E., Curcic R., Mudd M. H., Dhandayuthapani S., Ulmer R. J.& Deretic V. (1996) Elements of signal transduction in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In vitro phosphorylation and in vivo expression of the response regulator MtrA. J. Bacteriol. 178, 3314–3321. DOI: 10.1128/jb.178.11.3314-3321.1996
Yadav, P., El-Kafrawy, S. A., El-Day, M. M., Alghafari, W. T., Faizo, A. A., Jha, S. K., Dwivedi, V. D., & Azhar, E. I. (2022). Discovery of Small Molecules from Echinacea angustifolia Targeting RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase of Japanese Encephalitis Virus. Life, 12(7), 952. https://doi.org/10.3390/life12070952
Yee, D., Valiquette, C., Pelletier, M., Parisien, I., Rocher, I. & Menzies, D. (2003). Incidence of serious side effects from first-line antituberculosis drugs among patients treated for active tuberculosis. Am J RespirCrit Care Med 167: 1472-1477. DOI: 10.1164/rccm.200206-626OC
Zahrt T. C. &Deretic V. (2000) An essential two-component signal transduction system in. Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J. Bacteriol. 182, 3832–3838. DOI: 10.1128/JB.182.13.3832-3838.2000
Research Articles

How to Cite

Inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis MtrA response regulator by anticancer drugs via computational methods. (2023). Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 15(3), 917-925. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v15i3.4631